Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

6,093 Full-Text Articles 13,783 Authors 2,436,394 Downloads 201 Institutions

All Articles in Physiology

Faceted Search

6,093 full-text articles. Page 7 of 242.

Differences Between Pullover And Pulldown Exercises On Maximal Isometric Force And Myoelectric Activity In Recreationally-Trained Men, Luis Felipe M. Teixeira, Willy A. Gomes, Josinaldo J. da Silva, Roberto A. Magalhaes, Paulo Henrique Marchetti 2022 Campinas State University, Campinas

Differences Between Pullover And Pulldown Exercises On Maximal Isometric Force And Myoelectric Activity In Recreationally-Trained Men, Luis Felipe M. Teixeira, Willy A. Gomes, Josinaldo J. Da Silva, Roberto A. Magalhaes, Paulo Henrique Marchetti

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 15(4): 797-807, 2022. The aim of the present study was to compare the myoelectric activation and peak force (PF) between pullover (PO) and pulldown (PW) exercises in different shoulder joint positions during maximal isometric contractions (0º, 45º, 90º, 135º, and 180°). Fifteen young, healthy, resistance-trained men were recruited. The participants performed three maximal voluntary isometric contractions for each exercise at five shoulder joint positions. The myoelectric activation (iEMG) from pectoralis major (PM); latissimus dorsi (LD); posterior deltoid (PD), and PF were measured. For PF, there were significant main effects for exercise and joint positions ( …


Unilateral Handgrip Holds To Failure Result In Sex-Dependent Contralateral Facilitation, Caleb C. Voskuil, Taylor K. Dinyer-McNeely, Pasquale J. Succi, Marilyn S. Campbell, Mark G. Abel, Haley C. Bergstrom 2022 University of Kentucky

Unilateral Handgrip Holds To Failure Result In Sex-Dependent Contralateral Facilitation, Caleb C. Voskuil, Taylor K. Dinyer-Mcneely, Pasquale J. Succi, Marilyn S. Campbell, Mark G. Abel, Haley C. Bergstrom

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 15(4): 782-796, 2022. This study examined changes in maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) force following dominant (Dm) and nondominant (NDm) unilateral, handgrip isometric holds to failure (HTF) for the exercised ipsilateral (IPS) and non-exercised contralateral (CON) limbs and determined if there are sex- and hand- (Dm vs NDm) dependent responses in the HTF time, performance fatigability (PF) for the exercised IPS limb, and changes in MVIC force for the CON limb after unilateral fatigue. Ten men and 10 women (Age = 22.2 years) completed an isometric HTF at 50% MVIC for the Dm and NDm …


High And Low-Speed Resistance Training Induce Similar Physical And Functional Responses In Older Women, Ádria S. N. Noronha, Eduardo M. Penna, Rayra K. N. Dias, Antenor B. C. de Azevedo, Victor S. Coswig 2022 Federal University of Pará

High And Low-Speed Resistance Training Induce Similar Physical And Functional Responses In Older Women, Ádria S. N. Noronha, Eduardo M. Penna, Rayra K. N. Dias, Antenor B. C. De Azevedo, Victor S. Coswig

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 15(4): 771-782, 2022. This study aimed to compare the effects of high-speed resistance training (HSRT) and low-speed resistance training (LSRT) in physical fitness, and functional performance in untrained older women. Twenty-four women (62.2 ± 2.7 years old) were allocated to the HSRT or LSRT groups. The HSRT and LSRT groups underwent a similar training program [3 sets of 8 to 12 repetitions at 90% of 10 maximum repetitions] for 14 weeks, twice a week. The LSRT group performed the exercises with 3 seconds in the concentric and eccentric phases, while the HSRT group performed with …


The Effects Of Vitamin D Supplementation On Athletic Performance And Injury Prevention, Amani Adeeb Abushamma 2022 Wright State University

The Effects Of Vitamin D Supplementation On Athletic Performance And Injury Prevention, Amani Adeeb Abushamma

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Vitamin D supplementation has numerous effects on athletic performance and plays a significant role in preventing an athlete’s risk of getting injuries. Vitamin D has an impact on numerous physiological functions such as: bone health, muscle function, inflammatory response, and immune function. An athlete’s bone and muscle health are essential for maximum performance and career success. A bone fracture due to vitamin D deficiency can delay an athlete’s training and ultimately inhibit obtaining a collegiate scholarship and/or contract. A cross sectional study found that more than half of athletic trainers did not view 25-hydroxyvitamin D(25[OH]) testing and vitamin D supplementation …


From Young To Old: The Effects Of Sedentary-Aging And Exercise Interventions On Structural Plasticity Of Lumbar Motor Neurons, Nmj, And Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression, Alberto Felipe Cintron-Colon 2022 Western Michigan University

From Young To Old: The Effects Of Sedentary-Aging And Exercise Interventions On Structural Plasticity Of Lumbar Motor Neurons, Nmj, And Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression, Alberto Felipe Cintron-Colon

Dissertations

Neuromuscular weakness has been associated with age progression. A possible reason is a disconnection between muscle and neuron, causing components from both the central and peripheral nervous systems to deteriorate. Exercise, however, has beneficial effects for both muscle and nervous tissue, inducing neuroprotection. Neurotrophic factors are powerful regulators of neuronal maintenance and synaptic strength. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a neurotrophic factor that has been shown to be a potent survival factor for somatic motor neurons that innervate skeletal muscle.

This study aims to evaluate changes in structural plasticity of motor neurons in the lumbar spinal cord and …


Diabetes-Related Outcomes Following Use Of Basal-Bolus Insulin Vs Premixed Insulin In A Va Population With Type 2 Diabetes: A Retrospective Chart Review., Ravisha Bai, Kavita Batra, Charmaine Yap, Kenneth Izuora 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Diabetes-Related Outcomes Following Use Of Basal-Bolus Insulin Vs Premixed Insulin In A Va Population With Type 2 Diabetes: A Retrospective Chart Review., Ravisha Bai, Kavita Batra, Charmaine Yap, Kenneth Izuora

School of Medicine Faculty Presentations

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Chronic Stress On Safety Processing And Physiology In The Medial Prefrontal-Amygdala-Basal Forebrain Circuit, Itamar S. Grunfeld 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Effects Of Chronic Stress On Safety Processing And Physiology In The Medial Prefrontal-Amygdala-Basal Forebrain Circuit, Itamar S. Grunfeld

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Chronic stress increases generalization of fear to non-threatening cues, a key symptom in numerous psychiatric mood disorders. However, the mechanisms through which stress impacts safety learning remain poorly understood. To probe the relationship between stress and safety learning, this dissertation employed multiple behaviors, in conjunction with in-vivo multisite physiology during explicit safety and fear discrimination learning. In Chapter 1, I outline the role of chronic stress in driving neurological adaptations that result in generalized fear and highlight how this occurs because of impaired safety cue encoding. In Chapter 2, I show that chronic stress in the form of social defeat …


On The Roles Of Trait Anxiety And Toll Like Receptor 4 In Amphetamine Sensitization In Adolescent Male Rats, Corey A. Calhoun 2022 University of Massachusetts Boston

On The Roles Of Trait Anxiety And Toll Like Receptor 4 In Amphetamine Sensitization In Adolescent Male Rats, Corey A. Calhoun

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

Mammalian adolescence can be a difficult transition from childhood to adulthood, where increases in impulsivity and novelty- and risk-seeking are combined with heightened affect and elevated sensitivity to stress. Indeed, during adolescence, first drug use patterns emerge and in the continental United States, increasing misuse of amphetamines has been observed in adolescent youth. Myriad neural mechanisms underlie this shift in adolescence, including the dynamic remodeling of the mesocorticolimbic (MCL) pathway. Repeated drug administration affects neuroimmune substrates within the MCL circuit including toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)Advances in addiction neuroscience indicate that drugs of abuse activate neural TLR4 and implicate glial TLR4 …


The Effect Of Breathing Patterns Common To Competitive Swimming On Gas Exchange And Muscle Deoxygenation During Heavy-Intensity Fartlek Exercise, Kevin J. Grossman 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Effect Of Breathing Patterns Common To Competitive Swimming On Gas Exchange And Muscle Deoxygenation During Heavy-Intensity Fartlek Exercise, Kevin J. Grossman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study was to compare the respiratory and muscle deoxygenation (HHb) responses of regulated breathing versus free-breathing, during continuous exercise (CONLD) and intermittent 5s breath holds (BH) (CONLD-BH), intermittent 5s sprint (FLK) and combined 5s BH and sprint (FLK-BH) followed by 25s of free-breathing. Oxygen uptake(V̇O2)was unchanged between CONLD (2.12±0.35L/min) and CONLD-BH (2.15±0.42L/min; p=0.116), and FLK (2.24±0.40L/min) and FLK-BH (2.20±0.45L/min; p=0.861). Δ[Hbtot]: CONLD (3.3±1.6µM) > CONLD-BH (-2.5±1.2µM; ∆177%; p<0.001), but unchanged between FLK (2.0±1.6µM) and FLK-BH (0.82±1.4µM; p=0.979). Δ[HHb]: CONLD (7.3±1.8µM) > CONLD-BH (7.0±2.0µM; ∆4%; p=0.011), and FLK (6.7±1.8µM) < FLK-BH (8.7±2.4µM; p<0.001). It is suggested that the unchanged V̇O2 between CONLD and CONLD-BH was supported by increased deoxygenation, reflected by decreased ∆[Hbtot] and blunted …


Biochemistry Of Trehalose Accumulation In The Spring Field Cricket, Gryllus Veletis, Alyssa R. Stephens 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Biochemistry Of Trehalose Accumulation In The Spring Field Cricket, Gryllus Veletis, Alyssa R. Stephens

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The freeze tolerant spring field cricket, Gryllus veletis, accumulates trehalose in the blood and tissues during cold acclimation. Trehalose is the main blood sugar in insects, thus its blood concentration is tightly regulated, and trehalose is readily metabolized. How do crickets modify their metabolism to accumulate trehalose in their hemolymph and tissues? I hypothesized that trehalose production, transport, and consumption were modified during the cold acclimation to facilitate trehalose accumulation. Trehalose and the trehalose-specific transporter, TRET-1, are distributed among all tissues, and trehalose accumulates in the hemolymph, fat body, Malpighian tubules, and gut. Trehalose production increases during cold acclimation …


Influence Of Resistance Training Exercise Order On Acute Thyroid Hormone Responses, José Maria Pereira da Silva, Gabriel Costa e Silva, Rodrigo Rodrigues da Conceição, Roberto Laureano-Melo, Gisele Giannocco, Monica Akemi Sato, Cláudio Melibeu Bentes, Roberto Fares Simão 2022 University of Rio de Janeiro

Influence Of Resistance Training Exercise Order On Acute Thyroid Hormone Responses, José Maria Pereira Da Silva, Gabriel Costa E Silva, Rodrigo Rodrigues Da Conceição, Roberto Laureano-Melo, Gisele Giannocco, Monica Akemi Sato, Cláudio Melibeu Bentes, Roberto Fares Simão

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 15(2): 760-770, 2022. The present study aimed to compare the exercise order of an acute bout of resistance exercise (RT) on acute thyroid hormonal responses. Eight (n = 8) healthy men were randomly separated into two experimental groups: A) the order from multi- to single-joint exercises (MJ-SJ) and B) the order from single- to multijoint exercises (SJ-MJ). For all exercises in both orders, the subjects were submitted to 3 sets of 10 repetitions, with rest intervals of 2 minutes between sets and 3 minutes between exercises. Blood samples were collected at rest and 0, …


Women's Health: Optimal Nutrition Throughout The Lifecycle, Edith J M Feskens, Regan Bailey, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Hans-Konrad Biesalski, Heather Eicher-Miller, Klaus Krämer, Wen-Harn Pan, James C. Griffiths 2022 Wageningen University

Women's Health: Optimal Nutrition Throughout The Lifecycle, Edith J M Feskens, Regan Bailey, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Hans-Konrad Biesalski, Heather Eicher-Miller, Klaus Krämer, Wen-Harn Pan, James C. Griffiths

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Sex differences are an important consideration when researching and establishing policies for nutrition and optimal health. For women's health, there are important physiologic, neurologic, and hormonal distinctions throughout the lifecycle that impact nutritional needs. Distinct from those for men, these nutritional needs must be translated into appropriate nutrition policy that aims to not only avoid overt nutritional deficiency, but also to promote health and minimize risk for chronic disease. Through a series of webinars, scientific experts discussed the advances in the understanding of the unique nutritional needs, challenges and opportunities of the various life stages for women across the life …


Prediction Of Functional Threshold Power From Graded Exercise Test Data In Highly-Trained Individuals, Eanna Mc Grath, Bernard Donne, Alessio Benavoli, Neil Fleming, Nicholas Mahony 2022 Trinity College Dublin

Prediction Of Functional Threshold Power From Graded Exercise Test Data In Highly-Trained Individuals, Eanna Mc Grath, Bernard Donne, Alessio Benavoli, Neil Fleming, Nicholas Mahony

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 15(4): 747-759, 2022. The purpose of the current investigation was to derive an equation that could predict Functional Threshold Power (FTP) from Graded Exercise Test (GxT) data. The FTP test has been demonstrated to represent the highest cycling power output that can be maintained in a quasi-steady state for 60-min. Previous investigations to determine a comparable marker derived from a Graded Exercise test have had limited success to date. Consequently, the current study aimed to predict FTP from GxT data to provide an additional index of cycling performance. FTP has been reported to provide an …


An Examination Of Two Resistance Training Frequency Techniques In Morphological And Functional Adaptations Of The Patellar Tendon., Tiago Volpi Braz, Danilo Rodrigues Batista, Julio Benvenutti Bueno de Camargo, Luan Oenning Col, Wellington Gonçalves Dias, Guilherme Borsetti Businari, Jhenipher Moniky Rosolem, Felipe Alves Brigatto, Paulo Henrique Barbosa, Charles Ricardo Lopes 2022 Methodist University of Piracicaba, Sao Paulo

An Examination Of Two Resistance Training Frequency Techniques In Morphological And Functional Adaptations Of The Patellar Tendon., Tiago Volpi Braz, Danilo Rodrigues Batista, Julio Benvenutti Bueno De Camargo, Luan Oenning Col, Wellington Gonçalves Dias, Guilherme Borsetti Businari, Jhenipher Moniky Rosolem, Felipe Alves Brigatto, Paulo Henrique Barbosa, Charles Ricardo Lopes

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 15(4): 709-720, 2022. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of distinct resistance training frequencies with equated-volume conditions in morphological and functional adaptations of the patellar tendon. Twenty-seven recreationally resistance-trained subjects (men [n=17] and women [n=10]) (age: 20.8 ± 1.9 years [range 18 to 25 years]; height: 1.73 ± 9.8 cm; total body mass = 73.2 ± 11.7 kg; previous RT experience = 3.3 ± 1.6 years) volunteered to participate in this study. A total of 16 training sessions were performed during the study period. Each subject’s leg was randomly allocated …


Effects Of Two Different Exercise Training Programs Periodization On Anthropometric And Functional Parameters In People Living With Hiv: A Randomized Clinical Trial, Weverton Fonseca Soares, Vitor Lopes Soares, Hugo Ribeiro Zanetti, Fernando Freitas Neves, Mário Leon Silva-Vergara, Edmar Lacerda Mendes 2022 Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro

Effects Of Two Different Exercise Training Programs Periodization On Anthropometric And Functional Parameters In People Living With Hiv: A Randomized Clinical Trial, Weverton Fonseca Soares, Vitor Lopes Soares, Hugo Ribeiro Zanetti, Fernando Freitas Neves, Mário Leon Silva-Vergara, Edmar Lacerda Mendes

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 15(3): 733-746, 2022. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two different exercise training programs periodization on anthropometric and functional parameters in people living with HIV (PLHIV). This was a randomized clinical trial that involved participants (n = 31) living with HIV aged over 18 years and undergoing antiretroviral therapy which were randomized to periodized exercise training (PET; n = 13), non-periodized exercise training (NPET; n = 13), or control group (CON; n = 15). The PET and NPET groups performed 12 weeks of combined training while the CON group …


The Relationship Between Eating Disorders, Weight Control Methods, And Body Satisfaction In Elite Female Runners Competing At The 2020 U.S. Olympic Marathon Trials, Sophia Charitou, Kelly Pritchett, Dana Ogan, Abigail Larson 2022 Central Washington University

The Relationship Between Eating Disorders, Weight Control Methods, And Body Satisfaction In Elite Female Runners Competing At The 2020 U.S. Olympic Marathon Trials, Sophia Charitou, Kelly Pritchett, Dana Ogan, Abigail Larson

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 15(2): 721-732, 2022. Athletes participating in endurance sports report frequent attempts to lose weight and greater training volumes in attempt to gain a competitive advantage. Increased exercise energy expenditure through training, weight periodization, and prevalence of eating disorder (ED) may affect energy availability. Low energy availability (LEA) is associated with negative physiological effects and an increased risk of bone fractures and illness in athletes. This study investigated the relationship between self-reported history of an ED with training, body satisfaction, and weight-control methods among female Olympic marathon trials participants. Female runners (n = 146; 30.8 …


Analysis Of Tear-Film Breakup Using Fluorescence Video Recordings, Tobin Driscoll, Richard Braun, Rayanne Luke, Carolyn G. Begley 2022 University of Delaware

Analysis Of Tear-Film Breakup Using Fluorescence Video Recordings, Tobin Driscoll, Richard Braun, Rayanne Luke, Carolyn G. Begley

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Paternal Obesity And Effect Of Fish Oil Supplementation On Offspring Metabolic Health, Akriti Shrestha 2022 Syracuse University

Paternal Obesity And Effect Of Fish Oil Supplementation On Offspring Metabolic Health, Akriti Shrestha

Theses - ALL

Obesity and overweight arise due to an abnormal fat accumulation in the body that presents a risk to health. Individuals with body mass index (BMI) of greater than 30 kg/m2 are considered obese. CDC data show that 43% of the adults in the US are obese. The prevalence of obesity as well as its strong association with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases are the serious concerns of public health which calls for the need of appropriate diet/nutrition that can minimize the negative effect of obesity. Literature suggests that 50% of the contribution to obesity can be attributed to genetics. However, studies …


Participation In Higher Intensity Physical Activity Predicts Lower Depressive Symptom Incidence In College Students, Lucas D. Elliott, Oliver Wilson, Michele Duffey, Melissa Bopp 2022 The Pennsylvania State University

Participation In Higher Intensity Physical Activity Predicts Lower Depressive Symptom Incidence In College Students, Lucas D. Elliott, Oliver Wilson, Michele Duffey, Melissa Bopp

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 15(7): 667-675, 2022. The prevalence of depression and insufficient physical activity (PA) continue to rise in the United States, particularly among college students. PA is typically associated with decreased levels of depressive symptoms; however, the association between different intensities of PA and depressive symptoms is unclear among college students. The aim of this study was to examine how well weekly moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA) and strength training (ST) volumes predicted depressive symptoms in college students. Students self-reported weekly MPA, VPA, ST, depressive symptoms (CESD-7), restful nights of sleep, grade point average (GPA) and …


Montmorency Cherry Juice Consumption Does Not Improve Muscle Soreness Or Inhibit Pro-Inflammatory Monocyte Responses Following An Acute Bout Of Whole-Body Resistance Training., Devin Drummer, Kelly Pritchett, Gina M. Many, Blaise Dondji, Kathleen Connor, Jerusalem Tesfaye, Mark Young, Robert C. Pritchett 2022 University of Alabama Birmingham

Montmorency Cherry Juice Consumption Does Not Improve Muscle Soreness Or Inhibit Pro-Inflammatory Monocyte Responses Following An Acute Bout Of Whole-Body Resistance Training., Devin Drummer, Kelly Pritchett, Gina M. Many, Blaise Dondji, Kathleen Connor, Jerusalem Tesfaye, Mark Young, Robert C. Pritchett

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 15(6): 686-701, 2022. Montmorency Cherry Juice (MCJ) may­­­ improve acute exercise recovery by attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of MCJ on monocyte responses following resistance exercise have not been explored. Seven resistance-trained males (age: 22.9 ± 4.1 yrs; height: 1.8 ± 0.1 m; weight: 81.7 ± 13.2 kg) participated in this study. Participants completed a placebo-controlled crossover design, drinking either MCJ or placebo beverages, 7 days prior to completing an acute bout of unilateral resistance exercise. Statistical significance was assessed using a within-subjects repeated measures ANOVA; alpha level p ≤ 0.05. …


Digital Commons powered by bepress