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Comparative and Evolutionary Physiology Commons

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Ecophysiological Responses Of Two Closely Related Epigean And Hypogean Niphargus Species To Hypoxia And Increased Temperature: Do They Differ?, Tatjana Simčič, Boris Sket 2021 National Institute of Biology, Slovenia

Ecophysiological Responses Of Two Closely Related Epigean And Hypogean Niphargus Species To Hypoxia And Increased Temperature: Do They Differ?, Tatjana Simčič, Boris Sket

International Journal of Speleology

Ecological performance of animals depends on physiological and biochemical processes that are adjusted to the environment. The responses to hypoxia or anoxia have been frequently studied in subterranean aquatic organisms in order to find potential adaptations to restrict oxygen conditions occurring in the underground habitats. However, some previous studies have compared phylogenetic distant epigean and hypogean species or the epigean and hypogean populations of the same species due to little chance to compare closely related epigean and hypogean species. Therefore, in this study, we compared the effects of exposure to hypoxia, followed by reoxygenation, and increased temperature on oxygen consumption ...


Patterns And Mechanisms Of Intraspecific Trait Variation Across Thermal Gradients In A Marine Gastropod, Andrew R. Villeneuve 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Patterns And Mechanisms Of Intraspecific Trait Variation Across Thermal Gradients In A Marine Gastropod, Andrew R. Villeneuve

Masters Theses

As the earth’s climate changes due to anthropogenic emissions, it has increasingly become an imperative within the ecological community to understand existing species adaptations to climate change. Much focus has been paid to how a species might react to climate change, but the role of locally adapted traits and responsible environmental mechanisms have received less attention. Quantifying how sublethal (e.g. growth rates) and lethal (e.g. thermal tolerance) trait performance vary between populations can thus improve our understanding of how populations, and the entire species, will react to climate change. Here, I quantified the spatial patterns of performance ...


Recovery From Discrete Wound Severities In Side-Blotched Lizards (Uta Stansburiana): Implications For Energy Budget, Locomotor Performance, And Oxidative Stress, Susannah S. French, Spencer B. Hudson 2021 Utah State University

Recovery From Discrete Wound Severities In Side-Blotched Lizards (Uta Stansburiana): Implications For Energy Budget, Locomotor Performance, And Oxidative Stress, Susannah S. French, Spencer B. Hudson

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Wounding events (predation attempts, competitive combat) result in injuries and/or infections that induce integrated immune responses for the recovery process. Despite the survival benefits of immunity in this context, the costs incurred may require investment to be diverted from traits contributing to immediate and/or future survival, such as locomotor performance and oxidative status. Yet, whether trait constraints manifest likely depends on wound severity and the implications for energy budget. For this study, food intake, body mass, sprint speed, and oxidative indices (reactive oxygen metabolites, antioxidant capacity) were monitored in male side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) healing from cutaneous wounds ...


Power Amplification Strategies Across Animals, Rayhan Asif 2021 The University of Akron

Power Amplification Strategies Across Animals, Rayhan Asif

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Animals use muscles for movement, but some have evolved mechanisms to exceed maximum power used in a motion known as power amplification. In this literature review, I analyzed and compared the evolution of structures capable of power amplification between species. Structures capable of power amplification were broken down into the basic components of the engine, amplifier, and tool. The species analyzed were found to possess necessary structures for power amplification which were relatively similar to each other in morphology, but varied greatly in function. The ease with which these structures evolved was evaluated based on the amount of divergence which ...


Expression And Localization Of The 14-3-3 (Ywha) Protein Family Within Mammals, Neha Kumrah, Santanu De 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Expression And Localization Of The 14-3-3 (Ywha) Protein Family Within Mammals, Neha Kumrah, Santanu De

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

The 14-3-3 (YWHA) are a family of homologous, acidic, and highly conserved proteins expressed abundantly and ubiquitously in a wide array of organisms ranging from plants to animals, including humans, which regulate important cellular events. Within mammals, seven isoforms of 14-3-3 exist: β, γ, ε, ζ, η, τ, and σ (stratifin), each of which is encoded by a unique gene. Studies have shown similar expression patterns among mammalian species. The 14-3-3 proteins are commonly expressed and have proven to play critical roles in proper cellular localization, function, and homeostatic regulation. Numerous researchers have investigated the expression and localization patterns of ...


Early Life Lessons: The Lasting Effects Of Germline Epigenetic Information On Organismal Development, Carolina Galan, Marina Krykbaeva, Oliver J. Rando 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Early Life Lessons: The Lasting Effects Of Germline Epigenetic Information On Organismal Development, Carolina Galan, Marina Krykbaeva, Oliver J. Rando

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND: An organism's metabolic phenotype is primarily affected by its genotype, its lifestyle, and the nutritional composition of its food supply. In addition, it is now clear from studies in many different species that ancestral environments can also modulate metabolism in at least one to two generations of offspring.

SCOPE OF REVIEW: We limit ourselves here to paternal effects in mammals, primarily focusing on studies performed in inbred rodent models. Although hundreds of studies link paternal diets and offspring metabolism, the mechanistic basis by which epigenetic information in sperm programs nutrient handling in the next generation remains mysterious. Our ...


Beaver And Naked Mole Rat Genomes Reveal Common Paths To Longevity, Xuming Zhou, Elinor K. Karlsson, Vadim N. Gladyshev 2020 Harvard Medical School

Beaver And Naked Mole Rat Genomes Reveal Common Paths To Longevity, Xuming Zhou, Elinor K. Karlsson, Vadim N. Gladyshev

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Long-lived rodents have become an attractive model for the studies on aging. To understand evolutionary paths to long life, we prepare chromosome-level genome assemblies of the two longest-lived rodents, Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and naked mole rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber), which were scaffolded with in vitro proximity ligation and chromosome conformation capture data and complemented with long-read sequencing. Our comparative genomic analyses reveal that amino acid substitutions at "disease-causing" sites are widespread in the rodent genomes and that identical substitutions in long-lived rodents are associated with common adaptive phenotypes, e.g., enhanced resistance to DNA damage and cellular stress. By ...


Physiology Of A Basal Vertebrate, The Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus): Osmoregulation And Corticosteroid Action, Ciaran A. S. Shaughnessy 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Physiology Of A Basal Vertebrate, The Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus): Osmoregulation And Corticosteroid Action, Ciaran A. S. Shaughnessy

Doctoral Dissertations

Lamprey represent the most basal living example of a vertebrate animal which regulates its internal fluid and ion homeostasis. This phylogenetic position among vertebrates makes lamprey an important model organism for understanding the basal state, and thus the evolution, of physiological systems such as the mechanisms of osmo- and ionoregulation and the endocrine factors controlling them. Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) are an anadromous fish, migrating from freshwater (FW) to seawater (SW) as juveniles, then returning back upstream as mature adults to spawn. Surviving this transition from a solute-poor FW environment to a solute-concentrated SW environment requires many changes to osmo- ...


Developing A Writing-Intensive Course In Animal Physiology, Tomasz Owerkowicz 2020 California State University, San Bernardino

Developing A Writing-Intensive Course In Animal Physiology, Tomasz Owerkowicz

Q2S Enhancing Pedagogy

The project details how Comparative Animal Physiology, a two-semester upper division biology elective, is transformed to meet writing-intensive discipline-appropriate criteria. Targeted and scaffolded assignments allow students to write about physiology in a variety of styles, and to help revise each other’s work to better understand the iterative process of writing. Assignments are aligned with WI student learning outcomes, to promote critical, reflective and effective communication skills.


The Metabolic Ecology Of Tropical Amphibians Across An Elevational Gradient In The Andes Of Southeastern Peru, Michael R. Britton 2020 Florida International University

The Metabolic Ecology Of Tropical Amphibians Across An Elevational Gradient In The Andes Of Southeastern Peru, Michael R. Britton

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Metabolism is a fundamental biological process that determines the rate at which organisms process energy and materials, and determines the availability of resources for growth, maintenance and reproduction. Metabolic rates scale across levels of organization from cells to whole organisms and affect population, community, and ecosystem processes. Anthropogenic climate change and other environmental changes are predicted to have major impacts on the energetics of organisms that will be mediated through metabolic physiology. Tropical ectotherms, such as amphibians, may be among the most vulnerable to metabolic impacts of climate change as a result of being ectothermic, having high thermal sensitivity, and ...


The Cardiovascular Response To Acute Hypoxic Conditions In Danio Rerio, Bryce Fetterman 2020 The University of Akron

The Cardiovascular Response To Acute Hypoxic Conditions In Danio Rerio, Bryce Fetterman

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

There are many fish that can withstand hypoxia levels. One in particular is the zebrafish (Danio rerio). The zebrafish is a small-sized, Cyprinid teleost fish, and has been used in a laboratory setting for many reasons. A few reasons being that they are widely available, easy to care for, and the cost for these fish are very low. There are various reasons why these fish are used as a model. One main reason is because their cardiovascular system is one of the first developing organs. This allows for better resolution when studying the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study ...


The Role Of Melatonin In Biological Rhythms Of Songbirds, Clifford E. Harpole 2020 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Melatonin In Biological Rhythms Of Songbirds, Clifford E. Harpole

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

In vertebrates, melatonin is a hormone that is produced and secreted at night and inhibited by light. This unique “darkness-only” expression profile makes it an intellectually appealing candidate for a means of transmitting temporal information to an individual, both time of day and time of year.

In passerine birds, “time of day” information is certainly transmitted via melatonin secretion. The primary producer of systemic melatonin in this family of birds is the pineal gland, and surgical removal of it causes a bird to become arrhythmic in constant conditions. I find that as pinealectomized house sparrows (Passer domesticus) become behaviorally arrhythmic ...


The Evolution Of Dragons, Laura J. Mayfield 2020 University of Montana, Missoula

The Evolution Of Dragons, Laura J. Mayfield

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

Dragons have been depicted in human art as early as 4500 BCE. For centuries, these fantasy creatures have inspired countless folk and fantasy tales, as well as appearing in the art of different cultures around the world. Now there are thousands of different depictions of these huge, flying, fire-breathing lizards, but are any of them possible? In this study, I reference peer-reviewed scientific articles, phylogenetic analysis, and paleoart studies to create biologically-sound dragons. Basing the dragon lineage on a real branch of webbed-winged scansoriopterygids—an extinct family of climbing and gliding maniraptoran dinosaurs—I explored the possible wing-structure, fire-breathing abilities ...


Plasticity And The Impact Of Increasing Temperature On A Tropical Ectotherm, Adam A. Rosso 2020 Georgia Southern University

Plasticity And The Impact Of Increasing Temperature On A Tropical Ectotherm, Adam A. Rosso

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Organisms may respond to climate change through behavior, genetic adaptation, and/or phenotypic plasticity. Tropical ectotherms are thought to be especially vulnerable to climate change because most have a narrow range of thermal tolerance while living close to their upper thermal tolerance limits. Additionally, many tropical species live in closed-canopy forests, which provide homogenous thermal landscapes that prevent behavioral compensation for stressfully warm temperatures. Finally, tropical ectotherms are thought to have decreased capacity for phenotypic plasticity because they have evolved in thermally stable environments. We tested gene expression patterns and phenotypic plasticity in the Panamanian slender anole by a) measuring ...


Acclimation, Long-Term Repeatability, And Phenotypic Correlations Of Aerobic Metabolic Traits In The Gulf Killifish, Fundulus Grandis, Jessica E. Reemeyer 2019 University of New Orleans

Acclimation, Long-Term Repeatability, And Phenotypic Correlations Of Aerobic Metabolic Traits In The Gulf Killifish, Fundulus Grandis, Jessica E. Reemeyer

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

This research examined the effects of acclimation to lowered salinity, elevated temperature, and hypoxia on aerobic metabolism of the Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis, a common estuarine resident of the Gulf of Mexico. Standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), absolute aerobic scope (AAS), and critical oxygen tension (Pcrit) were each influenced by one or more acclimation treatments. Assessing the consistency of these traits measured in the same individuals over time, all were found to be significantly repeatable with no indication that the repeatability of any traits was affected by acclimation conditions. Significant correlations were found between SMR and ...


Eastern Collared Lizard (Crotaphytus Collaris) Population Declines In Ozark Landscapes: An Assessment Of Environmental Constraints., Casey L. Brewster 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Eastern Collared Lizard (Crotaphytus Collaris) Population Declines In Ozark Landscapes: An Assessment Of Environmental Constraints., Casey L. Brewster

Theses and Dissertations

The Eastern Collared Lizard (Crotaphytus collaris) has experienced extensive population declines over the past half century in the Ozark Mountains. Previous research suggests that glade habitat degradation through woody vegetation encroachment is an important factor resulting in population declines. In this dissertation I used information on time-energy budgets to investigate the link between habitat degradation and shifts in life history traits likely resulting in population declines of Eastern Collared Lizards (Crotaphytus collaris) in the Ozarks. In chapter one, I addressed the influence of dense woody vegetation encroachment on age-specific growth, body size, body condition and reproduction of C. collaris in ...


#16 - Spatial Variation In Male Whitetail Deer Morphology Across Georgia, Charles Bish, Taylor Malasek, Julia McManus, David Patterson, Jessica Patterson 2019 University of North Georgia

#16 - Spatial Variation In Male Whitetail Deer Morphology Across Georgia, Charles Bish, Taylor Malasek, Julia Mcmanus, David Patterson, Jessica Patterson

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Understanding morphological variation across space in large mammal species can provide insights into their overall ecology and evolutionary history. However, these analyses are frequently limited by the availability of high-resolution morphological data from individuals over a wide spatial scale. In this study, we compiled a large (N=2,092) sample of morphological characteristics from male whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginiana) harvested on Georgia Department of Natural Resources Wildlife Management Areas (N=40; DNR WMA) during the 2017 hunting season. We use these data to investigate spatial heterogeneity in the morphological characteristics (e.g., body weight, total antler spread, antler diameter) of ...


Anthropomorphic Denial Of Fish Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, Matthew C. Leach 2019 University of Liverpool

Anthropomorphic Denial Of Fish Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, Matthew C. Leach

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Key (2016) affirms that we do not know how the fish brain processes pain but denies — because fish lack a human-like cortex — that fish can feel pain. He affirms that birds, like fish, have a singly-laminated cortex and that the structure of the bird brain is quite different from that of the human brain, yet he does not deny that birds can feel pain. In this commentary we describe how Key cites studies that substantiate mammalian pain but discounts the same kind of data as evidence of fish pain. We suggest that Key's interpretations are illogical, do not reflect ...


Effect Of Sleep Loss On Executive Function And Baseline Corticosterone Levels In An Arctic-Breeding Songbird, The Lapland Longspur (Calcarius Lapponicus), Brett Hodinka 2019 Western Kentucky University

Effect Of Sleep Loss On Executive Function And Baseline Corticosterone Levels In An Arctic-Breeding Songbird, The Lapland Longspur (Calcarius Lapponicus), Brett Hodinka

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Sleep is a fundamental and essential component of vertebrate life, although its exact function remains unknown. Animals that are deprived of sleep typically show reduced neurobiological performance, health, and in some cases, survival. However, a number of animals exhibit adaptations that permit them to carry out normal activities even when sleep is restricted or deprived. Lapland longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus), arctic-breeding passerine birds, exhibit around-the-clock activity during their short breeding season, with an inactive period of only 3–4 h/day (71°N). Whether these birds suffer behavioral and physiological costs associated with acute sleep loss (SL) is unknown. To assess ...


Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley 2019 University of Maine

Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Climate change has the potential to upset entire ecological systems, making predictive models of the utmost importance. The incorporation of physiological parameters into predictive models not only bolsters their accuracy but also provides a mechanistic explanation for ecological changes already observed and those yet to come. North American flying squirrels, for example, have already experienced dramatic range shifts northward over recent decades, with climate change being the suspected driver. While other studies have focused on warming winter temperatures, I explored the hypothesis that rising summer temperatures were driving the observed range shifts. Unable to find a reliable population of the ...


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