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Mechanisms Of Synthetic Cannabinoids On Cardiovascular Health, Madeleine A. Nelson 2021 University of South Dakota

Mechanisms Of Synthetic Cannabinoids On Cardiovascular Health, Madeleine A. Nelson

Honors Thesis

Cannabinoids encompass natural cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids. While the synthetic cannabinoids interact with the same endogenous system as cannabis, their effects are quite different and poorly understood. In addition to psychological effects that trigger their use, these substances are linked to cardiovascular morbidity. To assess the cardiovascular effect of synthetic cannabinoids, we first tested the hypothesis that intravenous administration of a synthetic cannabinoid would increase blood pressure in conscious rats. Second, we tested the hypothesis that the sympathetic nervous system is involved by injecting a ganglion blocker to see if the cardiovascular response from synthetic cannabinoids would be blocked. Third ...


Euler, Father Of Haemodynamics, Sylvio R. Bistafa 2021 University of Sao Paulo

Euler, Father Of Haemodynamics, Sylvio R. Bistafa

Euleriana

This article is being published in conjunction with the translation and synopsis of E855. Principia pro motu sanguinis per arterias determinando of 1775 - view the translation and synopsis by clicking here.


Data From: Recovery From Discrete Wound Severities In Side-Blotched Lizards (Uta Stansburiana): Implications For Energy Budget, Locomotor Performance, And Oxidative Stress, Susannah S. French, Spencer B. Hudson 2021 Utah State University

Data From: Recovery From Discrete Wound Severities In Side-Blotched Lizards (Uta Stansburiana): Implications For Energy Budget, Locomotor Performance, And Oxidative Stress, Susannah S. French, Spencer B. Hudson

Browse all Datasets

Wounding events (predation attempts, competitive combat) result in injuries and/or infections that induce integrated immune responses for the recovery process. Despite the survival benefits of immunity in this context, the costs incurred may require investment to be diverted from traits contributing to immediate and/or future survival, such as locomotor performance and oxidative status. Yet, whether trait constraints manifest likely depends on wound severity and the implications for energy budget. For this study, food intake, body mass, sprint speed, and oxidative indices (reactive oxygen metabolites, antioxidant capacity) were monitored in male side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) healing from cutaneous wounds ...


Quantifying The Regulatory Role Of Individual Transcription Factors In Escherichia Coli [Preprint], Sunil Guharajan, Shivani Chhabra, Vinuselvi Parisutham, Robert C. Brewster 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Quantifying The Regulatory Role Of Individual Transcription Factors In Escherichia Coli [Preprint], Sunil Guharajan, Shivani Chhabra, Vinuselvi Parisutham, Robert C. Brewster

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Transcription factors (TFs) modulate gene expression by binding to regulatory DNA sequences surrounding target genes. To isolate the fundamental regulatory interactions of E. coli TFs, we measure regulation of TFs acting on synthetic target genes that are designed to isolate the individual TF regulatory effect. This data is interpreted through a thermodynamic model that decouples the role of TF copy number and TF binding affinity from the interactions of the TF on RNA polymerase through two distinct mechanisms: (de)stabilization of the polymerase and (de)acceleration of transcription initiation. We find the contribution of each mechanism towards the observed regulation ...


Power Amplification Strategies Across Animals, Rayhan Asif 2021 The University of Akron

Power Amplification Strategies Across Animals, Rayhan Asif

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Animals use muscles for movement, but some have evolved mechanisms to exceed maximum power used in a motion known as power amplification. In this literature review, I analyzed and compared the evolution of structures capable of power amplification between species. Structures capable of power amplification were broken down into the basic components of the engine, amplifier, and tool. The species analyzed were found to possess necessary structures for power amplification which were relatively similar to each other in morphology, but varied greatly in function. The ease with which these structures evolved was evaluated based on the amount of divergence which ...


Analyzing Exercise And Subsequent Health Discrepancies Among Those Of Lower Socioeconomic Status In Los Angeles, Nathan Wetmore 2021 Iowa State University

Analyzing Exercise And Subsequent Health Discrepancies Among Those Of Lower Socioeconomic Status In Los Angeles, Nathan Wetmore

Creative Components

Humans living today are stone age hunter-gatherers displaced through time. An adaption of sedentary activities has contributed to the decline in energy expenditure. In the past century, it has been well documented that regular physical activity has a positive effect on skeletal muscle, pulmonary function, the heart and vascular system, and the circulatory system. With 28% of the U.S population considered by the American College of Sports Medicine to be physically inactive- 61% of adults considered to be of low socioeconomic status (SES) are physically inactive. Using a person’s social and economic status to define socioeconomic status, this ...


Wormpaths: Caenorhabditis Elegans Metabolic Pathway Annotation And Visualization [Preprint], Melissa D. Walker, Gabrielle E. Giese, Amy D. Holdorf, Sushila Bhattacharya, Cedric Diot, Aurian Garcia-Gonzalez, Brent Horowitz, Yong-Uk Lee, Thomas Leland, Xuhang Li, Zeynep Mirza, Huimin Na, Shivani Nanda, Olga Ponomarova, Hefei Zhang, Jingyan Zhang, L. Safak Yilmaz, Albertha J. M. Walhout 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Wormpaths: Caenorhabditis Elegans Metabolic Pathway Annotation And Visualization [Preprint], Melissa D. Walker, Gabrielle E. Giese, Amy D. Holdorf, Sushila Bhattacharya, Cedric Diot, Aurian Garcia-Gonzalez, Brent Horowitz, Yong-Uk Lee, Thomas Leland, Xuhang Li, Zeynep Mirza, Huimin Na, Shivani Nanda, Olga Ponomarova, Hefei Zhang, Jingyan Zhang, L. Safak Yilmaz, Albertha J. M. Walhout

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

In our group, we aim to understand metabolism in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and its relationships with gene expression, physiology and the response to therapeutic drugs. On March 15, 2020, a stay-at-home order was put into effect in the state of Massachusetts, USA, to flatten the curve of the spread of the novel SARS-CoV2 virus that causes COVID-19. For biomedical researchers in our state, this meant putting a hold on experiments for nine weeks until May 18, 2020. To keep the lab engaged and productive, and to enhance communication and collaboration, we embarked on an in-lab project that we all ...


Efficacy Of Pulmonary Ultrasound Compared To N-Terminal Prohormone Brain Natriuretic Peptide As A Diagnostic Tool For Congestive Heart Failure In Patients Presenting With Acute Dyspnea In The Emergency Setting, Leah Krohn, Michael Burns 2020 James Madison University

Efficacy Of Pulmonary Ultrasound Compared To N-Terminal Prohormone Brain Natriuretic Peptide As A Diagnostic Tool For Congestive Heart Failure In Patients Presenting With Acute Dyspnea In The Emergency Setting, Leah Krohn, Michael Burns

Physician Assistant Capstones, 2020-current

Objective: To determine the efficacy of using pulmonary ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in acute dyspnea of undetermined cause compared to the use of serum N-Terminal prohormone Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) in the diagnosis of heart failure.

Design: Systematic literature review

Methods: Searches were conducted in PubMed and Scopus using the terms pulmonary ultrasound and congestive heart failure and studies within the last 10 years. Studies that used pulmonary ultrasound compared to BNP as a marker for the diagnosis of heart failure were included.

Results: All three studies found that the use of pulmonary ultrasound was a more specific diagnostic ...


Evolved Bacterial Resistance Against Fluoropyrimidines Can Lower Chemotherapy Impact In The Caenorhabditis Elegans Host, Brittany Rosener, Serkan Sayin, Peter O. Oluoch, Aurian Garcia-Gonzalez, Hirotada Mori, Albertha J. M. Walhout, Amir Mitchell 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Evolved Bacterial Resistance Against Fluoropyrimidines Can Lower Chemotherapy Impact In The Caenorhabditis Elegans Host, Brittany Rosener, Serkan Sayin, Peter O. Oluoch, Aurian Garcia-Gonzalez, Hirotada Mori, Albertha J. M. Walhout, Amir Mitchell

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Metabolism of host-targeted drugs by the microbiome can substantially impact host treatment success. However, since many host-targeted drugs inadvertently hamper microbiome growth, repeated drug administration can lead to microbiome evolutionary adaptation. We tested if evolved bacterial resistance against host-targeted drugs alters their drug metabolism and impacts host treatment success. We used a model system of Caenorhabditis elegans, its bacterial diet, and two fluoropyrimidine chemotherapies. Genetic screens revealed that most of loss-of-function resistance mutations in Escherichia coli also reduced drug toxicity in the host. We found that resistance rapidly emerged in E. coli under natural selection and converged to a handful ...


Neutrophil Signaling During Myocardial Infarction Wound Repair, Michael J. Daseke, Upendra Chalise, Mediha Becirovic-Agic, Jeffrey D. Salomon, Leah M. Cook, Adam J. Case, Merry L. Lindsey 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Neutrophil Signaling During Myocardial Infarction Wound Repair, Michael J. Daseke, Upendra Chalise, Mediha Becirovic-Agic, Jeffrey D. Salomon, Leah M. Cook, Adam J. Case, Merry L. Lindsey

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Neutrophils are key effector cells of the innate immune system, serving as a first line of defense in the response to injury and playing essential roles in the wound healing process. Following myocardial infarction (MI), neutrophils infiltrate into the infarct region to propagate inflammation and begin the initial phase of cardiac wound repair. Pro-inflammatory neutrophils release proteases to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM), a necessary step for the removal of necrotic myocytes as a prelude for scar formation. Neutrophils transition their phenotype over time to regulate MI inflammation resolution and stabilize scar formation. Neutrophils contribute to the evolution from inflammation to ...


A Brain-Infecting Parasite Impacts Host Metabolism Both During Exposure And After Infection Is Established, Lauren E. Nadler, Erik Bengston, Erika J. Eliason, Cameron Hassibi, Siri H. Helland-Riise, Ida B. Johansen, Garfield T. Kwan, Martin Tresguerres, Andrew V. Turner, Kelly L. Weinersmith, Øyvind Øverli, Ryan F. Hechinger 2020 Nova Southeastern University

A Brain-Infecting Parasite Impacts Host Metabolism Both During Exposure And After Infection Is Established, Lauren E. Nadler, Erik Bengston, Erika J. Eliason, Cameron Hassibi, Siri H. Helland-Riise, Ida B. Johansen, Garfield T. Kwan, Martin Tresguerres, Andrew V. Turner, Kelly L. Weinersmith, Øyvind Øverli, Ryan F. Hechinger

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Datasets

  1. Metabolic costs associated with parasites should not be limited to established infections. Even during initial exposure to questing and attacking parasites, hosts can enact behavioural and physiological responses that could also incur metabolic costs. However, few studies have measured these costs directly. Hence, little is known about metabolic costs arising from parasite exposure.
  2. Further, no one has yet measured whether and how previous infection history modulates metabolic responses to parasite exposure.
  3. Here, using the California killifish (Fundulus parvipinnis) and its brain-infecting parasite (Euhaplorchis californiensis), we quantified how killifish metabolism, behaviour, and osmoregulatory phenotype changed upon acute exposure to parasite infectious ...


Expression And Localization Of The 14-3-3 (Ywha) Protein Family Within Mammals, Neha Kumrah, Santanu De 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Expression And Localization Of The 14-3-3 (Ywha) Protein Family Within Mammals, Neha Kumrah, Santanu De

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

The 14-3-3 (YWHA) are a family of homologous, acidic, and highly conserved proteins expressed abundantly and ubiquitously in a wide array of organisms ranging from plants to animals, including humans, which regulate important cellular events. Within mammals, seven isoforms of 14-3-3 exist: β, γ, ε, ζ, η, τ, and σ (stratifin), each of which is encoded by a unique gene. Studies have shown similar expression patterns among mammalian species. The 14-3-3 proteins are commonly expressed and have proven to play critical roles in proper cellular localization, function, and homeostatic regulation. Numerous researchers have investigated the expression and localization patterns of ...


Natural Variation In A Glucuronosyltransferase Modulates Propionate Sensitivity In A C. Elegans Propionic Acidemia Model, Huimin Na, Stefan Zdraljevic, Robyn E. Tanny, Albertha J. M. Walhout, Erik C. Andersen 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Natural Variation In A Glucuronosyltransferase Modulates Propionate Sensitivity In A C. Elegans Propionic Acidemia Model, Huimin Na, Stefan Zdraljevic, Robyn E. Tanny, Albertha J. M. Walhout, Erik C. Andersen

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Mutations in human metabolic genes can lead to rare diseases known as inborn errors of human metabolism. For instance, patients with loss-of-function mutations in either subunit of propionyl-CoA carboxylase suffer from propionic acidemia because they cannot catabolize propionate, leading to its harmful accumulation. Both the penetrance and expressivity of metabolic disorders can be modulated by genetic background. However, modifiers of these diseases are difficult to identify because of the lack of statistical power for rare diseases in human genetics. Here, we use a model of propionic acidemia in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to identify genetic modifiers of propionate sensitivity. Using ...


Metabolomic Profiling Reveals Distinct And Mutual Effects Of Diet And Inflammation In Shaping Systemic Metabolism In Ldlr(-/-) Mice, Mario A. Lauterbach, Eicke Latz, Anette Christ 2020 University of Bonn

Metabolomic Profiling Reveals Distinct And Mutual Effects Of Diet And Inflammation In Shaping Systemic Metabolism In Ldlr(-/-) Mice, Mario A. Lauterbach, Eicke Latz, Anette Christ

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Changes in modern dietary habits such as consumption of Western-type diets affect physiology on several levels, including metabolism and inflammation. It is currently unclear whether changes in systemic metabolism due to dietary interventions are long-lasting and affect acute inflammatory processes. Here, we investigated how high-fat diet (HFD) feeding altered systemic metabolism and the metabolomic response to inflammatory stimuli. We conducted metabolomic profiling of sera collected from Ldlr(-/-) mice on either regular chow diet (CD) or HFD, and after an additional low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. HFD feeding, as well as LPS treatment, elicited pronounced metabolic changes. HFD qualitatively altered the systemic ...


The Role Of Spine In Causing Lameness In Horses, Raja Zabeeh Ullah Khan 2020 Syracuse University

The Role Of Spine In Causing Lameness In Horses, Raja Zabeeh Ullah Khan

English Language Institute

Lameness is one of the most important problems of horses. It influences all communities who keep horses. Recent studies have shown the significance of spinal muscles and vertebrae in inducing lameness in horses. The field has not been explored much and requires application of biomechanics to define the role of spine in inducing lameness in horses. This presentation highlights the importance of spine in inducing lameness in horses by relating the solution with biomechanics.


The Role Of Central Ace2 And Nrf2 In Sympatho-Excitation: Responses To Central Angiotensin Ii, Anyun Ma 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

The Role Of Central Ace2 And Nrf2 In Sympatho-Excitation: Responses To Central Angiotensin Ii, Anyun Ma

Theses & Dissertations

Sympatho-excitation is a key characteristic in cardiovascular diseases such as chronic heart failure (CHF) and primary Hypertension (HTN). Evidence suggests that increased sympathetic tone is closely related to activation of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system (RAAS) in the central nervous system. An underlying mechanism for sympatho-excitation is thought to be oxidative stress resulting from Angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT1R) activation. Over the past several decades, pharmacological targeting of components of the RAAS have been used as standard therapy in CHF and HTN. However, additional therapeutic strategies are necessary to control these diseases. Oxidative stress is regulated, in part, by the ...


Relation Of Flt-1 And Endothelial Function In Women Soon After Delivery: Effect Of Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior, Chloe W. Caudell 2020 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Relation Of Flt-1 And Endothelial Function In Women Soon After Delivery: Effect Of Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior, Chloe W. Caudell

Senior Theses

Adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) are believed to be caused by poor placental formation. APOs can be characterized by elevated levels of a circulating Fms-like tyrosine kinase biomarker called Flt-1, produced by the placenta when its blood vessels are shallow or inadequately formed. Flt-1 acts directly on the maternal endothelium to impair vascular function during pregnancy and contributes to maternal features of APOs. This study aimed to evaluate the relation of Flt-1 and endothelial function in women soon after delivery. This study also aimed to evaluate the relation of Flt-1 and physical activity and sedentary behavior in women during and soon ...


Mitochondrial Targeted Antioxidant Intake Improves Vascular Function And Exercise Tolerance In Peripheral Artery Disease Patients, Liz Pekas, Won-Mok Son, Ronald J. Headid III, TeSean Wooden, Song-Young park 2020 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Mitochondrial Targeted Antioxidant Intake Improves Vascular Function And Exercise Tolerance In Peripheral Artery Disease Patients, Liz Pekas, Won-Mok Son, Ronald J. Headid Iii, Tesean Wooden, Song-Young Park

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a manifestation of atherosclerosis in the leg arteries, which causes reduced blood flow and leg pain. This may be in part due to excessive mitochondria-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and attenuated mitochondrial respiratory function. Mitoquinol mesylate, a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant, has been shown to scavenge ROS and improve vascular function in older adults and animal models. However, the impacts of mitoquinol on vascular function in PAD patients are unknown. We sought to examine the impacts of mitoquinol intake (80mg) on endothelial function (flow mediated dilation, FMD), resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure (BP), arterial stiffness (pulse ...


Impacts Of Mitoquinol Mesylate Intake On Vascular Function And Cognitive Impairment In Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Case Study, Lindie Strickler 2020 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Impacts Of Mitoquinol Mesylate Intake On Vascular Function And Cognitive Impairment In Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Case Study, Lindie Strickler

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a decline in cognitive function to a greater extent than natural aging. It has been suggested that reduced brain blood flow is strongly associated with reduced cognitive function and neurodegenerative diseases, of which is partially attributed to excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Mitoquinol mesylate has been shown to scavenge ROS and improve vascular function in healthy older adults. However, the effects of mitoquinol in MCI patients have not been investigated.

Purpose: to elucidate the impacts of mitoquinol intake on vascular endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation, FMD), arterial stiffness (pulse-wave velocity, PWV), and cognitive function in ...


Developing A Writing-Intensive Course In Animal Physiology, Tomasz Owerkowicz 2020 California State University, San Bernardino

Developing A Writing-Intensive Course In Animal Physiology, Tomasz Owerkowicz

Q2S Enhancing Pedagogy

The project details how Comparative Animal Physiology, a two-semester upper division biology elective, is transformed to meet writing-intensive discipline-appropriate criteria. Targeted and scaffolded assignments allow students to write about physiology in a variety of styles, and to help revise each other’s work to better understand the iterative process of writing. Assignments are aligned with WI student learning outcomes, to promote critical, reflective and effective communication skills.


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