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Systems and Integrative Physiology Commons

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Expression Of Claudins In Gill And Opercular Membranes In Relation To Osmoregulation In Euryhaline Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Allison McFarland 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Expression Of Claudins In Gill And Opercular Membranes In Relation To Osmoregulation In Euryhaline Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Allison Mcfarland

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) are euryhaline teleosts, which means they can thrive in environments with varying salinities, ranging from concentrated seawater (SW) to dilute fresh water (FW) and thus survive in estuaries. To be able to maintain ionic and osmotic homeostasis in these diverse salinities, osmoregulatory organs like gill and opercular membrane must be able to adjust the permeability and transport of water and ions. The surface epithelia in these organs need to prevent the passive flux of ions and water in a drastically changing environment, while being able to switch between active ion secretion or uptake dependent upon environmental …


Positive Rate-Dependent Action Potential Prolongation By Modulating Potassium Ion Channels, Candido Cabo 2022 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Positive Rate-Dependent Action Potential Prolongation By Modulating Potassium Ion Channels, Candido Cabo

Publications and Research

Pharmacological agents that prolong action potential duration (APD) to a larger extent at slow rates than at the fast excitation rates typical of ventricular tachycardia exhibit reverse rate dependence. Reverse rate dependence has been linked to the lack of efficacy of class III agents at preventing arrhythmias because the doses required to have an anti-arrhythmic effect at fast rates may have pro-arrhythmic effects at slow rates due to an excessive APD prolongation. In this report we show that, in computer models of the ventricular action potential, APD prolongation by accelerating phase 2 repolarization (by increasing IKs) and decelerating …


The Effect Of Breathing Patterns Common To Competitive Swimming On Gas Exchange And Muscle Deoxygenation During Heavy-Intensity Fartlek Exercise, Kevin J. Grossman 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Effect Of Breathing Patterns Common To Competitive Swimming On Gas Exchange And Muscle Deoxygenation During Heavy-Intensity Fartlek Exercise, Kevin J. Grossman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study was to compare the respiratory and muscle deoxygenation (HHb) responses of regulated breathing versus free-breathing, during continuous exercise (CONLD) and intermittent 5s breath holds (BH) (CONLD-BH), intermittent 5s sprint (FLK) and combined 5s BH and sprint (FLK-BH) followed by 25s of free-breathing. Oxygen uptake(V̇O2)was unchanged between CONLD (2.12±0.35L/min) and CONLD-BH (2.15±0.42L/min; p=0.116), and FLK (2.24±0.40L/min) and FLK-BH (2.20±0.45L/min; p=0.861). Δ[Hbtot]: CONLD (3.3±1.6µM) > CONLD-BH (-2.5±1.2µM; ∆177%; p<0.001), but unchanged between FLK (2.0±1.6µM) and FLK-BH (0.82±1.4µM; p=0.979). Δ[HHb]: CONLD (7.3±1.8µM) > CONLD-BH (7.0±2.0µM; ∆4%; p=0.011), and FLK (6.7±1.8µM) < FLK-BH (8.7±2.4µM; p<0.001). It is suggested that the unchanged V̇O2 between CONLD and CONLD-BH was supported by increased deoxygenation, reflected by decreased ∆[Hbtot] and blunted …


The Influence Of Temperature And Body Size On Food Consumption In Prairie Lizards (Sceloporus Consobrinus), Morgan Pelley 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Influence Of Temperature And Body Size On Food Consumption In Prairie Lizards (Sceloporus Consobrinus), Morgan Pelley

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the effect of temperature on physiological and digestive processes, such as voluntary consumption rate, is critical for assessing the impact of climate change. Food consumption is required for lizard survival and reproduction and its rate is dependent on temperature. For ectotherms, as temperatures increase, the amount of food consumed to meet the energy requirements related to survival and reproduction must also increase. Information on the amount of food voluntarily consumed may aid in determining if lizards can meet energy requirements. Such information could also aid in predicting survival of lizard populations, through construction of predictive climate change models. In …


Increased Corticospinal Inhibition Following Submaximal And Maximal Muscle Activation In Humans, Alexander D. Paish 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Increased Corticospinal Inhibition Following Submaximal And Maximal Muscle Activation In Humans, Alexander D. Paish

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Following short duration, high intensity muscle activation, there is an enhancement of muscle contractile properties, termed postactivation potentiation (PAP). Corticospinal inhibition, assessed by an increased silent period (SP), was shown previously to increase following voluntary or electrically evoked PAP. Although these changes coexist, the direct effect of PAP on corticospinal inhibition has not been systematically evaluated. In 10 participants, SP duration was measured pre and post 10s maximal and submaximal, voluntary and electrically stimulated contractions. Following maximal contractions, mean twitch torque was enhanced ~180% with no enhancement at submaximal levels (~102%). The SP duration was prolonged following all conditions: ~12% …


Mechanisms Of Diapause And Cold Tolerance In The Colorado Potato Beetle, Jacqueline E. Lebenzon 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Mechanisms Of Diapause And Cold Tolerance In The Colorado Potato Beetle, Jacqueline E. Lebenzon

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Many temperate insects enter diapause (a state of dormancy) and enhance their cold tolerance to survive the winter. During diapause, the Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) stops developing, lowers its metabolism, and changes its physiology to avoid freezing. The extent to which diapause confers cold tolerance in CPB is currently unknown. In my thesis, I used CPB to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying metabolic suppression during diapause and cellular protection at sub-zero temperatures in insects. First, I used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to compare gene expression in two metabolically important tissues (the fat body and flight muscle) …


Supplemental Peer Instruction In Physiologic Core Concept Education, Austin Choat 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Supplemental Peer Instruction In Physiologic Core Concept Education, Austin Choat

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The objective of my thesis project was to create and research the importance of supplemental learning videos within core physiological concepts identified by the Advancement of Physiological Principles for the purpose of assisting Dr. Kim Hansen in better educating students with less extensive foundational knowledge of chemical and biological sciences. Through researching the benefits of peer instruction, identifying core physiological concepts crucial to wholistic physiology education, and describing a student population hypothesized to benefit substantially from the work, I created educational videos to aid Dr. Hansen in her work as an educator and in the educational research she is striving …


T-Lymphocyte Tyrosine Hydroxylase Regulates T H 17 T-Lymphocytes During Repeated Social Defeat Stress, Safwan K. Elkhatib, Cassandra M. Moshfegh, Gabrielle F. Watson, Adam J. Case 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

T-Lymphocyte Tyrosine Hydroxylase Regulates T H 17 T-Lymphocytes During Repeated Social Defeat Stress, Safwan K. Elkhatib, Cassandra M. Moshfegh, Gabrielle F. Watson, Adam J. Case

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder which results in deleterious changes to psychological and physical health. Patients with PTSD are especially susceptible to life-threatening co-morbid inflammation-driven pathologies, such as autoimmunity, while also demonstrating increased T-helper 17 (TH17) lymphocyte-driven inflammation. While the exact mechanism of this increased inflammation is unknown, overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system is a hallmark of PTSD. Neurotransmitters of the sympathetic nervous system (i.e., catecholamines) can alter T-lymphocyte function, which we have previously demonstrated to be partially mitochondrial redox-mediated. Furthermore, we have previously elucidated that T-lymphocytes generate their own catecholamines, and strong …


Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Plasticity By The Gut Microbiome, Taylor R. Valentino 2022 University of Kentucky

Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Plasticity By The Gut Microbiome, Taylor R. Valentino

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiome could play a role in skeletal muscle plasticity, providing novel treatments for muscle wasting diseases and/or performance enhancements. I first sought to determine if the gut microbiome is necessary for skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise. Forty-two, four-month old, female C57Bl/6J underwent nine weeks of weighted wheel running or remained in cage with a locked wheel, without or without the administration of antibiotics (treated). In response to wheel running, I found that antibiotic depletion of the microbiome led to a blunted hypertrophic response in the soleus muscle as measured by normalized muscle wet weight …


Comparative Genomics, Evolutionary Epidemiology, And Rbd-Hace2 Receptor Binding Pattern In B.1.1.7 (Alpha) And B.1.617.2 (Delta) Related To Their Pandemic Response In Uk And India, Chiranjib Chakraborty, Ashish Ranjan Sharma, Manojit Bhattacharya, Bidyut Mallik, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Sang-Soo Lee 2022 Adamas University

Comparative Genomics, Evolutionary Epidemiology, And Rbd-Hace2 Receptor Binding Pattern In B.1.1.7 (Alpha) And B.1.617.2 (Delta) Related To Their Pandemic Response In Uk And India, Chiranjib Chakraborty, Ashish Ranjan Sharma, Manojit Bhattacharya, Bidyut Mallik, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Sang-Soo Lee

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

BACKGROUND: The massive increase in COVID-19 infection had generated a second wave in India during May-June 2021 with a critical pandemic situation. The Delta variant (B.1.617.2) was a significant factor during the second wave. Conversely, the UK had passed through the crucial phase of the pandemic from November to December 2020 due to B.1.1.7. The study tried to comprehend the pandemic response in the UK and India to the spread of the B.1.1.7 (Alpha, UK) variant and B.1.617.2 (Delta, India) variant.

METHODS: This study was performed in three directions to understand the pandemic response of the two emerging variants. First, …


Time-Dependent Alteration In The Chemoreflex Post-Acute Lung Injury, Kajal Kamra, Nikolay Karpuk, Ryan Adam, Irving H. Zucker, Harold D. Schultz, Han-Jun Wang 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Time-Dependent Alteration In The Chemoreflex Post-Acute Lung Injury, Kajal Kamra, Nikolay Karpuk, Ryan Adam, Irving H. Zucker, Harold D. Schultz, Han-Jun Wang

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Acute lung injury (ALI) induces inflammation that disrupts the normal alveolar-capillary endothelial barrier which impairs gas exchange to induce hypoxemia that reflexively increases respiration. The neural mechanisms underlying the respiratory dysfunction during ALI are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the chemoreflex in mediating abnormal ventilation during acute (early) and recovery (late) stages of ALI. We hypothesized that the increase in respiratory rate (fR) during post-ALI is mediated by a sensitized chemoreflex. ALI was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats using a single intra-tracheal injection of bleomycin (Bleo: low-dose = 1.25 mg/Kg or …


Physician Assisted Dying (Pad): An Investigation Into The Mechanistic Action Of Opioid, Benzodiazepine, And Barbiturate Administration As An Alternative Measure To Forgoing Life Sustaining Treatment And Aggressive Palliation., Jordana Chanel Deighton 2022 Claremont McKenna College

Physician Assisted Dying (Pad): An Investigation Into The Mechanistic Action Of Opioid, Benzodiazepine, And Barbiturate Administration As An Alternative Measure To Forgoing Life Sustaining Treatment And Aggressive Palliation., Jordana Chanel Deighton

CMC Senior Theses

Whilst modern medicine has increased longevity, the rise in life expectancy has brought about new struggles, namely that of aging and age related disease. Thus, humanity has been presented with a new problem: at what point is death preferable to aggressive life-prolonging treatment in the face of inevitable death? And if so, what right do individuals have to control the circumstances of their death? In the West, traditionally, individuals who seek to end their own lives in the face of terminal illness opt for forgoing artificial hydration and nutrition. Driven by an increase in desire for autonomous dignified death, a …


Effects Of Mindfulness And Stress Management On Neurocardiovascular And Psychological Outcomes, Aditi P. Vyas 2022 Michigan Technological University

Effects Of Mindfulness And Stress Management On Neurocardiovascular And Psychological Outcomes, Aditi P. Vyas

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

There has been a higher prevalence of developing anxiety due to frequent episodes of stress among adults in recent years. Chronic anxiety can contribute to the prevalence of elevated blood pressure and hypertension. High anxiety and stress also contribute to overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system which can be quantified by increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Sympathetic overactivation can lead to vasoconstriction and loss of arterial elasticity. Anxiety, MSNA, blood pressure, and arterial stiffness are all interconnected, thus studying these relationships is crucial to understand the underlying mechanisms for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Non-pharmacological and mind-body …


The Impact Of Food Deprivation On Cardiovascular Physiology, Steven Philip Stelly 2022 Michigan Technological University

The Impact Of Food Deprivation On Cardiovascular Physiology, Steven Philip Stelly

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Introduction: Despite the commonality of fasting, there still remains a lack of scientific research, specifically in regard to the impact of fasting on cardiovascular physiology. Thus, the goal of this research project was to further explore the relationship between fasting and cardiovascular physiology. Hypothesis: The hypothesis of this research project was that a 24-hr fast would likely lead to increased BP and HR, along with blood biomarker changes, and that experiencing this 24-hr fast twice a week would lead to reduced BP and HR along with altered circulating blood biomarker levels. Methods: In order to test these hypotheses, cardiovascular and …


Direct Electrical Stimulation Of Prefrontal Cortex Modulates The Transient Heart Rate Response To Exercise In Conscious Humans, Bartek Kulas 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Direct Electrical Stimulation Of Prefrontal Cortex Modulates The Transient Heart Rate Response To Exercise In Conscious Humans, Bartek Kulas

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Prefrontal cortical regions play an essential role in generating appropriate cardiovascular adjustments, particularly in cardio-vagally mediated heart rate (HR) responses to active tasks. Functional imaging studies provide correlational evidence that this region coordinates HR responses to exercise, however, direct experimental evidence of prefrontal cortical HR regulation in humans is not available. Seven persons with epilepsy implanted with intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) completed 2-second isometric handgrip (IHG) contractions at no-stimulation (NO-STIM) or sham-stimulation (SHAM) conditions, and during direct electrical stimulation (STIM) of the orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex. HR responses to IHG during NO-STIM and SHAM increased HR by Δ4.9±2.7 bpm, compared …


Post-Activation Potentiation & Aging, Sohum Kulkarni 2021 Western University

Post-Activation Potentiation & Aging, Sohum Kulkarni

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

No abstract provided.


Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky 2021 Bronx Community College

Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The goal of this preparatory textbook is to give students a chance to become familiar with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later on in the Anatomy and Physiology course, especially during the first few weeks of the course.

Organization and functioning of the human organism are generally presented starting from the simplest building blocks, and then moving into levels of increasing complexity. This textbook follows the same presentation. It begins introducing the concept of homeostasis, then covers the chemical level, and later on a basic introduction to cellular level, organ level, and organ system level. This …


Cerebrovascular Compliance In Humans, Marcy Erin Moir 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Cerebrovascular Compliance In Humans, Marcy Erin Moir

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pulsatile blood flow consists of two components: steady flow and oscillatory flow. Steady blood flow is primarily regulated by vascular resistance while vascular compliance represents a key mediator of oscillatory blood flow. However, most studies investigating the regulation of cerebral blood flow in humans have focused on vascular resistance. Recently, emerging evidence has implicated vascular compliance as an important contributor to the regulation of cerebral perfusion. Therefore, the research contained herein aimed to i) quantify cerebrovascular compliance responses to blood pressure alterations and ii) explore mechanisms regulating cerebrovascular compliance in humans. The studies employed a Windkessel modelling approach to calculate …


Link Between Muscle And Whole-Body Energetic Responses To Exercise, Christopher M.T. Hayden 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Link Between Muscle And Whole-Body Energetic Responses To Exercise, Christopher M.T. Hayden

Masters Theses

Substantial evidence exists regarding how skeletal muscles use energy and how this affects muscular performance. What remains unclear is how characteristics of muscle energetics affect whole-body energetics during daily living, and what effects this may have on mobility. The goal of this study was to determine the associations between muscle and whole-body energetics including the relationships between: 1) muscle PCr depletion (∆PCr) in response to light intensity isotonic contractions and the oxygen deficit at the onset of a 30-min treadmill walk (30MTW), and, 2) muscle oxidative capacity and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC; 30MTW), respiratory exchange ratio (RER; 30MTW), and …


An Examination Of Fontan Circulation Using Differential Equation Models And Numerical Methods, Vanessa Maybruck 2021 Kutztown University of Pennsylvania

An Examination Of Fontan Circulation Using Differential Equation Models And Numerical Methods, Vanessa Maybruck

Honors Student Research

Certain congenital heart defects can lead to the development of only a single pumping chamber, or ventricle, in the heart instead of the usual two ventricles. Individuals with this defect undergo a corrective, three-part surgery, the third step of which is the Fontan procedure, but as the patients age, their cardiovascular health will likely deteriorate. Using computational fluid dynamics and differential equations, Fontan circulation can be modeled to investigate why the procedure fails and how Fontan failure can be maximally prevented. Borrowing from well-established literature on RC circuits, the differential equation models simulate systemic blood flow in a piecewise, switch-like …


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