Neutrino’S Non-Zero Electric Potential As An Origin Of Gravitation, Domain Structure And Expansion Of The Universe., 2024 Suffolk University

#### Neutrino’S Non-Zero Electric Potential As An Origin Of Gravitation, Domain Structure And Expansion Of The Universe., Polievkt Perov

*College of Arts & Sciences Faculty Works*

The axial electric potentials of neutrinos as neutral composite structures, while being very small at large distances, do not vanish, and the same can be said about the neutrino “asymmetric dipoles” (paired neutrinos of not the same kind). Depending on the orientation of the “asymmetric dipole”, its far-field electric potential in some direction can be positive or negative, interacting with other “dipoles” at that large distance attractively or repulsively depending on their mutual orientation. The mutual orientation of the dipoles locally (inside a galaxy) might be such that they are aligned and experience the attractive force toward the local center …

Beyond Standard Model: Neutrino-Antineutrino Pairs In Nuclear Reactions Of Beta-Decay And Proton-Neutron Transmutation., 2024 Suffolk University

#### Beyond Standard Model: Neutrino-Antineutrino Pairs In Nuclear Reactions Of Beta-Decay And Proton-Neutron Transmutation., Polievkt Perov

*College of Arts & Sciences Faculty Works*

On examples of different beta-decay reactions, we show that the neutrino-antineutrino pairs should be added as necessary reagents to the equations of the decay reactions where a neutrino or an antineutrino is among the products of the reaction. In our models, quarks and leptons are all made of basic fractional +-e/3 charges. Transfer of basic charges between reagents forms the products of the reaction. We suggest that there is no direct conversion of u-quark to d-quark and visa versa. Each transmutation involves a transfer of basic charges from a neutrino to a quark so the structure of remaining charges in …

Beyond Standard Model: Neutrino Dipoles And Proto Hydrogen Bundles., 2024 Suffolk University

#### Beyond Standard Model: Neutrino Dipoles And Proto Hydrogen Bundles., Polievkt Perov

*College of Arts & Sciences Faculty Works*

In our composite models of elementary particles as consisting of just two types of elementary basic charges, +e/3 and -e/3, the axial electric potential of any elementary particle is a function of a distance from the particle, and this function differs from the Coulomb potential of a point total charge of the particle. The electric potential of neutrinos is not zero at close distances from neutrinos. Neutrinos can form dipoles and bundles of 3 or more neutrinos. The three-neutrino bundle (a proto-hydrogen) can be converted to a hydrogen atom. As we suggested in our previous paper [4], the total numbers …

Beyond Standard Model: Electrostatic Potential Energy Of Quarks, Electron, And Neutrinos As Spinning Composite Structures, 2024 Suffolk University

#### Beyond Standard Model: Electrostatic Potential Energy Of Quarks, Electron, And Neutrinos As Spinning Composite Structures, Polievkt Perov

*College of Arts & Sciences Faculty Works*

The potential energy of any composite structure is related to the binding energy of the structure. The equations for the electrostatic potential energy of quarks, electron-like structures, and neutrinos are presented for our models of elementary particles as spinning composite structures. The structures consist of up to 3 basic elementary charges of magnitude e/3 on the axis of rotation and N charges revolving about the axis. We applied these general equations specifically to the models of different quarks, electron and electron-like particles (muon and tau), and neutral particles (neutrinos). It is shown that the electrostatic potential energies of all considered …

Beyond Standard Model: Axial Electric Potentials Of Quarks And Neutrinos, 2024 Suffolk University

#### Beyond Standard Model: Axial Electric Potentials Of Quarks And Neutrinos, Polievkt Perov

*College of Arts & Sciences Faculty Works*

The equations of axial electric potentials are presented for our models of quarks and neutrinos as spinning composite structures where up to 3 basic elementary charges are on the axis or rotation and the other N charges are revolving about the axis. The axial potential functions at given point on the axis of rotation were calculated as the sum of electric potentials at that point from all the charges in the structure. We applied these general equations specifically to the models of two types of neutral particles (neutrinos), one with 2 like charges on the axis and the other with …

Radon Plate-Out And The Effects Of Airflow And Electric Charge For Dark Matter Experiments, 2024 Southern Methodist University

#### Radon Plate-Out And The Effects Of Airflow And Electric Charge For Dark Matter Experiments, Faith Fang

*SMU Journal of Undergraduate Research*

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS) is an international collaboration designed to search for and detect dark matter particles, which make up ~85% of the matter in the universe. The plate-out, or deposition of naturally occurring radioactive decay byproducts onto surfaces, can create backgrounds that interfere with dark matter detection experiments. In the first series of these experiments, we analyze the amount of radon progeny, 214Pb and 214Bi, that plate-out on polycarbonate samples while controlling factors such as electric charge and airflow. These samples are exposed to radon-spiked nitrogen gas in a polycarbonate wind tunnel to simulate plate-out conditions in …

Beyond Standard Model: Structure Factors Of Models Of Different Quarks And Neutrinos As Spinning Structures Made Of Basic Fractional Charges +- E/3, 2024 Suffolk University

#### Beyond Standard Model: Structure Factors Of Models Of Different Quarks And Neutrinos As Spinning Structures Made Of Basic Fractional Charges +- E/3, Polievkt Perov

*College of Arts & Sciences Faculty Works*

We consider a possible line of “elementary” particles as composite spinning structures made of just two basic elementary particles of charges + e/3 and -e/3. In considered structures, up to 3 basic charges can be on the axis of rotation and other charges can be in a revolving motion about the axis. In addition to the simplest structures of quarks, an electron and a neutral particle containing mostly one or no charges on the axis of rotation, suggested initially in [4], we analyze possible spatial structures of spinning composite particles having 2 or 3 charges on the axis of rotation. …

Questioning Reality: The Progressive Development Of Modern Physics, 2024 Golda Och Academy

#### Questioning Reality: The Progressive Development Of Modern Physics, Joshua Lancman

*STEM for Success Showcase*

Humanity has a tendency to divide time. The past is distinct from the present which is entirely separate from the future. In supposedly 20-20 vision history is neatly divided into different sections, distinct eras with sharp lines between them. What is present and in the future is always modern. What is past is something else with another name.

Yet time is not divided so neatly. We know this living through it: years and decades blend into one another in a non-uniform progression. To divide human history into separate eras is a necessary simplification, as it helps to ascribe order onto …

Conventions, Definitions, Identities, And Other Useful Formulae, 2024 Loyola University Chicago

#### Conventions, Definitions, Identities, And Other Useful Formulae, Robert A. Mcnees Iv

*Physics: Faculty Publications and Other Works*

As the name suggests, these notes contain a summary of important conventions, definitions, identities, and various formulas that I often refer to. They may prove useful for researchers working in General Relativity, Supergravity, String Theory, Cosmology, and related areas.

Counting Linearly Polarized Gluons With Lattice Qcd, 2024 Old Dominion University

#### Counting Linearly Polarized Gluons With Lattice Qcd, Shuai Zhao

*Physics Faculty Publications*

We outline an approach to calculate the transverse-momentum-dependent distribution of linearly polarized gluons inside an unpolarized hadron on the lattice with the help of large momentum effective theory. To achieve this purpose, we propose calculating a Euclidean version of the degree of polarization for a fast-moving hadron on the lattice, which is ultraviolet finite, and no soft function subtraction is needed. It indicates a practical way to explore the distribution of the linearly polarized gluons in a proton and the linearly polarized gluon effects in hadron collisions on the lattice.

Beam Spin Asymmetry Measurements Of Deeply Virtual Π⁰ Production With Clas12, 2024 Old Dominion University

#### Beam Spin Asymmetry Measurements Of Deeply Virtual Π⁰ Production With Clas12, The Clas Collaboration, A. Kim, S. Diehl, K. Joo, V. Kubarovsky, P. Achenbach, Z. Akbar, J. S. Alvarado, Whitney R. Armstrong, H. Atac, H. Avakian, C. Ayerbe Gayoso, L. Barion, M. Battaglieri, I. Bedlinskiy, B. Benkel, A. Bianconi, A. S. Biselli, M. Bondi, M. Zureck, Et Al.

*Physics Faculty Publications*

The new experimental measurements of beam spin asymmetry were performed for the deeply virtual exclusive π^{0} production in a wide kinematic region with the photon virtualities Q^{2} up to 6.6 GeV^{2}and the Bjorken scaling variable 𝓍_{B} in the valence regime. The data were collected by the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS12) at Jefferson Lab with longitudinally polarized 10.6 GeV electrons scattered on an unpolarized liquid-hydrogen target. Sizable asymmetry values indicate a substantial contribution from transverse virtual photon amplitudes to the polarized structure functions. The interpretation of these measurements in terms of the Generalized Parton Distributions …

A Formalism For Extracting Track Functions From Jet Measurements, 2024 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

#### A Formalism For Extracting Track Functions From Jet Measurements, Kyle Lee, Ian Moult, Felix Ringer, Wouter J. Waalewijn

*Physics Faculty Publications*

The continued success of the jet substructure program will require widespread use of tracking information to enable increasingly precise measurements of a broader class of observables. The recent reformulation of jet substructure in terms of energy correlators has simplified the incorporation of universal non-perturbative matrix elements, so called “track functions”, in jet substructure calculations. These advances make it timely to understand how these universal non-perturbative functions can be extracted from hadron collider data, which is complicated by the use jet algorithms. In this paper we introduce a new class of jet functions, which we call (semi-inclusive) track jet functions, which …

Definition Of Fragmentation Functions And The Violation Of Sum Rules, 2024 Penn State University

#### Definition Of Fragmentation Functions And The Violation Of Sum Rules, John Collins, Ted C. Rogers

*Physics Faculty Publications*

We point out a problem with the formulation and derivations of sum rules for quark fragmentation functions that impacts their validity in QCD, but which potentially points toward an improved understanding of final states in inclusive hard processes. Fragmentation functions give the distribution of final-state hadrons arising from a parton exiting a hard scattering, and the sum rules for momentum, electric charge, etc. express conservation of these quantities. The problem arises from a mismatch between the quark quantum numbers of the initial quark and the fact that all observed final-state hadrons are confined bound states with color zero. We point …

Beyond Standard Model: Electromagnetic Origin Of Strong Interaction Between Composite Structures Made Of Basic Elementary ±E/3 Charges, 2023 Suffolk University

#### Beyond Standard Model: Electromagnetic Origin Of Strong Interaction Between Composite Structures Made Of Basic Elementary ±E/3 Charges, Polievkt Perov

*College of Arts & Sciences Faculty Works*

Interaction between spinning composite structures of quarks is considered. In simple variants of the quark structures, one basic elementary particle of charge of magnitude |e|/3 is on the axis of rotation and several basic particles of an opposite sign are revolving in the circular orbit about the axis. Each charge in the structure contributes to the electric field and electric potential around the structure. But only revolving basic particles contribute to the spin and to the magnetic moment of the structure. Equations for the axial electric field and the electric potential of each structure at points on its axis are …

High-Performance Computing In Covariant Loop Quantum Gravity, 2023 The University of Western Ontario

#### High-Performance Computing In Covariant Loop Quantum Gravity, Pietropaolo Frisoni

*Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*

This Ph.D. thesis presents a compilation of the scientific papers I published over the last three years during my Ph.D. in loop quantum gravity (LQG). First, we comprehensively introduce spinfoam calculations with a practical pedagogical paper. We highlight LQG's unique features and mathematical formalism and emphasize the computational complexities associated with its calculations. The subsequent articles delve into specific aspects of employing high-performance computing (HPC) in LQG research. We discuss the results obtained by applying numerical methods to studying spinfoams' infrared divergences, or ``bubbles''. This research direction is crucial to define the continuum limit of LQG properly. We investigate the …

Renormalized Stress-Energy Tensor For Scalar Fields In Hartle-Hawking, Boulware, And Unruh States In The Reissner-Nordström Spacetime, 2023 Institute for Fundamental Physics of the Universe, International School for Advanced Studies, and INFN Sezione di Trieste, Trieste, Italy

#### Renormalized Stress-Energy Tensor For Scalar Fields In Hartle-Hawking, Boulware, And Unruh States In The Reissner-Nordström Spacetime, Julio Arrechea, Cormac Breen, Adrian Ottewill, Peter Taylor

*Articles*

In this paper, we consider a quantum scalar field propagating on the Reissner-Nordström black hole spacetime. We compute the renormalized stress-energy tensor for the field in the Hartle-Hawking, Boulware and Unruh states. When the field is in the Hartle-Hawking state, we renormalize using the recently developed “extended coordinate” prescription. This method, which relies on Euclidean techniques, is very fast and accurate. Once, we have renormalized in the Hartle-Hawking state, we compute the stress-energy tensor in the Boulware and Unruh states by leveraging the fact that the difference between stress-energy tensors in different quantum states is already finite. We consider a …

Search For Exotic Higgs Boson Decay To Multiple B-Quarks With The Atlas Detector At Lhc Using Machine Learning Methods, 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

#### Search For Exotic Higgs Boson Decay To Multiple B-Quarks With The Atlas Detector At Lhc Using Machine Learning Methods, Yuan-Tang Chou

*Doctoral Dissertations*

The discovery of the Higgs boson has opened up new possibilities for investigating physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). New particles may interact with the SM through the Higgs boson, and deviations from SM predictions can indicate the presence of new physics. This dissertation focuses on the search for exotic Higgs decay, $H\rightarrow aa \rightarrow (b\bbar)(b\bbar)$ where a is a new scalar boson and focuses on the case where the Higgs boson is produced in association with a Z boson. The data were collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at center-of-mass energy $\sqrt{s} =~13~\TeV$ from 2015 …

Tev-Scale Lepton Number Violation: 0Νββ Decay, The Origin Of Matter, And Energy Frontier Probes, 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

#### Tev-Scale Lepton Number Violation: 0Νββ Decay, The Origin Of Matter, And Energy Frontier Probes, Sebastian Urrutia Quiroga

*Doctoral Dissertations*

Lepton number violation (LNV) offers promising theoretical pathways to several unresolved problems in particle and nuclear physics and unveils a diverse range of phenomenology across different energy scales. TeV-scale LNV is especially relevant for both its experimental accessibility and its broad-ranging impact, making it a key area of interest for both theoretical and experimental physicists. In this thesis, we explore three distinct scenarios within the LNV research landscape. Our first analysis concerns the implications of TeV-scale LNV effects in thermal leptogenesis and its complementary sensitivity in neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay and collider experiments. We employed a simplified model to …

K-Long Identification Efficiency Of The Klm Detector In The Belle Ii Experiment Using Splot, 2023 University of Louisville

#### K-Long Identification Efficiency Of The Klm Detector In The Belle Ii Experiment Using Splot, Andrew J. Davis, Diptaparna Biswas, Swagato Banerjee

*The Cardinal Edge*

Long-lived neutral kaon mesons (neutral K-longs) are identified by energy deposits in the KLM detector of the Belle II experiment. However, various other particles can also deposit energy in the KLM detector. A statistical method known as sPlot can be utilized to distinguish between the energy deposit patterns of neutral K-longs vs. other backgrounds. This technique, currently developed with Monte-Carlo events, allows for a more robust determination of K-long identification efficiency in the KLM detector, which can eventually be applied on real data.

A Search For Decays Of The Higgs Boson To Invisible Particles In Events With A Top-Antitop Quark Pair Or A Vector Boson In Proton-Proton Collisions At √S = 13 Tev, 2023 Yerevan Physics Institute

#### A Search For Decays Of The Higgs Boson To Invisible Particles In Events With A Top-Antitop Quark Pair Or A Vector Boson In Proton-Proton Collisions At √S = 13 Tev, Armen R. Tumasyan

*Department of Physics and Astronomy: Faculty Publications*

The first search for nonresonant production of Higgs boson pairs (HH) with one H decaying into four leptons and the other into a pair of b quarks is presented, using proton-proton collisions recorded at a center-of-mass energy of √*s* = 13 TeV by the CMS experiment. The analyzed data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb^{−1}. A 95% confidence level upper limit of 32.4 is set on the signal strength modifier *μ*, defined as the ratio of the observed HH production rate in the HH → ZZ*bb → 4ℓbb decay channel to the standard model …