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The Effects Of Postural Education Or Corrective Exercise On The Craniovertebral Angle In Young Adults With Forward Head Posture: A Randomized Controlled Trial, David A. Titcomb, Bridget F. Melton, Theresa Miyashita, Helen W. Bland 2023 Liberty University

The Effects Of Postural Education Or Corrective Exercise On The Craniovertebral Angle In Young Adults With Forward Head Posture: A Randomized Controlled Trial, David A. Titcomb, Bridget F. Melton, Theresa Miyashita, Helen W. Bland

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 16(1): 954-973, 2023. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three different intervention strategies, postural education (PE) and two corrective exercise programs (CEPs), on the craniovertebral angle (CVA) in young adults with forward head posture (FHP). A prospective four-arm parallel randomized controlled trial with repeated measures was performed. Seventy-nine healthy young adults (55 women, 24 men; mean age: 20.08 ± 2.19 years) with FHP were randomized into four groups: PE group, self-myofascial release + stretching group (SMRS), self-myofascial release + stretching + strengthening group (SMRSS), and a control group (CG). Participant …


Increasing Trunk Mass Evokes Lower Extremity Biomechanical Plasticity During Stair Descent, Alexis Nelson, Hailey Fong, Alex Carnall, Melissa J. Puppa, Derek Beeler, Cris Stickley, William M. Mihalko, Douglas W. Powell 2023 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Increasing Trunk Mass Evokes Lower Extremity Biomechanical Plasticity During Stair Descent, Alexis Nelson, Hailey Fong, Alex Carnall, Melissa J. Puppa, Derek Beeler, Cris Stickley, William M. Mihalko, Douglas W. Powell

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 16(1): 942-953, 2023. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of simulated changes in body mass on lower extremity joint work and relative joint contributions during stair descent. Ten healthy recreationally active college-age participants performed five stair descent trials in each of five loading conditions: no added load and with an additional 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of their body weight. Three-dimensional ankle, knee and hip joint powers were calculated using a six degree-of-freedom model in Visual3D (C-Motion Inc., Germantown, MD, USA). Sagittal plane joint work was calculated as the joint power …


Microglial Response To Glucocorticoids During Chronic Sleep Fragmentation, Christian Chelson 2023 Western Kentucky University

Microglial Response To Glucocorticoids During Chronic Sleep Fragmentation, Christian Chelson

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Sleep is one of the body’s greatest and most basic needs. Chronic sleep loss (<6 hours a day) is linked to many cardiovascular issues, diabetes, and inflammatory conditions and has been shown to lower life expectancy. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a complication that causes sleep fragmentation in >8% of adults from developed countries, and many with OSA may be unaware of their condition. Having long-term OSA is linked to neuroinflammation caused by activated microglia in the brain, but the mechanics of this inflammation are not well understood. It is known that glucocorticoids, steroid hormones produced and released from the adrenal glands, have a suppressive effect on microglia. The purpose of this study is to explore the role that glucocorticoids have upon microglia activation induced by chronic sleep fragmentation (SF). C57BL/6J mice were …


The Importance Of Contrast Sensitivity, Color Vision, And Electrophysiological Testing In Clinical And Occupational Settings, Frances Silva 2023 University of the Incarnate Word

The Importance Of Contrast Sensitivity, Color Vision, And Electrophysiological Testing In Clinical And Occupational Settings, Frances Silva

Theses & Dissertations

Visual acuity (VA) is universally accepted as the gold standard metric for ocular vision and function. Contrast sensitivity (CS), color vision, and electrophysiological testing for clinical and occupational settings are warranted despite being deemed ancillary and minimally utilized by clinicians. These assessments provide essential information to subjectively and objectively quantify and obtain optimal functional vision. They are useful for baseline data and monitoring hereditary and progressive ocular conditions and cognitive function. The studies in this dissertation highlight the value of contrast sensitivity, color vision, and cone specific electrophysiological testing, as well as the novel metrics obtained with potential practical clinical …


The Role Of E-Liquid Constituents In E-Cigarette-Induced Cardiac Arrhythmia And Autonomic Imbalance., Cory Kucera 2023 University of Louisville

The Role Of E-Liquid Constituents In E-Cigarette-Induced Cardiac Arrhythmia And Autonomic Imbalance., Cory Kucera

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Introduction. Accumulating evidence indicates that exposure to electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) promotes sympathetic dominance and electrophysiologic instability in the heart, potentially culminating in arrhythmogenesis. E-liquids contain various formulations of nicotine and flavorings, but the effects of specific e-liquid constituents and their concentrations on e-cig-induced autonomic imbalance and electrical dysfunction are unresolved. To that end, we tested the hypothesis that e-cigs modify cardiac autonomic balance and ventricular arrhythmogenesis in mice dependent on e-liquid constituent type and concentration. Methods. Using a crossover design and a serial exposure regimen, ECG-telemetered male C57BL/6J mice underwent whole-body exposure to e-cig aerosols generated from e-liquids containing different …


Effects Of Chewing Time On Gastrointestinal Discomfort, Substrate Use, And Performance During Running, Thomas Geaney 2023 Old Dominion University

Effects Of Chewing Time On Gastrointestinal Discomfort, Substrate Use, And Performance During Running, Thomas Geaney

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Previous research has shown that food particle size affects gastric processing. For example, food particles greater than 3 mm may delay gastric emptying under certain conditions. Delays in gastric emptying can be problematic during aerobic exercise, leading to nausea, bloating, fullness, and other gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. In some cases, symptoms can be severe enough to negatively affect athletic performance. This study investigated the effects of manipulating chewing duration of carbohydrate sports bars on GI discomfort, physiological responses, and performance during endurance running. This crossover study recruited 12 male runners (age: 36.4 ± 7.2 years, VO2peak: 57.2 ± 4.7 …


Shedding In The Timber Rattlesnake: Natural Patterns, Endocrinological Underpinnings, Temporal And Energetic Effort, And Integration As A Reptilian Life History Trait, Maxwell D. Carnes-Mason 2023 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

Shedding In The Timber Rattlesnake: Natural Patterns, Endocrinological Underpinnings, Temporal And Energetic Effort, And Integration As A Reptilian Life History Trait, Maxwell D. Carnes-Mason

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The semi-frequent replacement of the epidermis (ecdysis) is a characteristic trait of reptiles. Whereas all reptiles regularly engage in some degree of skin shedding, skin morphology in snakes necessitates the synchronous replacement of the entire epidermis and facilitates the subsequent removal of the old layer as a single sheet. To date, the ubiquitous process has garnered little attention from researchers because snakes shed with unpredictable timing and frequency and are exceedingly cryptic during ecdytic cycles; previously impeding detailed physiological or ecological investigations of the process in the clade. Because of the lack of study, ecdysis is often viewed as a …


Evaluating The Influence Of Reciprocity Of Meeting Partner's Temperament Needs In Terms Of Marital Intimacy, Jimmie Scott Inman 2023 Liberty University

Evaluating The Influence Of Reciprocity Of Meeting Partner's Temperament Needs In Terms Of Marital Intimacy, Jimmie Scott Inman

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This narrative qualitative research project evaluated the influence of meeting a partner's needs regarding marital intimacy. This study investigated the archival data of couples who received temperament-focused marriage therapy. The essential principles taught throughout treatment (relational reciprocity, temperament needs met, the character of Christ) influence marital intimacy. A large body of work examined supports that needs-met (individual and relational) is essential for one's overall health and well-being. Three theories lay the theoretical foundation for this study: (1) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory states that individuals have varying needs and that well-being hinges on their needs being met. (2) Schutz's Fundamental …


Mid-Gestation Maternofetal Inflammation Impacts Growth, Skeletal Muscle Glucose Metabolism, And Inflammatory Tone In The Ovine Fetus During Late Gestation, Zena Hicks 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mid-Gestation Maternofetal Inflammation Impacts Growth, Skeletal Muscle Glucose Metabolism, And Inflammatory Tone In The Ovine Fetus During Late Gestation, Zena Hicks

Department of Animal Science: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Our 1st and 2nd studies assessed the impact of mid-gestation maternofetal inflammation on growth, skeletal muscle glucose metabolism, and inflammatory tone in the late gestation ovine fetus. The objective was to determine if inducing maternofetal inflammation during peak placental growth would lead to more profound IUGR characteristics in the fetus. MI-IUGR fetuses exhibited reduced body and skeletal muscle weights and hallmark asymmetric growth at late gestations. Fetuses had higher baseline glucose:insulin ratios and reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Moreover, hindlimb glucose oxidation was impaired independent of glucose uptake. Skeletal muscle specific glucose uptake and oxidation was reduced in MI-IUGR …


The Effects Of Ultra-Marathon Trail Running And The Physiological Response Of Stress On Salivary Biomarkers, Kevan W. Stout, Jeremy R. Pearson, Catherine A. Hambleton, Jake A. Deckert, Philip M. Gallagher 2023 University of Kansas

The Effects Of Ultra-Marathon Trail Running And The Physiological Response Of Stress On Salivary Biomarkers, Kevan W. Stout, Jeremy R. Pearson, Catherine A. Hambleton, Jake A. Deckert, Philip M. Gallagher

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

PURPOSE: This study investigated changes in salivary α-amylase (sAA), cortisol, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentrations following completion of an ultra-marathon trail run (UMT) to better understand the physiological stressors imposed by this extreme type of race. METHODS: Eight subjects participated in this study. Each subject completed a 50 km UMT. Two-minute oral salivary swabs were taken 10 minutes prior to race start and again within 1 minute of race finish. Samples were analyzed for sAA, cortisol and IL-1β using ELISA kits. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated a significant increase in both sAA (p = 0.002) and cortisol (p < 0.001) from baseline. No significant differences were observed for IL-1β. There was no significant relationship between the observed sAA increase and race speed. The observed increase in cortisol was significantly correlated with race speed (R2 = 0.582, p …


Physical Profile Of Air Force Special Warfare Trainees, Kim A. Feeney, Bridget F. Melton, Helen W. Bland, Greg A. Ryan, Cody R. Butler 2023 Concordia University Chicago

Physical Profile Of Air Force Special Warfare Trainees, Kim A. Feeney, Bridget F. Melton, Helen W. Bland, Greg A. Ryan, Cody R. Butler

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 16(4): 924-931, 2023. Physical fitness testing in the military is commonly used to assess whether service members are physically capable of performing the diverse physical tasks that may be required for their job. Body composition can influence an individual’s ability to physically perform. This study aimed to analyze the general physical profile of U.S. Air Force (USAF) special warfare candidates by assessing body composition results and physical assessment scores collected over the past four years. Male candidates (n = 1036) were 18.2 years to 39.5 years of age (M = 23.5, SD = …


Test-Retest Reliability Of A 4-Minute All-Out Critical Force Test In Rock Climbers, Zachary J. McClean, Keenan MacDougall, Jared R. Fletcher, Saied J. Aboodarda, Brian R. MacIntosh 2023 University of Calgary

Test-Retest Reliability Of A 4-Minute All-Out Critical Force Test In Rock Climbers, Zachary J. Mcclean, Keenan Macdougall, Jared R. Fletcher, Saied J. Aboodarda, Brian R. Macintosh

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 16(4): 912-923, 2023. The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability of a 4-minute all-out critical force test in well-trained rock climbers. Thirteen rock climbers (n=4 females) completed a familiarization session and two all-out critical force tests on different days. During each trial, participants completed 24 repetitions of 7s right-handed, maximal effort hangs from a 20mm edge interspersed with 3 s rest. The end-test force (EF; i.e., critical force), impulse above EF (IEF), and peak force achieved durin g the test were analyzed with paired t-tests to determine differences between trials. Intraclass …


Psychophysical Load During The Multistage Marathon Des Sables: A Case Study, Leonidas G. Ioannou, Lydia Tsoutsoubi, Georgios I. Tsianos, Andreas D. Flouris 2023 FAME Laboratory, School of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Greece

Psychophysical Load During The Multistage Marathon Des Sables: A Case Study, Leonidas G. Ioannou, Lydia Tsoutsoubi, Georgios I. Tsianos, Andreas D. Flouris

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

Introduction: This study investigated the impact of the multistage ultra-marathon event ‘‘Marathon des Sables’’ (MdS) performed in the Sahara Desert on the psychophysical capacity of an athlete. Methods: We collected and analyzed environmental, physiological, and behavioral data from a 39-year-old athlete who participated in the MdS. Specifically, we collected environmental temperature (Tenv), upper inguinal skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate, and running speed data. Also, we recorded blood glucose and lactate, thermal comfort, total body water, perceived exertion, and cognitive function at the start, middle, and the end of each race stage. Results: We found significant detrimental …


The Sympathetic Neural Control Of The Circulation At Rest And During Exercise: Effects Of Age, Biological Sex, And Sex Hormones, Andrew W. D'Souza 2023 Western University

The Sympathetic Neural Control Of The Circulation At Rest And During Exercise: Effects Of Age, Biological Sex, And Sex Hormones, Andrew W. D'Souza

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The overall objective of this dissertation was to determine the impact of age, sex, and sex hormones on the discharge behaviours of muscle sympathetic action potentials (APs) as well as the corresponding changes in peripheral vasoconstriction and blood pressure at rest and during exercise. The microneurographic technique was employed to record multi-unit muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), with a continuous wavelet transform applied post-hoc to evaluate APs within the recorded neurogram. Study One examined the impact of aging on the central and peripheral arcs of the sympathetic baroreflex under resting conditions. This study revealed that middle-aged-to-older adults demonstrated heightened sympathetic …


The Effects Of Ankle Taping On Measures Of Ground Reaction Forces And Jump Height During A Sport-Specific Vertical Jump In Youth Basketball Players, Michelle Pratola, Paolo Sanzo 2023 Lakehead University

The Effects Of Ankle Taping On Measures Of Ground Reaction Forces And Jump Height During A Sport-Specific Vertical Jump In Youth Basketball Players, Michelle Pratola, Paolo Sanzo

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 16(6): 898-911, 2023. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ankle taping using zinc oxide tape versus no tape to measure ground reaction forces (GRF) and vertical jump height during a sport-specific vertical jump test in youth basketball players. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling and completed a basketball specific vertical jump test with and without zinc oxide tape. Mean sway velocity, 95% ellipse area, and path length were measured using the AMTI© force platform and vertical jump height using a Vertec© device. A paired t-test with a significance level of …


Does Acute Maximal Exercise Or Chronic Physical Activity Affect Circulating Angiotensin (1-9) Concentrations?, Kyle R. Weiman 2023 Western University

Does Acute Maximal Exercise Or Chronic Physical Activity Affect Circulating Angiotensin (1-9) Concentrations?, Kyle R. Weiman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Introduction: Epidemiological evidence suggests physical inactivity can increase the likelihood of hospitalization from the SARS-COV-2 virus. Further, some data indicate a greater ratio of angiotensin 1-9 to angiotensin I helps prevent severe outcomes during infection. Moreover, related hormones can enhance potentially both physical activity and health. The purpose of this study was to determine whether plasma concentrations of angiotensin (1-9) are modified after a single exhaustive exercise bout and whether sex or chronic physical activity is associated with greater plasma concentrations.

Methods: Participants (n=14) performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Antecubital area venipunctures were performed before, immediately …


Mas And Mans Predicts Repeated Sprint Ability In Youth Soccer Players, Jørgen D. Olsen, Henrik R. Rognhaug, Daniel Kvamme, Øyvind Støren, Eva Maria Støa 2023 University of South-Eastern Norway, Bø

Mas And Mans Predicts Repeated Sprint Ability In Youth Soccer Players, Jørgen D. Olsen, Henrik R. Rognhaug, Daniel Kvamme, Øyvind Støren, Eva Maria Støa

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 16(6): 846-854, 2023. The study investigated the impact of maximal aerobic speed (MAS) and maximal anaerobic sprint (MANS) on repeated sprint ability (RSA) in soccer. Methods: 17 amateur-to semi-professional soccer players, age 19 (± 4) years, were tested for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), oxygen cost of running (Cr), RSA consisting of 15×20m sprint each divided by a 100 seconds dribble track, and 40-meter sprint performance. MAS was calculated as VO2max × Cr −1, and MANS was defined as the highest velocity in the 40-meter sprint. Results: There was …


Carbon Fiber Insoles Enhance Perception Of Performance Despite Variable Objective Outcomes: Specific To The Moderately Active Individual, Erin E. Dierickx, Cody R. Butler, Robert A. Huggins, Emma Zuk, Lea C. Mason, Lindsay J. DiStefano, Douglas J. Casa 2023 University of Connecticut

Carbon Fiber Insoles Enhance Perception Of Performance Despite Variable Objective Outcomes: Specific To The Moderately Active Individual, Erin E. Dierickx, Cody R. Butler, Robert A. Huggins, Emma Zuk, Lea C. Mason, Lindsay J. Distefano, Douglas J. Casa

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 16(4): 885-897, 2023. Carbon fiber insoles (CFIs) may benefit performance in elite athletes, however, their use in moderately active individuals has been adopted without evidence supporting such enhancements in this population. Fifteen male subjects performed vertical jump (VJ) and repeat treadmill sprint tests before and after a VO2peak while wearing 1) CFIs and 2) control insoles (CON). Subjects completed a subjective survey regarding their perceived performance abilities for both conditions. There were no significant differences between CFIs and CON in VJ height, sprint distance, heart rate following sprints; and rate of oxygen consumption, perceived …


Body Composition (Dxa) And Maximal Strength Of Powerlifters: A Descriptive Quantitative And Longitudinal Study, Pierre-Marc Ferland, Jérémie Charron, Mathieu Brisebois-Boies, Fanie St-Jean Miron, Alain Steve Comtois PhD 2023 University of Quebec in Montreal

Body Composition (Dxa) And Maximal Strength Of Powerlifters: A Descriptive Quantitative And Longitudinal Study, Pierre-Marc Ferland, Jérémie Charron, Mathieu Brisebois-Boies, Fanie St-Jean Miron, Alain Steve Comtois Phd

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 16(4): 828-845, 2023. The purpose of this study was to present the relationships between maximal strength and body composition and to conduct yearly follow-ups presenting the chronic effects of maximal strength training on body composition. Thirty-four (age = 28.8 ± 8.7 yrs) classic powerlifters (M = 21; F = 13) completed at least one Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) 43.97 ± 23.93 days after a sanctioned international powerlifting federation affiliate competition (Squat + Bench Press + Deadlift = Total (kg)). In addition, thirteen subjects (n = 13) completed at least one yearly follow up. Paired …


The Acute Effect Of Tissue Flossing On Pain, Function, And Perception Of Movement, Christopher Kelly, Zachary Oliveri, Joseph Saladino, Joseph Senatore, Amy Kamat, Jordan Zarour, Peter C. Douris 2023 New York Institute of Technology

The Acute Effect Of Tissue Flossing On Pain, Function, And Perception Of Movement, Christopher Kelly, Zachary Oliveri, Joseph Saladino, Joseph Senatore, Amy Kamat, Jordan Zarour, Peter C. Douris

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 16(3): 855-865, 2023. Tissue flossing (TF) is a novel device that has been shown to cause peripheral compression and concurrent change in joint range of motion, perception of mobility and muscular performance. However, the effect of tissue flossing on pain, perception of mobility and function at the elbow joint has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the acute effect of TF on pain and upper extremity functional performance in subjects with musculoskeletal-related complaints of pain surrounding the elbow joint. We utilized a randomized crossover design. Nine resistance trained …


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