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Affective Temperaments And Personality Traits In Couple Well-Being, Carmela Mento, Chiara La Barbiera, Maria Catena Silvestri, Maria Rosaria Anna Muscatello, Clemente Cedro, Antonio Bruno, Gianluca Pandolfo, Fiammetta Iannuzzo, Clara Lombardo 2024 University of Messina, Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, Messina, Italy

Affective Temperaments And Personality Traits In Couple Well-Being, Carmela Mento, Chiara La Barbiera, Maria Catena Silvestri, Maria Rosaria Anna Muscatello, Clemente Cedro, Antonio Bruno, Gianluca Pandolfo, Fiammetta Iannuzzo, Clara Lombardo

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Background. The objective of this study is to establish the link between affective temperament traits and maladaptive personality traits, to verify whether the potential presence of elements related to emotional, affective and dysfunctional relational functioning can affect the couple satisfaction, modifying the well-being or discomfort condition. Materials and Methods. A data collection questionnaire was developed to investigate the factors associated with dysfunctional emotional, affective, and relational modes of functioning. The sample consisted of 473 subjects. Data were collected including the TEMPS-A questionnaire, The Dirty Dozen Italian Assessment and the Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS). Results. The findings of this study showed …


Pathogenesis And Therapeutic Considerations For Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Elijah Chung 2024 Liberty University

Pathogenesis And Therapeutic Considerations For Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Elijah Chung

Senior Honors Theses

A product of the Westernized, high-fat diet, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as the leading cause of chronic liver disease, affecting one-fourth of the world's population. NAFLD is a progressive disease arising from a multisystem response to excess lipids in the blood, adipose tissue, and liver. Despite the prevalence of NAFLD and its well-studied bidirectional association with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity, there is a shocking scarcity of available treatments aside from diet and lifestyle changes. Thus, further research on NAFLD and potential therapies is urgently needed. This paper will illustrate the major pathways associated …


Effectiveness Of Probiotic Therapy On The Symptoms Of Major Depressive Disorder (Mdd), Lydia L.M. Sprague 2024 University of Maine

Effectiveness Of Probiotic Therapy On The Symptoms Of Major Depressive Disorder (Mdd), Lydia L.M. Sprague

Non-Thesis Student Work

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) represents a pervasive mental health challenge globally, necessitating effective treatment approaches. This paper examines the efficacy of probiotic therapy compared to placebo in individuals diagnosed with MDD, addressing the PICOT question: In people diagnosed with MDD, what effect does probiotic therapy versus placebo have on their symptoms of depression? Through a review of six randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the study elucidates the potential of probiotics as adjunctive treatments for MDD. Findings indicate that probiotic interventions may yield improvements in depression symptoms, reflecting promising avenues for complementary therapeutic strategies. However, variations in study designs and probiotic strains …


Activation Of Renal Epithelial Na+ Channels (Enac) In Infants With Congenital Heart Disease, Laura Ortmann, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Yulong Li, Hong Zheng, Kaushik K. Patel 2024 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Activation Of Renal Epithelial Na+ Channels (Enac) In Infants With Congenital Heart Disease, Laura Ortmann, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Yulong Li, Hong Zheng, Kaushik K. Patel

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to measure the concentration and activity of urinary proteases that activate renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) mediated Na

METHODS: Urine samples from infants undergoing cardiac surgery were collected at three time points: T1) pre-operatively, T2) 6-8 h after surgery, and T3) 24 h after diuretics. Urine was collected from five heathy infant controls. The urine was tested for four proteases and whole-cell patch-clamp testing was conducted in renal collecting duct M-1 cells to test whether patient urine increased Na

RESULTS: Heavy chain of plasminogen, furin, and prostasin were significantly higher in cardiac patients prior to …


Innate And Adaptive Immune System Consequences Of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Tatlock H. Lauten, Tamara Natour, Adam J. Case 2024 Texas A&M University

Innate And Adaptive Immune System Consequences Of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Tatlock H. Lauten, Tamara Natour, Adam J. Case

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

In the field of psychiatry, biological markers are rarely, if ever, used in the diagnosis of mental health disorders. Clinicians rely primarily on patient histories and behavioral symptoms to identify specific psychopathologies, which makes diagnosis highly subjective. Moreover, therapies for mental health disorders are aimed specifically at attenuating behavioral manifestations, which overlooks the pathophysiological indices of the disease. This is highly evident in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) where inflammation and immune system perturbations are becoming increasingly described. Further, patients with PTSD possess significantly elevated risks of developing comorbid inflammatory diseases such as autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases, which are likely linked …


Navigating Asynchronous Online Learning: The Impacts Of Active Learning And Assigned Group Work On Student Motivation, Belonging, And Inclusion, Shea Elisabeth Carr 2024 University of Kentucky

Navigating Asynchronous Online Learning: The Impacts Of Active Learning And Assigned Group Work On Student Motivation, Belonging, And Inclusion, Shea Elisabeth Carr

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Motivation, belonging, and inclusion are all critical factors for student success but can be difficult to support in asynchronous online courses. Active learning and required group work have been shown to increase student motivation in in-person and synchronous online courses, but little is known about their impact in online asynchronous settings. This dissertation aimed to 1) evaluate the effect of active learning on student motivation in an online asynchronous setting and 2) evaluate the impact of assigned group work on student motivation and perceptions of belonging and inclusion within the context of an online, asynchronous physiology laboratory course. It was …


Physiological Responses Of The American Lobster Cardiovascular System To Neuropeptide Sgrnflrfamide (Sgrn), Andre Eden 2024 Bowdoin College

Physiological Responses Of The American Lobster Cardiovascular System To Neuropeptide Sgrnflrfamide (Sgrn), Andre Eden

Honors Projects

During every second of a human’s life, the cardiovascular system is modulated by factors both intrinsic and extrinsic to the physiology of the heart. We can uncover new insights regarding the nature of our system through investigations of similar systems in other model species. One example materializes itself in the form of the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) whose single-chambered heart finds resemblance to the function and anatomy to that of humans. The lobster heart is powered by the cardiac ganglion (CG), a group of neurons that drive contractions of surrounding heart muscles, known as the myocardium. Both the …


The Effect Of Central Chemoreceptors On The Peripheral Respiratory Chemoreflex Response To Hypoxia In Humans, Nasimi A. Guluzade 2023 Western University

The Effect Of Central Chemoreceptors On The Peripheral Respiratory Chemoreflex Response To Hypoxia In Humans, Nasimi A. Guluzade

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

We measured the peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to hypoxia (PChS) at various isocapnic carbon dioxide tensions (PCO2) to determine the form of the relationship between PChS and central PCO2. Twenty participants completed three repetitions of modified rebreathing tests with end-tidal PO2 (PETO2) clamped at 150, 70, 60, and 45 mmHg. PChS was computed at 1-mmHg intervals of PETCO2 as follows: the differences in V̇E between the three hypoxic profiles and the hyperoxic profile (∆V̇E) were calculated; three ∆V̇E values were plotted against corresponding calculated oxyhemoglobin …


The Role Of E-Liquid Constituents In E-Cigarette-Induced Cardiac Arrhythmia And Autonomic Imbalance., Cory Kucera 2023 University of Louisville

The Role Of E-Liquid Constituents In E-Cigarette-Induced Cardiac Arrhythmia And Autonomic Imbalance., Cory Kucera

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Introduction. Accumulating evidence indicates that exposure to electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) promotes sympathetic dominance and electrophysiologic instability in the heart, potentially culminating in arrhythmogenesis. E-liquids contain various formulations of nicotine and flavorings, but the effects of specific e-liquid constituents and their concentrations on e-cig-induced autonomic imbalance and electrical dysfunction are unresolved. To that end, we tested the hypothesis that e-cigs modify cardiac autonomic balance and ventricular arrhythmogenesis in mice dependent on e-liquid constituent type and concentration. Methods. Using a crossover design and a serial exposure regimen, ECG-telemetered male C57BL/6J mice underwent whole-body exposure to e-cig aerosols generated from e-liquids containing different …


The Sympathetic Neural Control Of The Circulation At Rest And During Exercise: Effects Of Age, Biological Sex, And Sex Hormones, Andrew W. D'Souza 2023 Western University

The Sympathetic Neural Control Of The Circulation At Rest And During Exercise: Effects Of Age, Biological Sex, And Sex Hormones, Andrew W. D'Souza

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The overall objective of this dissertation was to determine the impact of age, sex, and sex hormones on the discharge behaviours of muscle sympathetic action potentials (APs) as well as the corresponding changes in peripheral vasoconstriction and blood pressure at rest and during exercise. The microneurographic technique was employed to record multi-unit muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), with a continuous wavelet transform applied post-hoc to evaluate APs within the recorded neurogram. Study One examined the impact of aging on the central and peripheral arcs of the sympathetic baroreflex under resting conditions. This study revealed that middle-aged-to-older adults demonstrated heightened sympathetic …


Effects Of Intertidal Position On The Response To Oxygen And Desiccation Stress In The Common Acorn Barnacle, Balanus Glandula, Megan M. Dotterweich 2023 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Effects Of Intertidal Position On The Response To Oxygen And Desiccation Stress In The Common Acorn Barnacle, Balanus Glandula, Megan M. Dotterweich

Master's Theses

Sessile invertebrates in the rocky intertidal experience intermittent periods of air exposure due to tidal flux, presenting risks of temperature extremes, hypoxia, nutrient limitation, and most dangerously, desiccation. Microscale variation in severity and frequency of these risks is widely dependent on vertical position within the intertidal zone. Common acorn barnacles (Balanus glandula) have a wide vertical distribution in the intertidal, creating large differences in microhabitat between the highest and lowest individuals in the population. This study set out to explore whether tidal position dependent differences exist in the response to oxygen and desiccation stress in B. glandula. …


Multichannel Modulation Of Depolarizing And Repolarizing Ion Currents Increases The Positive Rate-Dependent Action Potential Prolongation, Candido Cabo 2023 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Multichannel Modulation Of Depolarizing And Repolarizing Ion Currents Increases The Positive Rate-Dependent Action Potential Prolongation, Candido Cabo

Publications and Research

Prolongation of the action potential duration (APD) could prevent reentrant arrhythmias if prolongation occurs at the fast excitation rates of tachycardia with minimal prolongation at slow excitation rates (i.e., if prolongation is positive rate-dependent). APD prolongation by current anti-arrhythmic agents is either reverse (larger APD prolongation at slow rates than at fast rates) or neutral (similar APD prolongation at slow and fast rates), which may not result in an effective anti-arrhythmic action. In this report we show that, in computer models of the human ventricular action potential, the combined modulation of both depolarizing and repolarizing ion currents results in a …


Review Of Biomedical Applications Of Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering, Natalie M. Howard 2023 Murray State University

Review Of Biomedical Applications Of Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering, Natalie M. Howard

Honors College Theses

Tissue engineering can be defined as processes that aim to generate three-dimensional functional tissues in vitrothat have been favorably altered according to the structural, biochemical, electrophysiological, and biomechanical properties of the desired tissue before implantation into the human body. In relation to cardiac tissues, these properties would include the ability to conduct action potentials, withstand systolic pressure, permit sufficient O2 and CO2penetration, sufficient vascularization to supply nutrients for cellular activity, surface topology that enables cellular communication, and more. As heart diseases and instances of myocardial infarction continue to rise worldwide, there is an increasing need for …


Plantar Flexor Dynamic Contractile Rates Are Not Dependent On Calcaneal Tendon Stiffness, Sohum Kulkarni 2023 Western University

Plantar Flexor Dynamic Contractile Rates Are Not Dependent On Calcaneal Tendon Stiffness, Sohum Kulkarni

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The ability to rapidly generate muscular torque and velocity is important in specialized activities and daily tasks of living. Tendon stiffness is one factor in the neuromuscular system that influences musculoskeletal torque transmission. Previous studies have reported weak-to-moderate correlations between tendon stiffness and rate of torque development (RTD). However, these correlations have been reported only for isometric contractions which may not be relevant to contractions involving joint rotation (i.e., dynamic). The purpose was to investigate the effect of calcaneal tendon stiffness on the dynamic rates of torque (RTD) and velocity (RVD) development in plantar flexor muscles. Young adult males (n=13) …


Effects Of Equine Interaction On Mutual Autonomic Nervous System Responses And Interoception In A Learning Program For Older Adults, Ann L. Baldwin, Lisa Walters, Barbara K. Rector, Ann C. Alden 2023 University of Arizona

Effects Of Equine Interaction On Mutual Autonomic Nervous System Responses And Interoception In A Learning Program For Older Adults, Ann L. Baldwin, Lisa Walters, Barbara K. Rector, Ann C. Alden

People and Animals: The International Journal of Research and Practice

Equine-assisted learning (EAL) may improve the health of older adults, but scientific data are sparse. This study investigated whether people aged 55 and older show increased heart rate variability (HRV) during EAL and awareness of bodily sensations that are overall pleasant. Subjects (n = 24) participated in mindful grooming during which they slowed their breathing and brushed a horse while noticing sensations in their body and watching the horse’s reactions. The subject’s and horse’s HRV were recorded simultaneously before, during, and after mindful grooming. For control, the same subjects performed mindful grooming with a plush simulation horse. During exit …


Endothelial Cell Nrf2-Ko Attenuates Endothelial Function And Skeletal Muscle Antioxidant Capacity, Elizabeth J. Pekas, Cody P. Anderson, Michael F. Allen, Kollyn B. Jallen, Dong gun Jin, Andres Benitez-Albiter, Christian D. Sanchez Tato, Lie Gao, Neha Dhyani, Tara L. Rudebush, Irving H. Zucker, Song-Young Park 2023 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Endothelial Cell Nrf2-Ko Attenuates Endothelial Function And Skeletal Muscle Antioxidant Capacity, Elizabeth J. Pekas, Cody P. Anderson, Michael F. Allen, Kollyn B. Jallen, Dong Gun Jin, Andres Benitez-Albiter, Christian D. Sanchez Tato, Lie Gao, Neha Dhyani, Tara L. Rudebush, Irving H. Zucker, Song-Young Park

UNO Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

INTRODUCTION: Endothelial cells line the inner surface of blood vessels and play a major role in modulating blood flow and gas exchange. Endothelial dysfunction is thought to be a contributor to cardiovascular disease development, and it is well-accepted that excessive reactive oxygen species (harmful molecules) likely contribute to endothelial dysfunction. The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is considered the master regulator of cellular protection in response to elevated reactive oxygen species. Therefore, Nrf2 may be a potential therapeutic target to protect against endothelial dysfunction. However, the roles of endothelial cell-specific Nrf2 on endothelial function are not …


Restoration Of Normal Blood Flow In Atherosclerotic Arteries Promotes Plaque Stabilization, Morgan A. Schake, Ian S. McCue, Evan T. Curtis, Thomas J. Ripperda, Samuel Harvey, Bryan T. Hackfort, Anna Fitzwater, Yiannis S. Chatzizisis, Forrest M. Kievit, Ryan M. Pedrigi 2023 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Restoration Of Normal Blood Flow In Atherosclerotic Arteries Promotes Plaque Stabilization, Morgan A. Schake, Ian S. Mccue, Evan T. Curtis, Thomas J. Ripperda, Samuel Harvey, Bryan T. Hackfort, Anna Fitzwater, Yiannis S. Chatzizisis, Forrest M. Kievit, Ryan M. Pedrigi

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Blood flow is a key regulator of atherosclerosis. Disturbed blood flow promotes atherosclerotic plaque development, whereas normal blood flow protects against plaque development. We hypothesized that normal blood flow is also therapeutic, if it were able to be restored within atherosclerotic arteries. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice were initially instrumented with a blood flow-modifying cuff to induce plaque development and then five weeks later the cuff was removed to allow restoration of normal blood flow. Plaques in decuffed mice exhibited compositional changes that indicated increased stability compared to plaques in mice with the cuff maintained. The therapeutic benefit of …


Repeated Social Defeat Stress Leads To Immunometabolic Shifts In Innate Immune Cells Of The Spleen, Mandakh Bekhbat, John Drake, Emily C. Reed, Tatlock H. Lauten, Tamara Natour, Vladimir I. Vladimirov, Adam J. Case 2023 Emory University

Repeated Social Defeat Stress Leads To Immunometabolic Shifts In Innate Immune Cells Of The Spleen, Mandakh Bekhbat, John Drake, Emily C. Reed, Tatlock H. Lauten, Tamara Natour, Vladimir I. Vladimirov, Adam J. Case

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Psychosocial stress has been shown to prime peripheral innate immune cells, which take on hyper-inflammatory phenotypes and are implicated in depressive-like behavior in mouse models. However, the impact of stress on cellular metabolic states that are thought to fuel inflammatory phenotypes in immune cells are unknown. Using single cell RNA-sequencing, we investigated mRNA enrichment of immunometabolic pathways in innate immune cells of the spleen in mice subjected to repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) or no stress (NS). RSDS mice displayed a significant increase in the number of splenic macrophages and granulocytes (p < 0.05) compared to NS littermates. RSDS-upregulated genes in macrophages, monocytes, and granulocytes significantly enriched immunometabolic pathways thought to play a role in myeloid-driven inflammation (glycolysis, HIF-1 signaling, MTORC1 signaling) as well as pathways related to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and oxidative stress (p < 0.05 and FDR<0.1). These results suggest that the metabolic enhancement reflected by upregulation of glycolytic and OXPHOS pathways may be important for cellular proliferation of splenic macrophages and granulocytes following repeated stress exposure. A better understanding of these intracellular metabolic mechanisms may ultimately help develop novel strategies to reverse the impact of stress and associated peripheral immune changes on the brain and behavior.


Defining The Nuanced Nature Of Redox Biology In Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Emily C. Reed, Adam J. Case 2023 Texas A&M University

Defining The Nuanced Nature Of Redox Biology In Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Emily C. Reed, Adam J. Case

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health disorder that arises after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event. Despite affecting around 7% of the population, there are currently no definitive biological signatures or biomarkers used in the diagnosis of PTSD. Thus, the search for clinically relevant and reproducible biomarkers has been a major focus of the field. With significant advances of large-scale multi-omic studies that include genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data, promising findings have been made, but the field still has fallen short. Amongst the possible biomarkers examined, one area is often overlooked, understudied, or inappropriately investigated: the field of …


Enhanced Central Sympathetic Tone Induces Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction (Hfpef) In Rats, Shyam S. Nandi, Kenichi Katsurada, Michael J. Moulton, Hong Zheng, Kaushik K. Patel 2023 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Enhanced Central Sympathetic Tone Induces Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction (Hfpef) In Rats, Shyam S. Nandi, Kenichi Katsurada, Michael J. Moulton, Hong Zheng, Kaushik K. Patel

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a heterogenous clinical syndrome characterized by diastolic dysfunction, concentric cardiac left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, and myocardial fibrosis with preserved systolic function. However, the underlying mechanisms of HFpEF are not clear. We hypothesize that an enhanced central sympathetic drive is sufficient to induce LV dysfunction and HFpEF in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to central infusion of either saline controls (saline) or angiotensin II (Ang II, 20 ng/min, i.c.v) via osmotic mini-pumps for 14 days to elicit enhanced sympathetic drive. Echocardiography and invasive cardiac catheterization were used to measure systolic and diastolic …


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