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Comparative and Evolutionary Physiology Commons

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All Articles in Comparative and Evolutionary Physiology

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Comparing Ionoregulation And Modes Of Nitrogen Excretion Across The Life Cycle Of Parasitic And Non-Parasitic Lamprey Species, Shannon Davidson 2024 Wilfrid Laurier University

Comparing Ionoregulation And Modes Of Nitrogen Excretion Across The Life Cycle Of Parasitic And Non-Parasitic Lamprey Species, Shannon Davidson

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Abstract

Ionoregulation and nitrogenous waste (N-waste) metabolism in fishes has been extensively documented in teleosts and elasmobranchs, but less so in lampreys (Petromizontiformes). All lamprey species undergo metamorphosis which drastically changes their physiology and modes of feeding. However, differences in ionoregulatory mechanisms due to anadromous versus non anadromous life history strategies emerge following metamorphosis in different lamprey species. Furthermore, some species, such as anadromous juvenile sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), are parasitic and migrate to seawater (SW) to ingest blood protein from host fishes, while juveniles of freshwater (FW), non-parasitic species, such as the American brook lamprey …


Osmoregulation And Appetite Regulation In A Basal Vertebrate, The Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus), Jessica Norstog 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Osmoregulation And Appetite Regulation In A Basal Vertebrate, The Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus), Jessica Norstog

Doctoral Dissertations

Lamprey (Petromyontiformes) are the oldest extant family in the vertebrate lineage, providing a unique phylogenetic position for studies on vertebrate evolution. As a basal vertebrate, sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is an important species to understand evolution and comparative physiological mechanisms, including osmoregulation and appetite regulation. Sea lamprey has anadromous (native to the Atlantic Ocean) and landlocked (invasive in the Laurentian Great Lakes in North America) populations. In both populations of sea lamprey, the blind filter-feeding freshwater (FW) larvae burrow in stream sediments for until undergoing a hormonal-driven metamorphosis. During this phase, sea lamprey do not feed as major …


Predicting Marine Teleost Responses To Ocean Warming And Pollution, Akila Harishchandra 2023 University of Maine

Predicting Marine Teleost Responses To Ocean Warming And Pollution, Akila Harishchandra

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ocean warming and pollution are two detrimental anthropogenic factors causing rapid marine ecosystem degradation recorded in the past decades. These factors alter the marine environment intolerable for many marine species, forcing them to either adapt or shift their contemporary habitat ranges to reduce the extinction risk embedded with environmental degradation. Estimating marine species’ habitat range shifts, and their potential for developing adaptive mechanisms are critical for ecosystem conservation and management, human health risk assessment, and climate change vulnerability assessments. Given that, for the first chapter of this thesis, we focused on developing a species distribution model (SDM) integrating marine species …


The Effect Of Dietary Thiaminase On Cardiac Function And Morphology In Lake Trout (Salvelinus Namaycush), Peter Baker 2023 Western University

The Effect Of Dietary Thiaminase On Cardiac Function And Morphology In Lake Trout (Salvelinus Namaycush), Peter Baker

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Thiamine deficiency from the consumption of invasive, high-thiaminase prey fishes is considered to be a major barrier for lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes. In fishes, an understudied aspect of thiamine deficiency is its effect on cardiac function. I examined the effects of dietary thiaminase on cardiac function and morphology in lake trout, specifically as they relate to thermal tolerance. Two hatchery strains of lake trout (Seneca and Slate) were raised on a control or thiaminase diet for nine months. The thiaminase diet was associated with significant ventricle enlargement, impaired cardiac function, and reduced thermal tolerance; these effects were …


Hydric Physiology Of Lizards, Savannah Weaver 2023 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Hydric Physiology Of Lizards, Savannah Weaver

Master's Theses

Chapter 1: Animals can respond to extreme climate by behaviorally avoiding it, or by physiologically coping with it. We understand behavioral thermoregulation and physiological thermal tolerances, but water balance has largely been neglected. Climate change includes both global warming and changes in precipitation regimes, so improving our understanding of organismal water balance is increasingly urgent. We assessed the hydric physiology of endangered Blunt-nosed Leopard Lizards (Gambelia sila) by measuring cutaneous evaporative water loss (CEWL), plasma osmolality, body mass, and body condition throughout their active season. On average, G. sila had low CEWL that is likely desert-adaptive, and high …


Comparative Energetics Of Mammalian Thermoregulatory Physiology, Ana M. Breit 2023 University of Maine

Comparative Energetics Of Mammalian Thermoregulatory Physiology, Ana M. Breit

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Endothermy allows species to decouple body temperature from environmental
temperatures but does not equate to endothermic species maintaining those constant temperatures. Instead, heterothermy fluctuating body temperatures, both in and outside of torpor is common and allows endotherms to expand the limits of thermoneutrality. Thermolability is likely to be more common in the tropics and subtropics, where species live within or above their thermoneutral zone. My dissertation research focused on the heterothermic-homeothermic continuum, specifically quantifying where on the continuum different species fall at certain times and why those species have evolved to be at those points. I quantified the thermal profile …


Osteological Identification And Morphological Comparison Of Extant Sciurids, Amber Kalinowski, Mateusz Wosik 2023 Misericordia University

Osteological Identification And Morphological Comparison Of Extant Sciurids, Amber Kalinowski, Mateusz Wosik

Student Research Poster Presentations 2023

Bone elements can reveal varying characteristics for each rodent, so it is best to analyze overlapping elements between and among taxa when drawing comparative conclusions.

Fossorial animals present robust skeletons, strong scapular girdles, short fore- and hind limbs, and prominent attachment sites for muscles. In an animal that is primarily cursorial it is expected to see a slimmer forelimb because the need for strong limbs to deal with biochemical strains is not present.

Using a sample of Marmota monax (groundhog) and Tamias striatus (chipmunk), two common taxa found in northeastern Pennsylvania, we can examine the locomotory modes of these closely …


Rhythmic Behaviors: Understanding Neuromodulation At The Neuromuscular Level, Kenneth Garcia 2023 Bowdoin College

Rhythmic Behaviors: Understanding Neuromodulation At The Neuromuscular Level, Kenneth Garcia

Honors Projects

Neuromodulation allows for the flexibility of neural circuit dynamics and the outputs they produce. Studies of the stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) have expanded our knowledge on the actions of neuromodulators, small molecules that most often activate G-protein coupled receptors and reconfigure circuit activity and composition. In these systems, modulation has been found to occur at every level, from sensory-motor coupling to neuromuscular transmission (Harris-Warrick and Marder 1991). Neuromodulators have complex effects on motor output; they can alter the firing of individual neurons while also modulating muscle properties, neuromuscular transmission, and sensory neuron response to muscle activity (Fort et al. 2004). …


Effect Of Temperature On Morphology Of The Cardiorespiratory System Of Striped Bass (Morone Saxatilis), Alley E. Permenter 2023 Georgia Southern University

Effect Of Temperature On Morphology Of The Cardiorespiratory System Of Striped Bass (Morone Saxatilis), Alley E. Permenter

Honors College Theses

Climate change and temperature are two very important topics for the coming future. As climate change projections estimate a 2-3°C increase in water temperatures by the end of the century, the habitats of many aquatic organisms will be affected in more ways than one. Temperature has proven to be an integral part of the driving force that causes physiological, behavioral, and ecological patterns in aquatic organisms. Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and their responses to changes in water temperature have been a topic of interest due to the fact that the southern populations do not follow their northern counterparts …


Umfc 140 A Comprehensive Case Report, Daniel D. Warila 2023 University of Montana

Umfc 140 A Comprehensive Case Report, Daniel D. Warila

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

UMFC 140 Is a teaching specimen from purchased from China assigned To Daniel Warila B.A. for the purpose of a Forensic case study. This case study covers a wide variety of forensic procedures that can be applied to these remains. The forensic procedures used consist of past as well as current procedures were applied to the remains with the resulting findings discussed and analyzed. This case study was focused on finding as many forensic answers as possible on the remains in their current condition.


Use Of Hematological Markers To Assess Physiological Condition And Health Status In Free-Ranging Sand Tiger Sharks (Carcharius Taurus), Chestina N. Craig 2023 Georgia Southern University

Use Of Hematological Markers To Assess Physiological Condition And Health Status In Free-Ranging Sand Tiger Sharks (Carcharius Taurus), Chestina N. Craig

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The contents of blood can provide information about the physiological condition and health of vertebrates. This study seeks to better understand the stress physiology and blood bacteria presence of the sand tiger shark (Carcharius taurus), as sharks are known to have unique physiology and immune systems. In this study the blood metabolites glucose, lactate, and ketones (3-hydroxybuteric acid and acetoacetate), were used to understand how biotic and abiotic factors affect the acute stress response to capture and handling. Metabolite concentrations from blood plasma were analyzed using colorimetric assays. Glucose and ketones showed no significant responses to capture and …


Heat Stressed Exercise Elicits Shifts In Cooling Strategies Across Body Mass In Tropical Songbirds, Kristen Dee Oliver 2022 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Heat Stressed Exercise Elicits Shifts In Cooling Strategies Across Body Mass In Tropical Songbirds, Kristen Dee Oliver

Biology ETDs

In resting animals, water use positively correlates with metabolic rate, for example smaller animals using proportionally more water per gram of body mass. However, animals also must endure heat and exertion, and evaporative cooling requires additional water use that may not scale similarly with body size. How evaporative water loss allometrically scales with body mass during heat-stressed exercise is poorly resolved, particularly for birds, yet is critically important for understanding the consequences of climate warming on the fitness of bird populations. Here, we evaluated how air temperature (Ta) influenced evaporative water loss during exercise (EWLexercise) across …


Internal Vertebral Morphology Of Bony Fishes Matches The Mechanical Demands Of Different Environments, Dana Baxter, Karly E. Cohen, Cassandra M. Donatelli, Eric D. Tytell 2022 Tufts University

Internal Vertebral Morphology Of Bony Fishes Matches The Mechanical Demands Of Different Environments, Dana Baxter, Karly E. Cohen, Cassandra M. Donatelli, Eric D. Tytell

Engineering Faculty Articles and Research

Fishes have repeatedly evolved characteristic body shapes depending on how close they live to the substrate. Pelagic fishes live in open water and typically have narrow, streamlined body shapes; benthic and demersal fishes live close to the substrate; and demersal fishes often have deeper bodies. These shape differences are often associated with behavioral differences: pelagic fishes swim nearly constantly, demersal fishes tend to maneuver near the substrate, and benthic fishes often lie in wait on the substrate. We hypothesized that these morphological and behavioral differences would be reflected in the mechanical properties of the body, and specifically in vertebral column …


Flexible Phenotypes, Energetics, And Whole-Animal Performance Of Migratory Songbirds, Michael Griego 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Flexible Phenotypes, Energetics, And Whole-Animal Performance Of Migratory Songbirds, Michael Griego

Doctoral Dissertations

Animal life has evolved innumerable strategies to adapt to a great range of environmental conditions present on earth. The physiology of free-living animals has thus been shaped to allow for maximal performance under challenging conditions and has given rise to traits that enable animals to overcome daunting ecological pressures. Few life history stages in the animal kingdom rival the intensity of annual avian migration: the extreme metabolic requirements of long-distance flight coupled with navigating vast and hostile ecological barriers results in enormously high mortality for young birds. It is therefore the main focus of this thesis to identify physiological traits …


Expression Of Claudins In Gill And Opercular Membranes In Relation To Osmoregulation In Euryhaline Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Allison McFarland 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Expression Of Claudins In Gill And Opercular Membranes In Relation To Osmoregulation In Euryhaline Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Allison Mcfarland

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) are euryhaline teleosts, which means they can thrive in environments with varying salinities, ranging from concentrated seawater (SW) to dilute fresh water (FW) and thus survive in estuaries. To be able to maintain ionic and osmotic homeostasis in these diverse salinities, osmoregulatory organs like gill and opercular membrane must be able to adjust the permeability and transport of water and ions. The surface epithelia in these organs need to prevent the passive flux of ions and water in a drastically changing environment, while being able to switch between active ion secretion or uptake dependent upon environmental …


Maternal Responses In The Face Of Infection Risk, Patricia C. Lopes, Brenna M. G. Gormally, Aubrey Emmi, Delilah Schuerman, Chathuni Liyanage, Ursula K. Beattie, L. Michael Romero 2022 Chapman University

Maternal Responses In The Face Of Infection Risk, Patricia C. Lopes, Brenna M. G. Gormally, Aubrey Emmi, Delilah Schuerman, Chathuni Liyanage, Ursula K. Beattie, L. Michael Romero

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

When animals are sick, their physiology and behavior change in ways that can impact their offspring. Research is emerging showing that infection risk alone can also modify the physiology and behavior of healthy animals. If physiological responses to environments with high infection risk take place during reproduction, it is possible that they lead to maternal effects. Understanding whether and how high infection risk triggers maternal effects is important to elucidate how the impacts of infectious agents extend beyond infected individuals and how, in this way, they are even stronger evolutionary forces than already considered. Here, to evaluate the effects of …


Biochemistry Of Trehalose Accumulation In The Spring Field Cricket, Gryllus Veletis, Alyssa R. Stephens 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Biochemistry Of Trehalose Accumulation In The Spring Field Cricket, Gryllus Veletis, Alyssa R. Stephens

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The freeze tolerant spring field cricket, Gryllus veletis, accumulates trehalose in the blood and tissues during cold acclimation. Trehalose is the main blood sugar in insects, thus its blood concentration is tightly regulated, and trehalose is readily metabolized. How do crickets modify their metabolism to accumulate trehalose in their hemolymph and tissues? I hypothesized that trehalose production, transport, and consumption were modified during the cold acclimation to facilitate trehalose accumulation. Trehalose and the trehalose-specific transporter, TRET-1, are distributed among all tissues, and trehalose accumulates in the hemolymph, fat body, Malpighian tubules, and gut. Trehalose production increases during cold acclimation …


Developing A Novel Place Preference Assay To Compare Drosophila Species Over Time, Martha M. Brinson 2022 University of Mississippi

Developing A Novel Place Preference Assay To Compare Drosophila Species Over Time, Martha M. Brinson

Honors Theses

Across phylogeny, integration of external factors, memory, and internal states of the organism dictate organismal behavior and mechanisms. The underlying genetic components can affect these behaviors such as in genomic changes arising from speciation. In this thesis, a new place preference assay was evaluated in the analysis and investigation of two species of Drosophila flies (D. melanogaster and D. simulans) to measure similarities and differences and their attraction to two different food substrates. Sleep and circadian measurements were also recorded during experimentation. The Drosophila Activity Monitor 5M (DAM5M) System and Sleep Circadian Analysis MATLAB Program (SCAMP) analysis were …


Influence Of Temperature On Passage Rate In Sceloporus Consobrinus, With Comparison To Congeners, Allison Litmer 2022 Ouachita Baptist University

Influence Of Temperature On Passage Rate In Sceloporus Consobrinus, With Comparison To Congeners, Allison Litmer

Arkansas Women in STEM Conference

Variation in energy acquisition, genetics, and environment determine life history traits among individuals, populations, and species. Therefore, influence of climate change may differ by population or even individual. Sceloporus lizards are used as model organisms for thermal biology, and climate modeling. However, it is often assumed that locally-measured thermal and bioenergetic responses apply among broadly similar species, and throughout intraspecific geographic range. The objective of this project was twofold: 1) to quantify the influence of temperature on passage rate in Sceloporus consobrinus from Arkansas, and 2) compare the influence of temperature on passage rate between S. consobrinus, and published …


Temperature-Dependent Developmental Plasticity In The Cardiorespiratory System Of Atlantic Salmon, Carlie A. Muir 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Temperature-Dependent Developmental Plasticity In The Cardiorespiratory System Of Atlantic Salmon, Carlie A. Muir

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Anthropogenic climate change is expected to have pervasive impacts on the performance and viability of fishes, as increasing temperatures create aerobically constrained environments for many species. Given the rapid rates of projected temperature increases, it is critical to evaluate the capacity for fish to respond to a changing thermal environment through phenotypic plasticity. In this thesis, I examined the capacity for developmental plasticity in the thermal performance of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared under two thermal regimes from fertilization, and investigated potential mechanistic underpinnings within the cardiorespiratory system. Cardiac performance was examined using a noninvasive Doppler echocardiograph …


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