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Collective Motion And Phase Diagram Of Self-Propelled Vibrated Hard Squares, Zhejun Shen 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Collective Motion And Phase Diagram Of Self-Propelled Vibrated Hard Squares, Zhejun Shen

Doctoral Dissertations

In equilibrium, matter condenses into ordered phases due to the combined effects of inter-particle interactions and entropy. In this dissertation, we explore the self-propulsion of particles as an additional nonequilibrium consideration in the mechanisms for ordering. Our experiments employ square-shaped hard particles; in equilibrium, when particle motions are randomly directed, squares form entropically-stabilized phases in which first their orientations, and then their positions, get locked in relative to each other, depending on the density of coverage. When the square tiles are modified to have small propulsion along some body-fixed axis we find that their tendency to order is profoundly altered ...


Electrical And Mechanical Properties Of Polymer Nanocomposites, Nuwansiri N.K. Getangama 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Electrical And Mechanical Properties Of Polymer Nanocomposites, Nuwansiri N.K. Getangama

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis consists of three projects concerning the electrical and mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites. We study the effect of nanoscale filler particles on the polymer dynamics at different length and time scales. In the first study, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) nanocomposites with a MWCNT concentration ranging from 0 to 5 wt\% were prepared by both melt-mixing and twin-screw extrusion. Their electrical properties were studied over a wide range of frequency and temperature using a dielectric spectrometer. A percolation transition is observed at which the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites increases by several orders of magnitude ...


Phase Transitions, Critical Phenomena, And Correlation Functions In The 2d Ising Model And Its Applications To Quantum Dynamics: A Tensor Network Approach, Sankhya Basu 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Phase Transitions, Critical Phenomena, And Correlation Functions In The 2d Ising Model And Its Applications To Quantum Dynamics: A Tensor Network Approach, Sankhya Basu

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis explores several aspects of the 2D Ising Model at both real and complex temperatures utilizing tensor network algorithms. We briefly discuss the importance of tensor networks in the context of forming efficient representations of wavefunctions and partition functions for quantum and classical many-body systems respectively, followed by a brief review of the tensor network renormalization algorithms to compute the one point and two point correlation functions. We use the Tensor Renormalization Group (TRG) to study critical phenomena and examine feasibility of accurate estimations of universal critical data for three critical points for three critical points in two dimensions ...


Optical Studies Of Wide Bandgap Photonic Materials, Nikesh Maharjan 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Optical Studies Of Wide Bandgap Photonic Materials, Nikesh Maharjan

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this dissertation work, optical properties of wide bandgap materials such as hexagonal Boron Nitride (h-BN) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) have been studied. Deep UV photoluminescence spectroscopy was employed to study the optical properties of bulk h-BN and powder crystals using a laser of wavelength 200 nm, which is the fourth harmonic of Ti:Sapphire laser as excitation source. The properties and chemical compositions of annealed and unannealed bulk h-BN were investigated. The PL spectra from h-BN samples annealed at 900 ºC in ambient air, had strong phonon assisted band edge emissions along with a sharp atomic-like emission line at ...


The Interaction Of Topological Defects In Anisotropically-Elastic Nematic Liquid Crystals, Carter J. Swift 2022 Macalester College

The Interaction Of Topological Defects In Anisotropically-Elastic Nematic Liquid Crystals, Carter J. Swift

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Topological defects are very well understood so long as the medium in which they exist is isotropically-elastic. They lead to director fields which are easy to calculate and superpose linearly so that a system with any number of defects is analytically treatable. They also have an interaction which is simple in form and can be accurately described by the Peach-Koehler force. In an anisotropically-elastic medium, however, such defects are very poorly understood outside of the single-defect case which was solved by Dzyaloshinskii. In this project, numerical and approximate analytical techniques are applied in order to better understand the interaction between ...


Finite-Difference-Time-Domain Simulation Of Ultrafast Experiments, Alpha Ma 2022 Macalester College

Finite-Difference-Time-Domain Simulation Of Ultrafast Experiments, Alpha Ma

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

The Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (FDTD) method is a numerical method that calculates electric fields or magnetic fields by interleaving them in space and time. Using a python package called “MEEP”, I was able to write optical simulations of ultrafast experiments, especially the Terahertz Pump-Probe experiments. The goal of this project was to use FDTD simulation to measure the transmission of an electro-magnetic pulse passing through a thin film of conducting material on a dielectric substrate in order to study the characteristic conductivity of potential solar cell materials.


Synthesis, Characterization, And Functionality Of Novel 2d Material Sn3p2, Cory Stephenson 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Synthesis, Characterization, And Functionality Of Novel 2d Material Sn3p2, Cory Stephenson

Physics Undergraduate Honors Theses

In recent years, two-dimensional (2D) materials have gained a lot of attention due to their potential applications in devices and their promise to revolutionize technology. In our group, we are capable of synthesizing such materials and study their properties. I have discovered a new material of the tin-phosphorus family that displays the 2D layered structure and therefore shows potential to be used in future devices due to this reduced dimensionality from the typical three-dimensional counterpart. This 2D structure may allow for new phenomena to emerge as there is no longer any interatomic interactions along the z- axis. Under this motivation ...


Exploring Tunable Magnetization And High-Temperature Ferromagnetism In Ternary Transition Metal-Based Chalcogenides, Hector Iturriaga 2022 The University of Texas at El Paso

Exploring Tunable Magnetization And High-Temperature Ferromagnetism In Ternary Transition Metal-Based Chalcogenides, Hector Iturriaga

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The discovery of long-range magnetic ordering in ultrathin transition metal-based compounds shows great promise for the development of nanoscale memory and spintronic devices. Composed of cost-effective materials and boasting from strong chemical and thermal stability at low dimensions, van der Waals (vdW) ternary transition metal chalcogenide magnets like CrSiTe3 (CST), Fe2.7GeTe2 (FGT), and Mn3Si2Te6 (MST), provide not only possible energy solutions, but also a broad platform to explore the versatile magnetic character of this family of compounds. Although they have great potential, it has been found that their long-range magnetic ordering exists at temperatures far too low (the highest ...


Evolution Of The Magnetic Properties On Van Der Waals Layered Magnets Via Pressure And Proton Irradiation, Rubyann Olmos 2022 The University of Texas at El Paso

Evolution Of The Magnetic Properties On Van Der Waals Layered Magnets Via Pressure And Proton Irradiation, Rubyann Olmos

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Probing the magnetism in quasi two-dimensional materials has the potential in driving their properties towards future use in spin electronic based devices. Studying such layered magnets will enable the scientific community to uncover tunable exotic phases such as superconductivity, quantum paramagnetism, etc. This work examines the influence of two types of external perturbations, namely, the pressure and proton irradiation, on the magnetic properties of several compounds in the van der Waals crystal family.

Pressure has been found to induce structural and magnetic phase transitions in many of these materials. Using hydrostatic pressure as a disorderless approach to manipulate the interlayer ...


Emergent Phenomenon In Jeff=1/2 Iridate, Junyi Yang 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Emergent Phenomenon In Jeff=1/2 Iridate, Junyi Yang

Doctoral Dissertations

Recent work on various quantum materials has led to fruitful result including unconventional magnetic states, topological properties, and exotic emergent phenomenon. High Tc superconductivity is one of the prominent properties discovered in quantum materials like strong correlated systems. Though the efforts on understanding this exotic behavior have lasted for years, the mechanism remains elusive owing to the many-body nature of the system and the research scope limitation within cuprates. Recent unravel of Jeff=1/2 state in the iridate square lattice offers alternative to study the complicated many body physics and potentially achieve high Tc superconductivity. In ...


Determining Carrier Concentration Of Si-Doped Gan Using Dc Hall Effect, Austin James Allison, Dylan C. Barnwell, Jose Rivera Colon 2022 North Carolina State University

Determining Carrier Concentration Of Si-Doped Gan Using Dc Hall Effect, Austin James Allison, Dylan C. Barnwell, Jose Rivera Colon

Undergraduate Theses and Capstone Projects

The DC Hall effect is an important phenomenon in condensed matter physics which allows us to measure properties of a semiconductor. In our experiment, we use the van der Pauw method to measure the Hall effect and determine the carrier concentration and carrier type of a silicon-doped gallium nitride (GaN) sample, 2 µm in thickness. We obtained a carrier concentration of (−2.251 ± 0.4109) × 1017 cm−3 using constant magnetic fields and (−2.208 ± 1.156) × 1017 using constant currents, which confirms a negative charge carrier and is similar to other values found in literature.


Synthesis And Characterization Of Chiral Magnetic Oxide: Mnmoteo6, Chase Hames, August Meads 2022 Kennesaw State University

Synthesis And Characterization Of Chiral Magnetic Oxide: Mnmoteo6, Chase Hames, August Meads

Symposium of Student Scholars

The chiral materials lack mirror reflection symmetry in their crystal structures like right and left hands. Such materials often host unique non-collinear or topological magnetic textures such as magnetic skyrmions. If such magnetic textures are formed in insulating oxides with coupled electric and magnetic properties, then such magnetic structures can be controlled and manipulated using electric fields rather than electric current. With this motivation, we are synthesizing and characterizing chiral materials belonging to MMoTeO6 (M=Mn, Co, Fe, Cu, Ni) family. I will discuss about the phase formation and solid-state synthesis of MnTeMoO6 along with its structural, electrical ...


Physics 516: Electromagnetic Phenomena (Spring 2022), Philip C. Nelson 2022 University of Pennsylvania

Physics 516: Electromagnetic Phenomena (Spring 2022), Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

These course notes are made publicly available in the hope that they will be useful. All reports of errata will be gratefully received. I will also be glad to hear from anyone who reads them, whether or not you find errors: pcn@upenn.edu.


Review Of Elastic Light Scattering From Single Aerosol Particles And Application In Bioaerosol Detection, Yong-Le Pan, Kevin B. Aptowicz, Jessica Arnold, Samuel Cheng, Aimable Kalume, Patricio Piedra, Chuji Wang, Joshua Santarpia, Gorden Videen 2022 CCDC-US Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD

Review Of Elastic Light Scattering From Single Aerosol Particles And Application In Bioaerosol Detection, Yong-Le Pan, Kevin B. Aptowicz, Jessica Arnold, Samuel Cheng, Aimable Kalume, Patricio Piedra, Chuji Wang, Joshua Santarpia, Gorden Videen

Physics & Engineering Faculty Publications

Elastic light scattering (ELS) from single micron-sized particles has been used as a fast, non-destructive diagnostic tool in life science, physics, chemistry, climatology, and astrophysics. Due to the large scattering cross-section, ELS can be used to find trace amounts of suspect particles such as bioaerosols among complex, diverse atmospheric aerosols, based on single-particle interrogation. In this article, we briefly summarized the main computational models and instrumentation developed for ELS, then reviewed how properties like particle size, refractive index, degree of symmetry, and surface roughness, in addition to packing density, shape of primary particles in an aggregate, and special helix structures ...


Charge Transport And Spin Dynamics Of Color Centers In Diamond, Damon Daw 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Charge Transport And Spin Dynamics Of Color Centers In Diamond, Damon Daw

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Solid state defects in diamond are promising candidates for room temperature quantum information processors (1, 3, 5). Chief among these defects is the nitrogen vacancy center (‘NV center’ or ‘NV’). The NV has long coherence times (at 300K) and its state is easily initialized, manipulated and read out (5). However, the outstanding issue of entangling NV centers in a scalable fashion, at room temperature remains a challenge. This thesis presents experimental and theoretical work aimed at achieving this goal by developing the ‘flying qubit’ framework in (1). This method for remote entanglement utilizes a charge carrier (initialized into a definite ...


Modeling Defect Mediated Color-Tunability In Leds With Eu-Doped Gan-Based Active Layers, Hayley J. Austin, Brandon Mitchell, Dolf Timmerman, Jun Tatebayashi, Shuhei Ichikawa, Yasufumi Fujiwara, Volkmar Dierolf 2022 Lehigh University

Modeling Defect Mediated Color-Tunability In Leds With Eu-Doped Gan-Based Active Layers, Hayley J. Austin, Brandon Mitchell, Dolf Timmerman, Jun Tatebayashi, Shuhei Ichikawa, Yasufumi Fujiwara, Volkmar Dierolf

Physics & Engineering Faculty Publications

Color tunability from red to orange to yellow has been demonstrated in GaN-based LED devices with Eu-doped GaN layers as the active region. Under current injection, this is achieved by varying the current density and the pulse conditions. The underlying mechanism behind this color tunability is a redistribution of energy among the D-5(J) states of a Eu3+ ion. This energy shuffling is facilitated by a local defect that has been neglected in previous modeling work. Including this defect allows for a quantitative prediction of the relative time-averaged populations of the Eu3+ ion's D-5(0) and D-5(1) states ...


Quantum Capacitance Investigation Of Different Tas2 Polymorphs For Energy Storage Applications – First Principles Study, Mahmoud elAttar 2022 American University in Cairo

Quantum Capacitance Investigation Of Different Tas2 Polymorphs For Energy Storage Applications – First Principles Study, Mahmoud Elattar

Theses and Dissertations

Energy is an essential requirement, which has a growing demand due to the growth of population and the world transformation into electronic. More than 70% of energy resources are fossil-fuel based which has an environmental impact due to the CO2 emissions. Energy hubs for Fossil-fuel to electric energy conversion, controlled CO2 emissions processing units, and energy storage system are key factors for a smooth transition to green energy without lack of energy supplies, where electrical energy storage systems (ESS) are key enablers to achieve that. One of the effective components which determines the ESS efficiency is the electrode ...


Periodic Trends In The Infrared And Optical Absorption Spectra Of Metal Chalcogenide Clusters, Alain Ward 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Periodic Trends In The Infrared And Optical Absorption Spectra Of Metal Chalcogenide Clusters, Alain Ward

Theses and Dissertations

We have investigated the Optical absorption, Infrared spectra, Binding Energies, and various other cluster properties to determine the existence of periodic trend for Transition Metal Chalcogenide Clusters ligated with CO ligands. We were motivated to answer the question of whether periodic behavior can be observed in properties of octahedral metal-chalcogenide clusters. We have used the Amsterdam Density Functional code to calculate the electronic structure of Transition Metal Chalcogenide Clusters using gradient-corrected density functional theory. We determined the existence of several periodic trends in properties of octahedral Transition Metal Chalcogenide Clusters TM6Se8(CO)6. To investigate these trends ...


Understanding The Degradation Mechanism In Methyl Ammonium Lead Halide Perovskite And Black Phosphorene Via Electrical Transport Study, Huda Saleh Aljeailan 2022 University of Kentucky

Understanding The Degradation Mechanism In Methyl Ammonium Lead Halide Perovskite And Black Phosphorene Via Electrical Transport Study, Huda Saleh Aljeailan

Theses and Dissertations--Physics and Astronomy

This work seeks to understand the degradation mechanism of technically important material systems such as black phosphorene (BP), arsenic phosphorene (AsP) and Methyl ammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite. Degradation studies were conducted by studying the in-situ electrical transport properties (resistance and thermoelectric power (TEP)) of these materials in vacuum (under annealed condition) and after exposure to the ambient air.

BP and both exhibited p-type semiconducting (positive TEP) behavior under annealed conditions and the changes in their transport properties upon exposure to ambient air can be explained as due to the charge transfer between the oxygen ...


From Evaluating The Performance Of Approximations In Density Functional Theory To A Machine Learning Design, Pedram Tavazohi 2022 West Virginia University

From Evaluating The Performance Of Approximations In Density Functional Theory To A Machine Learning Design, Pedram Tavazohi

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Density-functional theory (DFT) has gained popularity because of its ability to predict the properties of a large group of materials a priori. Even though DFT is exact, there are inaccuracies introduced into the theory due to the approximations in the exchange-correlation (XC) functionals. Over the 50 years of its existence, scientists have tried to improve the design of the XC functionals. The errors introduced by these functionals are not consistent across all types of solid-state materials. In this project, a high throughput framework was utilized to compare the theoretical DFT predictions with the experimental results available in the Inorganic Crystal ...


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