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Diabetes-Related Outcomes Following Use Of Basal-Bolus Insulin Vs Premixed Insulin In A Va Population With Type 2 Diabetes: A Retrospective Chart Review., Ravisha Bai, Kavita Batra, Charmaine Yap, Kenneth Izuora 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Diabetes-Related Outcomes Following Use Of Basal-Bolus Insulin Vs Premixed Insulin In A Va Population With Type 2 Diabetes: A Retrospective Chart Review., Ravisha Bai, Kavita Batra, Charmaine Yap, Kenneth Izuora

School of Medicine Faculty Presentations

No abstract provided.


A Study Of The Effect Of Physiological Stressors On Hypothalamic Regulation Of Reproduction Using An In Vitro System, Lisa L. Amelse 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Study Of The Effect Of Physiological Stressors On Hypothalamic Regulation Of Reproduction Using An In Vitro System, Lisa L. Amelse

Doctoral Dissertations

Stressors have a negative impact on reproductive efficiency in humans and other animals, which has an economic cost due to infertility treatments for humans and reduced income for food producers. We wished to determine the molecular pathways by which metabolic disturbances and low-level inflammation impact the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis using an in vitro model. To this end, we used the GT1-7 cell line, an immortalized line expressing the Kiss1R receptor that responds to kisspeptin stimulation with the release of GnRH to assess the impact of stressors on the GnRH-releasing cells. Additionally, we used the KTaV-3 and KTaR-1[A1] …


Effects Of Sunrise/Sunset Lighting On Corticosterone Levels In Coturnix Quail (Coturnix Coturnix), Hannah Feuerborn 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Sunrise/Sunset Lighting On Corticosterone Levels In Coturnix Quail (Coturnix Coturnix), Hannah Feuerborn

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Both genetics and environment play an important role in the growth, performance and overall welfare of poultry species. Current commercial production practices typically do not mimic the natural environmental conditions of ancestral poultry species, specifically lighting requirements. In nature, poultry species are subjected to natural day length and the slow rising and setting of the sun. This is compared to commercial conditions in which lights are sudden on/off, not mimicking the natural trajectory of the sun in terms of light intensity and exposure. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetics and the effect of sunrise/sunset lighting on …


Effects Of Glucocorticoids Upon Pro-Inflammatory Responses To Acute Sleep Fragmentation, Hunter Weaver 2022 Western Kentucky University

Effects Of Glucocorticoids Upon Pro-Inflammatory Responses To Acute Sleep Fragmentation, Hunter Weaver

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Sleep loss is a common problem in humans who suffer from obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep aids in the regulation of immune responses, some of which induce inflammatory responses. Cytokines regulate the inflammatory process and are released in response to sleep fragmentation (SF) in mice. Glucocorticoids are hormones that are released from the adrenal cortices during a stress response and are considered to be anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive at high doses but may stimulate immune function on an acute level. The first hypothesis tested was that normal physiological expression of glucocorticoids (Sham) will display increased IL-1β and TNFα expression levels, while high …


Collagen Iv-Β1integrin Regulation Of Exocytotic Machinery In Pancreatic Beta-Cell Insulin Secretion, Malina Barillaro 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Collagen Iv-Β1integrin Regulation Of Exocytotic Machinery In Pancreatic Beta-Cell Insulin Secretion, Malina Barillaro

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Diabetes is a prevalent metabolic disease characterized by impaired insulin secretion, action, or both. β1-integrin is a key receptor that regulates cell-ECM interactions and is important in maintaining beta-cell functions, including insulin secretion. However, little is reported about the relationship between β1-integrin and the exocytotic proteins involved in insulin secretion. This study examined the influence of ECM-mediated β1-integrin activation on exocytotic machinery involved in insulin secretion using rat insulinoma (INS-1) cells. Collagen IV (COL IV) promoted INS-1 cell adhesion, spreading, and insulin secretion. Additionally, these cells displayed changes in levels and localization of exocytotic proteins involved in insulin secretion. β1-integrin …


Inflammatory Bowel Disease Causing Retroperitoneal Varicosity Mimicking A Renal Artery Aneurysm: A Novel Case Report And Literature Review, Areez Shafqat, Shameel Shafqat, Belal Nedal Sabbah, Abdullah Shaik, Wael Khalil Alfehaid, Syed Shafqat Ul Islam 2022 Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Causing Retroperitoneal Varicosity Mimicking A Renal Artery Aneurysm: A Novel Case Report And Literature Review, Areez Shafqat, Shameel Shafqat, Belal Nedal Sabbah, Abdullah Shaik, Wael Khalil Alfehaid, Syed Shafqat Ul Islam

Medical College Documents

A 17-year-old female presented to our hospital complaining of bloody diarrhea 4-6 times per day for the past month. She was a known case of inflammatory bowel disease noncompliant to her medications. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an unusually dilated mass in the retroperitoneum at L2 vertebral level connecting the lumbar and left renal veins. The renal artery was visualized separately, and a diagnosis of communicating vein varicosity was made. This lesion can be misleading on imaging, hence our aim to disseminate our findings to practicing radiologists. The differential diagnosis of these lesions include retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, renal artery aneurysms, and testicular …


Estrogen Regulation Of Daily Metabolic Rhythms In Female Mice, Oluwabukola Omotola 2022 University of Kentucky

Estrogen Regulation Of Daily Metabolic Rhythms In Female Mice, Oluwabukola Omotola

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Circadian rhythms are approximately 24-hour cycles of behavior, physiology, and gene expression. In mammals, these circadian rhythms are generated by clocks located in nearly every tissue in the body. The function of circadian clocks is to synchronize physiology and behavior with environmental cycles such as the light-dark cycle. After menopause, when circulating levels of estrogens are very low, women are more susceptible to obesity comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, suggesting that estrogens regulate these processes. Estrogens could protect females from metabolic dysfunction by regulating circadian rhythms. Consumption of diets that are high in fat contribute to obesity. …


The Use Of Exogenous Acrp30 As A Promising Amelioratory Compound Regarding Insulin Resistance And Type Ii Diabetes Mellitus, Stephen L. Romero 2022 University of Central Florida

The Use Of Exogenous Acrp30 As A Promising Amelioratory Compound Regarding Insulin Resistance And Type Ii Diabetes Mellitus, Stephen L. Romero

Honors Undergraduate Theses

As numerous bodies of research have characterized the adipocytokine adiponectin (ACRP30) as an anti-diabetic compound, this work serves as an analysis to partly elucidate the potential usage of supplementary adiponectin as a therapeutic compound in the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. In this work, a meta-analysis was conducted to centralize large amounts of data on adiponectin’s insulin sensitizing characteristics in conjunction with like-minded studies utilizing metformin treatment as the diabetic standard of care. Upon comparison of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and glucose tolerance test area under the curve reduction percentages, it is quite clear that ACRP30 has significant insulin …


Fertility Control Options For Management Of Free-Roaming Horse Populations, Ursula S. Bechert, John W. Turner Jr., Dan L. Baker, Douglas C. Eckery, Jason E. Bruemmer, Candace C. Lyman, Tulio M. Prado, Sarah R. B. King, Mark A. Fraker 2022 University of Pennsylvania

Fertility Control Options For Management Of Free-Roaming Horse Populations, Ursula S. Bechert, John W. Turner Jr., Dan L. Baker, Douglas C. Eckery, Jason E. Bruemmer, Candace C. Lyman, Tulio M. Prado, Sarah R. B. King, Mark A. Fraker

Human–Wildlife Interactions

The management of free-roaming horses (Equus ferus) and burros (E. asinus) in the United States has been referred to as a “wicked problem” because, although there are population control options, societal values will ultimately determine what is acceptable and what is not. In the United States, free-roaming equids are managed by different types of organizations and agencies, and the landscapes that these animals inhabit vary widely in terms of access, size, topography, climate, natural resources, flora, and fauna. This landscape diversity, coupled with contemporary socioeconomic and political environments, means that adaptive management practices are needed to …


Effects Of Sunrise/Sunset Lighting On Corticosterone Levels In Coturnix Quail (Coturnix Coturnix), Hannah M. Feuerborn, Sara K. Orlowski 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Sunrise/Sunset Lighting On Corticosterone Levels In Coturnix Quail (Coturnix Coturnix), Hannah M. Feuerborn, Sara K. Orlowski

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Both genetics and environment play important roles in the growth, performance, and overall welfare of poultry species. Current commercial production practices typically do not mimic the natural environmental conditions of ancestral poultry species, specifically lighting. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetics and the effect of sunrise/sunset lighting on the stress response of 4 genetic lines of Coturnix quail. The 4 lines utilized in this study included high stress (H), low stress (L), stress control (R), and Arkansas randombred (A) quail lines. Day old chicks from these lines were placed in one of two environmentally controlled rooms. …


Exploring Β-Cell Function And Heterogeneity In Obese Sm/J Mice, Mario Alejandro Miranda 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Exploring Β-Cell Function And Heterogeneity In Obese Sm/J Mice, Mario Alejandro Miranda

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pancreatic β-cells perform glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, a process required to maintain systemic glucose homeostasis. Obesity promotes glycemic and inflammatory stress, causing β-cell death and dysfunction, resulting in diabetes. Efforts to improve β-cell function in obesity have been hampered by observations that β-cells are highly heterogeneous, varying in morphology, function, and gene expression. There is great need to understand the breadth of β-cell heterogeneity in health and obesity to improve diabetic therapies.High fat-fed SM/J mice spontaneously transition from hyperglycemic-obese to normoglycemic-obese with age, providing a unique opportunity to study β-cell adaptation. Here, we show that as they resolve hyperglycemia, obese SM/J …


Modulation Of Glucose Homeostasis By Nucleotide P2y2 Receptor And Biological Sex, Hailee Anne Marino 2021 Missouri State University

Modulation Of Glucose Homeostasis By Nucleotide P2y2 Receptor And Biological Sex, Hailee Anne Marino

MSU Graduate Theses

Recent insights into the pathological role of Nucleotide P2Y2 receptor suggest P2Y2R involvement in high fat diet-induced obesity and potentiates insulin resistance. However, these recent insights do not demonstrate how P2Y2R modulates glucose homeostasis under physiological conditions. Further, it remains unknown how sex biological factors influence P2Y2R receptor signaling in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. The research objective for the present study is to elucidate the novel roles of P2Y2 in fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance (basal insulin sensitivity) under resting conditions in males and females. We expected that under physiological …


Temperature-Induced Activation Of The Reproductive Axis Through Melatonin-Mediated Changes In Thyrotropin, Treven J. Winters 2021 Portland State University

Temperature-Induced Activation Of The Reproductive Axis Through Melatonin-Mediated Changes In Thyrotropin, Treven J. Winters

Dissertations and Theses

An animal's ability to synchronize life-history events or stages with optimal environmental conditions is paramount to successfully reproducing and maximizing fitness. Additional events including migration, foraging, rearing of young, and emergence from hibernation are all examples of processes under environmental control in one species or another. An exciting new mechanism involving neural thyroid hormone metabolism has been elucidated that links environmental control to the neuroendocrine reproductive axis. In birds and mammals with seasonal breeding cycles, this neuroendocrine pathway is activated by photoperiod-induced changes in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, also known as thyrotropin) production within the pars tuberalis region of the …


Computational Analysis Of Type 3 Iodothyronine Deiodinase: Potential Inhibitors, Substrate Binding, And Dimer Structure, Eric Scott Marsan 2021 Old Dominion University

Computational Analysis Of Type 3 Iodothyronine Deiodinase: Potential Inhibitors, Substrate Binding, And Dimer Structure, Eric Scott Marsan

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

Thyroid hormones (THs) in mammalian tissues are crucial for development and maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Iodothyronine deiodinases (Dios) remove iodines from THs by a selenocysteine (Sec) residue, which either activates or inactivates them. Halogen bonding (XB) has been proposed to describe the interaction between the Se and I atoms of the T4-Dio complex. Disruption of TH homeostasis by xenobiotics, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can cause deleterious effects on the endocrine system. Experimental studies have indicated that PBDEs and PCBs could disrupt TH homeostasis by inhibiting Dio through XB formation. However, no current quantitative study exists …


James Davidson Fawcett (1933–2020): Imbibing With The Kiwi., Louis A. Somma 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

James Davidson Fawcett (1933–2020): Imbibing With The Kiwi., Louis A. Somma

Papers in Herpetology

An obituary and summary of the life of James D. Fawcett (1933-2020), herpetologist and instructor and professor of Biology at University of Nebraska at Omaha 1972-2015. Includes bibliography of his works, list of master's theses chaired, and recollections of former students.


Validation Of A Novel Trpm8 Knockout Mouse Model, Bilan Mohamed 2021 University of Southern Maine

Validation Of A Novel Trpm8 Knockout Mouse Model, Bilan Mohamed

Thinking Matters Symposium

Recent studies suggest that the use of thermoregulatory treatments that affect brown fat may help curb obesity. However it is unknown how these treatments may affect bone homeostasis. Our work has focused on the transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM8) protein, which is responsible for detecting colder temperatures in sensory neurons. Previous work within the Motyl laboratory has found that Trpm8 plays a role in bone acquisition. Mice with a global deletion of the Trpm8 gene have reduced trabecular bone volume fraction due to reduced bone formation by osteoblasts. However, it is unclear whether sensory neuron or osteoblast-mediated expression of Trpm8 …


Morph- And Sex-Specific Differences In Corticosterone Of The Arizona Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma Mavortium Nebulosum), Megan Zerger 2021 Murray State University

Morph- And Sex-Specific Differences In Corticosterone Of The Arizona Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma Mavortium Nebulosum), Megan Zerger

Scholars Week

Life history morph, sex, and body condition are traits that may influence stress within salamander populations because of differences in physiology and environmental conditions. Given widespread declines and the effects chronic stress can have on amphibian health, it is important to understand within-population drivers of stress and how population level variation may influence population viability. Thus, the objective of our study was to assess how corticosterone varies within the Arizona tiger salamander (Ambystoma mavortium nebulosum) population at the Mexican Cut Nature Preserve. We used a non-invasive skin swabbing method to collect baseline and elevated corticosterone from paedomorph (aquatic …


Role Of Na/K-Atpase Non-Enzymatic Signaling In Renal Proximal Tubule Sodium Transport, Shreya Tapan Mukherji 2021 Marshall University

Role Of Na/K-Atpase Non-Enzymatic Signaling In Renal Proximal Tubule Sodium Transport, Shreya Tapan Mukherji

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The renal proximal tubule (RPT) is the center stage for renal handling of Na+ , a potent determinant of systemic Na+ and volume homeostasis in health and disease. In the RPT, through its classic ion-pumping function, Na + /K+ -ATPase (NKA) generates the Na+ gradient that drives apical Na+ absorption, mostly through Na+ /H+ exchanger (NHE3). In contrast, pharmacological evidence suggests that the activation of the NKA non-enzymatic signaling function, through Src and other signaling partners, triggers a cellular redistribution of NKA and NHE3 that decreases transcellular Na+ flux in cultured RPT cells. However, the physiological relevance of the nonenzymatic …


Transcriptional Programming By Thyroid Hormone Receptor Beta Maintains Normal Cell Identity And Suppresses Tumor Growth, Noelle Elizabeth Gillis 2021 University of Vermont

Transcriptional Programming By Thyroid Hormone Receptor Beta Maintains Normal Cell Identity And Suppresses Tumor Growth, Noelle Elizabeth Gillis

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

The overall incidence of thyroid cancer has more than tripled over the past several decades, as has aggressive disease and mortality. The direct relationship between thyroid disease, thyroid hormone levels, and development of thyroid cancer is incomplete. Recent meta-analyses have indicated a higher risk of thyroid cancer for patients with thyroid diseases that reflect an altered thyroid-pituitary signaling axis, which can have profound impacts on the physiology of the thyroid gland. These largely unanswered questions regarding altered thyroid hormone signaling and its consequences for thyroid tumor growth present a significant clinical challenge. This dilemma may come from a lack of …


Characterization Of The Whale Shark (Rhincodon Typus) Melanocortin-2 Receptor, Brianne Hoglin 2021 University of Denver

Characterization Of The Whale Shark (Rhincodon Typus) Melanocortin-2 Receptor, Brianne Hoglin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Among bony vertebrates, the melanocortin-2 receptor ortholog is unique among the family of five melanocortin receptors on the basis that it is dependent on its accessory protein, MRAP1, for trafficking and activation, and is selective for activation by ACTH alone. Previous studies on the MC2R orthologs of select cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii) and the red stingray (Dasyatis akajei), revealed divergent traits in a less obligatory relationship on MRAP1 and its ability to be activated by ACTH or the MSH-sized peptides. However, observed traits were not consistent between these two cartilaginous fish species, posing …


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