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Effects Of 3 Weeks Yogic Breathing Techniques On Sub-Maximal Running Responses, Christie L. Clifton, Lauren Killen, Matt Green, Eric O'Neal, Jonathan C. Swain, Christopher Frisbie 2023 Alabama A&M University

Effects Of 3 Weeks Yogic Breathing Techniques On Sub-Maximal Running Responses, Christie L. Clifton, Lauren Killen, Matt Green, Eric O'Neal, Jonathan C. Swain, Christopher Frisbie

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 16(4): 1066-1076, 2023. This study investigated the influence of yoga breathing techniques (YBT) on physiological and perceptual responses during sub-maximal treadmill running. Runners (n = 21) of various fitness (VO2max 48.4 ± 9.5 ml/kg/min) were assigned to Yoga (YG) or control (CT) group before completing pre/post treadmill trials where velocity was self-selected to produce an RPE 4 and RPE 7 (10 min each). YG (n =11) practiced three styles of YBT (30 min/day, 6 days/wk) for 3 consecutive wks. Self-selected running velocity for YG improved significantly at both prescribed RPE 4 (pre 157.63 ± 26.20 …


Diagnostic Ultrasound Shows Preferential Activation Of Rectus Abdominis Segments With Exercises Targeting Upper Versus Lower Segments., Aaron P. Gomirato, Sylvain G. Grenier 2023 Laurentian University, Sudbury Ontario Canada

Diagnostic Ultrasound Shows Preferential Activation Of Rectus Abdominis Segments With Exercises Targeting Upper Versus Lower Segments., Aaron P. Gomirato, Sylvain G. Grenier

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 16(1): 1077-1086, 2023. Preferential activation of rectus abdominis sections during crunch or leg lifts has long been disputed. The objectives of this study were to both explore the activation of the rectus abdominis during these exercises. This study used a randomised independent measures design utilising both EMG and diagnostic ultrasound to record changes in rectus abdominis activity. Fifteen participants each performed multiple repetitions of a 45° crunch, a 90° sit-up, and finally a 90° leg raise, sufficient for an 8-second ultrasound recording utilising M-mode of all four unilateral abdominal segments during each of the exercises, …


Effect Of Rearing Conditions On The Allocation Of Larval And Adult Acquired Essential And Nonessential Fatty Acids To Flight In Two Adult Lepidoptera: Danaus Plexippus And Mythimna Unipuncta, Libesha Anparasan 2023 Western University

Effect Of Rearing Conditions On The Allocation Of Larval And Adult Acquired Essential And Nonessential Fatty Acids To Flight In Two Adult Lepidoptera: Danaus Plexippus And Mythimna Unipuncta, Libesha Anparasan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Insects which are nectivorous as adults acquire essential fatty acids, which are important for many biological processes, almost exclusively from the larval diet. Thus, adult allocation of this limited resource may result in trade-offs in migrant insects that delay reproduction. I used the true armyworm, Mythimna unipuncta, and monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, to test the hypothesis that environmental cues (fall migratory or summer reproductive) would influence the use of fatty acids during flight (0-6h). I used larval and adult diets manipulated isotopically (δ13C) and chromatographic analyses to determine fatty acid composition and source in the fat …


Identifying Consistent Metrics From The Force-Time Curve Of The Countermovement Jump In Combat Fighters And Physically Active Men., Alexandre Reis Pires Ferreira, Victor Macedo, Daniel Boullosa, Amilton Vieira 2023 University of Brasilia

Identifying Consistent Metrics From The Force-Time Curve Of The Countermovement Jump In Combat Fighters And Physically Active Men., Alexandre Reis Pires Ferreira, Victor Macedo, Daniel Boullosa, Amilton Vieira

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 16(4): 1038-1051, 2023. We investigated the consistency of metrics obtained from the unweighting, braking, propulsive, and landing phases of the countermovement (CMJ) force-time curve in combat fighters and physically active men. Combat fighters (n=21) and physically actives (n=21) were tested for three days (2-7 days apart). Participants performed four maximal CMJ separated by 1-min for between-day comparisons. From force-time recording, the consistency of 16 CMJ metrics (peak and mean ground reaction forces (GRF), net impulse, and duration from each phase) was investigated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and typical error (CVTE). We …


Towards The Development Of A System Dynamics Model For The Prediction Of Lower Extremity Injuries., Nikolaos I. Liveris, George Papageorgiou, Elias Tsepis, Konstantinos Fousekis, Charis Tsarbou, Sofia A. Xergia 2023 University of Patras, School of Health Rehabilitation Sciences, Department of Physiotherapy

Towards The Development Of A System Dynamics Model For The Prediction Of Lower Extremity Injuries., Nikolaos I. Liveris, George Papageorgiou, Elias Tsepis, Konstantinos Fousekis, Charis Tsarbou, Sofia A. Xergia

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 16(3): 1052-1065, 2023. Acute noncontact Lower Extremity (LE) injuries constitute a significant problem in team sports. Despite extensive research, current knowledge on the risk factors of LE injuries is limited to static simplistic models of instantaneous cause and effect relationships ignoring the time dimension and the embedded complexity of LE injuries. Even though complex systems approaches have been used in various cases to improve policy and intervention effectiveness, there is limited research on predicting and managing LE injuries. This creates an opportunity to fill the gap in the current literature by applying the System Dynamics …


Attenuation Of Neuromuscular Fatigue By Ischemic Preconditioning With Moderate Cuff Pressure Is Not Related To Muscle Oxygen Saturation In Men, Anderson Meireles, Hiago Leandro Rodrigues de Souza, Rhaí André Arriel, Guilherme Guedes Silva Ribeiro, Alex Batista Rodrigues, Géssyca de Oliveira, Bernardo Ide, Mauro Heleno Chagas, Moacir Marocolo 2023 Federal University of Juiz de Fora

Attenuation Of Neuromuscular Fatigue By Ischemic Preconditioning With Moderate Cuff Pressure Is Not Related To Muscle Oxygen Saturation In Men, Anderson Meireles, Hiago Leandro Rodrigues De Souza, Rhaí André Arriel, Guilherme Guedes Silva Ribeiro, Alex Batista Rodrigues, Géssyca De Oliveira, Bernardo Ide, Mauro Heleno Chagas, Moacir Marocolo

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 16(2): 1025-1037, 2023. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been an excellent strategy for enhancing sports performance recovery, although there is still no consensus on the ideal protocol. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of IPC with different cuff pressures (low pressure, medium pressure, and high pressure) on the attenuation of neuromuscular fatigue after an isometric test protocol. And to verify whether this improvement was related to muscle oxygen saturation during the test protocol. Thirty males (18-35 years old) with experience in resistance training were allocated to three different groups: low pressure (20 mmHg), medium …


The Effect Of Central Chemoreceptors On The Peripheral Respiratory Chemoreflex Response To Hypoxia In Humans, Nasimi A. Guluzade 2023 Western University

The Effect Of Central Chemoreceptors On The Peripheral Respiratory Chemoreflex Response To Hypoxia In Humans, Nasimi A. Guluzade

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

We measured the peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to hypoxia (PChS) at various isocapnic carbon dioxide tensions (PCO2) to determine the form of the relationship between PChS and central PCO2. Twenty participants completed three repetitions of modified rebreathing tests with end-tidal PO2 (PETO2) clamped at 150, 70, 60, and 45 mmHg. PChS was computed at 1-mmHg intervals of PETCO2 as follows: the differences in V̇E between the three hypoxic profiles and the hyperoxic profile (∆V̇E) were calculated; three ∆V̇E values were plotted against corresponding calculated oxyhemoglobin …


Effectiveness Of Intervention Studies Based On Diet And/Or Physical Activity In Treatment, Prevention, And Management Of Diabetes Among South Asians: A Systematic Review, Ishaan Arora 2023 Mississippi State University

Effectiveness Of Intervention Studies Based On Diet And/Or Physical Activity In Treatment, Prevention, And Management Of Diabetes Among South Asians: A Systematic Review, Ishaan Arora

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to describe diet and/or physical activity-based interventions and their control in cardiometabolic risk factors of diabetes for the South Asian (SA) population. A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Seventeen randomized control trials meeting the inclusion criteria were included for analysis. Interventions with type-2 diabetic SA showed significant improvements in HbA1c% (4/5 studies), fasting blood glucose (3/4 studies), and postprandial glucose (2/2 studies). Interventions with at-risk/prediabetic and non-diabetic SA showed a modest change in overall outcomes, with significant change reported for post-prandial insulin (3/4 studies), BMI and weight (2/4 studies), …


Role Of Fat Content On The Structure And Function Of Human Skeletal Muscle, Joseph A. Gordon III 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Role Of Fat Content On The Structure And Function Of Human Skeletal Muscle, Joseph A. Gordon Iii

Doctoral Dissertations

Muscle size does not fully explain variations in muscle strength. Fat content has been implicated in muscle weakness, though this relationship remains unclear. The relationship between fat and strength may vary between scales (e.g., cellular, organ, and organism). The goal of this dissertation was to clarify the role of fat in the structure and function of muscle using in vitro and in vivo techniques across multiple scales in adults 21-45 years old. Study 1 tested the agreement of intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content between oil red o (ORO) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) techniques. These measures of IMCL were also compared …


The Effect Of Outdoor And Indoor Group Exercise Classes On Psychological Stress In College Students: A Pilot Study With Randomization, Raeann C. Bramwell, Aspen E. Streetman, Gina Besenyi 2023 Kansas State University

The Effect Of Outdoor And Indoor Group Exercise Classes On Psychological Stress In College Students: A Pilot Study With Randomization, Raeann C. Bramwell, Aspen E. Streetman, Gina Besenyi

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 16(5): 1012-1024, 2023. Emerging evidence suggests that outdoor group exercise may reduce stress more than indoor group exercise because the outdoor environment provides unique mental health benefits. Stress leads to illnesses and diseases, but exercise mitigates harmful impacts. This study explored differences in perceived stress and outdoor physical activity participation among college students in an indoor or outdoor group exercise class. Data were collected pre-, mid- (after four sessions), and post-intervention (after eight sessions). Seventeen participants indicated an interest in the study, but 13 signed up. Participants completed a four-week group exercise intervention that met …


Acute Effects Of Different Set Configurations On Neuromuscular, Metabolic, And Perceptual Responses In Young Women, Francisco Dalton-Alves, Lígia Martins, Witalo Kassiano, Mário Simim, Alexandre I. A. Medeiros, Cláudio De O. Assumpção 2023 Universidade Estadual do Ceará

Acute Effects Of Different Set Configurations On Neuromuscular, Metabolic, And Perceptual Responses In Young Women, Francisco Dalton-Alves, Lígia Martins, Witalo Kassiano, Mário Simim, Alexandre I. A. Medeiros, Cláudio De O. Assumpção

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 16(4): 974-986, 2023. We compared neuromuscular, metabolic, and perceptual responses between different resistance training configurations in young women. In a counterbalanced randomized order, 13 young women performed the following protocols in separate sessions (sets x repetitions): traditional (TRAD): 5x10, 90-s of rest interval between sets; more frequent and shorter total rest (FSR): 10x5, 30-s of rest interval between sets. The sessions were composed of leg press exercise with the same intensity. Force (maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]) and metabolic (lactate concentration) responses were measured pre- and post-resistance training sessions. The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) …


Does Beta-Alanine Supplementation Potentiate Muscle Performance Following 6 Weeks Of Blood Flow Restriction Or Traditional Resistance Training?, Kassiana de Araujo Pessoa, Jason Michael Cholewa, Rayssa Sousa-Silva, Xia Zhi, Alessandro M. Zagatto, Antonio Herbert Lancha-Jr, Jakob D. Lauver, Fabricio Eduardo Rossi, NELO ZANCHI 2023 Federal University of Maranhao

Does Beta-Alanine Supplementation Potentiate Muscle Performance Following 6 Weeks Of Blood Flow Restriction Or Traditional Resistance Training?, Kassiana De Araujo Pessoa, Jason Michael Cholewa, Rayssa Sousa-Silva, Xia Zhi, Alessandro M. Zagatto, Antonio Herbert Lancha-Jr, Jakob D. Lauver, Fabricio Eduardo Rossi, Nelo Zanchi

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 16(2): 999-1011, 2023. We aimed to compare the effects of beta-alanine on Traditional Resistance Training (TRAD) or Blood Flow Restriction Training (BFR). Methods: 19 subjects were randomly allocated to a Placebo (n = 10) or beta-alanine (n = 9) group. Subjects from both groups were trained unilaterally (unilateral arm curl) for six weeks, and each arm was trained using a different paradigm (BFR or TRAD). One repetition maximum (1RM) test measurements were performed before and after the strength training program. Work output was accessed as the total weight lifted (repetitions × weight lifted …


A New, Simple And Practical Approach To Increase The Effects Of Aerobic Exercise On Serum Levels Of Neurotrophic Factors In Adult Males, Mahdi Bahramnejad, Vahid Valipour Dehnou, Rasoul Eslami 2023 Sports Sciences Department, Faculty of Literature & Human Sciences, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran

A New, Simple And Practical Approach To Increase The Effects Of Aerobic Exercise On Serum Levels Of Neurotrophic Factors In Adult Males, Mahdi Bahramnejad, Vahid Valipour Dehnou, Rasoul Eslami

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 16(2): 932-941, 2023. Environmental enrichment (EE) is defined as a combination of complex inanimate and social stimulation. Physical activity and EE may augment the beneficial effects of each other. This study aimed to assess the effects of running in an enriched environment on neurotrophic factors in adult males. Twelve volunteer adult males (age 26.75 ± 5.34 yrs, body mass 70.72 ± 8.61 kg, height 172.50 ± 5.68 cm, VO2max 56.8 ± 2.93) completed two sessions, each consisted of one hour of running at an intensity of 12-13 on the Borg Scale. One session was …


Performance Kinetics During Repeated Sprints Is Influenced By Knowledge Of Task Endpoint And Associated Peripheral Fatigue, François Billaut, Marie R. Demers, Andrew Hibbert 2023 Université Laval

Performance Kinetics During Repeated Sprints Is Influenced By Knowledge Of Task Endpoint And Associated Peripheral Fatigue, François Billaut, Marie R. Demers, Andrew Hibbert

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 16(1): 987-998, 2023. The regulation of exercise intensity allows an athlete to perform an exercise in the fastest possible time while avoiding debilitating neuromuscular fatigue development. This phenomenon is less studied during intermittent activities. To investigate anticipatory and real-time regulation of motor output and neuromuscular fatigue during repeated-sprint exercise, twelve males randomly performed one (S1), two (S2), four (S4) and six (S6) sets of five 5-s cycling sprints. Mechanical work and electromyographic activity were assessed during sprints. Potentiated quadriceps twitch force (ΔQtw,pot) and central activation ratio (QCAR) were quantified from response …


The Effects Of Postural Education Or Corrective Exercise On The Craniovertebral Angle In Young Adults With Forward Head Posture: A Randomized Controlled Trial, David A. Titcomb, Bridget F. Melton, Theresa Miyashita, Helen W. Bland 2023 Liberty University

The Effects Of Postural Education Or Corrective Exercise On The Craniovertebral Angle In Young Adults With Forward Head Posture: A Randomized Controlled Trial, David A. Titcomb, Bridget F. Melton, Theresa Miyashita, Helen W. Bland

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 16(1): 954-973, 2023. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three different intervention strategies, postural education (PE) and two corrective exercise programs (CEPs), on the craniovertebral angle (CVA) in young adults with forward head posture (FHP). A prospective four-arm parallel randomized controlled trial with repeated measures was performed. Seventy-nine healthy young adults (55 women, 24 men; mean age: 20.08 ± 2.19 years) with FHP were randomized into four groups: PE group, self-myofascial release + stretching group (SMRS), self-myofascial release + stretching + strengthening group (SMRSS), and a control group (CG). Participant …


Increasing Trunk Mass Evokes Lower Extremity Biomechanical Plasticity During Stair Descent, Alexis Nelson, Hailey Fong, Alex Carnall, Melissa J. Puppa, Derek Beeler, Cris Stickley, William M. Mihalko, Douglas W. Powell 2023 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Increasing Trunk Mass Evokes Lower Extremity Biomechanical Plasticity During Stair Descent, Alexis Nelson, Hailey Fong, Alex Carnall, Melissa J. Puppa, Derek Beeler, Cris Stickley, William M. Mihalko, Douglas W. Powell

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 16(1): 942-953, 2023. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of simulated changes in body mass on lower extremity joint work and relative joint contributions during stair descent. Ten healthy recreationally active college-age participants performed five stair descent trials in each of five loading conditions: no added load and with an additional 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of their body weight. Three-dimensional ankle, knee and hip joint powers were calculated using a six degree-of-freedom model in Visual3D (C-Motion Inc., Germantown, MD, USA). Sagittal plane joint work was calculated as the joint power …


Microglial Response To Glucocorticoids During Chronic Sleep Fragmentation, Christian Chelson 2023 Western Kentucky University

Microglial Response To Glucocorticoids During Chronic Sleep Fragmentation, Christian Chelson

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Sleep is one of the body’s greatest and most basic needs. Chronic sleep loss (<6 hours a day) is linked to many cardiovascular issues, diabetes, and inflammatory conditions and has been shown to lower life expectancy. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a complication that causes sleep fragmentation in >8% of adults from developed countries, and many with OSA may be unaware of their condition. Having long-term OSA is linked to neuroinflammation caused by activated microglia in the brain, but the mechanics of this inflammation are not well understood. It is known that glucocorticoids, steroid hormones produced and released from the adrenal glands, have a suppressive effect on microglia. The purpose of this study is to explore the role that glucocorticoids have upon microglia activation induced by chronic sleep fragmentation (SF). C57BL/6J mice were …


The Importance Of Contrast Sensitivity, Color Vision, And Electrophysiological Testing In Clinical And Occupational Settings, Frances Silva 2023 University of the Incarnate Word

The Importance Of Contrast Sensitivity, Color Vision, And Electrophysiological Testing In Clinical And Occupational Settings, Frances Silva

Theses & Dissertations

Visual acuity (VA) is universally accepted as the gold standard metric for ocular vision and function. Contrast sensitivity (CS), color vision, and electrophysiological testing for clinical and occupational settings are warranted despite being deemed ancillary and minimally utilized by clinicians. These assessments provide essential information to subjectively and objectively quantify and obtain optimal functional vision. They are useful for baseline data and monitoring hereditary and progressive ocular conditions and cognitive function. The studies in this dissertation highlight the value of contrast sensitivity, color vision, and cone specific electrophysiological testing, as well as the novel metrics obtained with potential practical clinical …


Effects Of Chewing Time On Gastrointestinal Discomfort, Substrate Use, And Performance During Running, Thomas Geaney 2023 Old Dominion University

Effects Of Chewing Time On Gastrointestinal Discomfort, Substrate Use, And Performance During Running, Thomas Geaney

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Previous research has shown that food particle size affects gastric processing. For example, food particles greater than 3 mm may delay gastric emptying under certain conditions. Delays in gastric emptying can be problematic during aerobic exercise, leading to nausea, bloating, fullness, and other gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. In some cases, symptoms can be severe enough to negatively affect athletic performance. This study investigated the effects of manipulating chewing duration of carbohydrate sports bars on GI discomfort, physiological responses, and performance during endurance running. This crossover study recruited 12 male runners (age: 36.4 ± 7.2 years, VO2peak: 57.2 ± 4.7 …


The Role Of E-Liquid Constituents In E-Cigarette-Induced Cardiac Arrhythmia And Autonomic Imbalance., Cory Kucera 2023 University of Louisville

The Role Of E-Liquid Constituents In E-Cigarette-Induced Cardiac Arrhythmia And Autonomic Imbalance., Cory Kucera

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Introduction. Accumulating evidence indicates that exposure to electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) promotes sympathetic dominance and electrophysiologic instability in the heart, potentially culminating in arrhythmogenesis. E-liquids contain various formulations of nicotine and flavorings, but the effects of specific e-liquid constituents and their concentrations on e-cig-induced autonomic imbalance and electrical dysfunction are unresolved. To that end, we tested the hypothesis that e-cigs modify cardiac autonomic balance and ventricular arrhythmogenesis in mice dependent on e-liquid constituent type and concentration. Methods. Using a crossover design and a serial exposure regimen, ECG-telemetered male C57BL/6J mice underwent whole-body exposure to e-cig aerosols generated from e-liquids containing different …


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