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Effects Of Sunrise/Sunset Lighting On Corticosterone Levels In Coturnix Quail (Coturnix Coturnix), Hannah Feuerborn 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Sunrise/Sunset Lighting On Corticosterone Levels In Coturnix Quail (Coturnix Coturnix), Hannah Feuerborn

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Both genetics and environment play an important role in the growth, performance and overall welfare of poultry species. Current commercial production practices typically do not mimic the natural environmental conditions of ancestral poultry species, specifically lighting requirements. In nature, poultry species are subjected to natural day length and the slow rising and setting of the sun. This is compared to commercial conditions in which lights are sudden on/off, not mimicking the natural trajectory of the sun in terms of light intensity and exposure. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetics and the effect of sunrise/sunset ...


Effects Of Glucocorticoids Upon Pro-Inflammatory Responses To Acute Sleep Fragmentation, Hunter Weaver 2022 Western Kentucky University

Effects Of Glucocorticoids Upon Pro-Inflammatory Responses To Acute Sleep Fragmentation, Hunter Weaver

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Sleep loss is a common problem in humans who suffer from obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep aids in the regulation of immune responses, some of which induce inflammatory responses. Cytokines regulate the inflammatory process and are released in response to sleep fragmentation (SF) in mice. Glucocorticoids are hormones that are released from the adrenal cortices during a stress response and are considered to be anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive at high doses but may stimulate immune function on an acute level. The first hypothesis tested was that normal physiological expression of glucocorticoids (Sham) will display increased IL-1β and TNFα expression levels, while high ...


A Study Of The Effect Of Physiological Stressors On Hypothalamic Regulation Of Reproduction Using An In Vitro System, Lisa L. Amelse 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Study Of The Effect Of Physiological Stressors On Hypothalamic Regulation Of Reproduction Using An In Vitro System, Lisa L. Amelse

Doctoral Dissertations

Stressors have a negative impact on reproductive efficiency in humans and other animals, which has an economic cost due to infertility treatments for humans and reduced income for food producers. We wished to determine the molecular pathways by which metabolic disturbances and low-level inflammation impact the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis using an in vitro model. To this end, we used the GT1-7 cell line, an immortalized line expressing the Kiss1R receptor that responds to kisspeptin stimulation with the release of GnRH to assess the impact of stressors on the GnRH-releasing cells. Additionally, we used the KTaV-3 and KTaR-1[A1 ...


Collagen Iv-Β1integrin Regulation Of Exocytotic Machinery In Pancreatic Beta-Cell Insulin Secretion, Malina Barillaro 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Collagen Iv-Β1integrin Regulation Of Exocytotic Machinery In Pancreatic Beta-Cell Insulin Secretion, Malina Barillaro

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Diabetes is a prevalent metabolic disease characterized by impaired insulin secretion, action, or both. β1-integrin is a key receptor that regulates cell-ECM interactions and is important in maintaining beta-cell functions, including insulin secretion. However, little is reported about the relationship between β1-integrin and the exocytotic proteins involved in insulin secretion. This study examined the influence of ECM-mediated β1-integrin activation on exocytotic machinery involved in insulin secretion using rat insulinoma (INS-1) cells. Collagen IV (COL IV) promoted INS-1 cell adhesion, spreading, and insulin secretion. Additionally, these cells displayed changes in levels and localization of exocytotic proteins involved in insulin secretion. β1-integrin ...


Inflammatory Bowel Disease Causing Retroperitoneal Varicosity Mimicking A Renal Artery Aneurysm: A Novel Case Report And Literature Review, Areez Shafqat, Shameel Shafqat, Belal Nedal Sabbah, Abdullah Shaik, Wael Khalil Alfehaid, Syed Shafqat Ul Islam 2022 Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Causing Retroperitoneal Varicosity Mimicking A Renal Artery Aneurysm: A Novel Case Report And Literature Review, Areez Shafqat, Shameel Shafqat, Belal Nedal Sabbah, Abdullah Shaik, Wael Khalil Alfehaid, Syed Shafqat Ul Islam

Medical College Documents

A 17-year-old female presented to our hospital complaining of bloody diarrhea 4-6 times per day for the past month. She was a known case of inflammatory bowel disease noncompliant to her medications. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an unusually dilated mass in the retroperitoneum at L2 vertebral level connecting the lumbar and left renal veins. The renal artery was visualized separately, and a diagnosis of communicating vein varicosity was made. This lesion can be misleading on imaging, hence our aim to disseminate our findings to practicing radiologists. The differential diagnosis of these lesions include retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, renal artery aneurysms, and testicular ...


The Use Of Exogenous Acrp30 As A Promising Amelioratory Compound Regarding Insulin Resistance And Type Ii Diabetes Mellitus, Stephen L. Romero 2022 University of Central Florida

The Use Of Exogenous Acrp30 As A Promising Amelioratory Compound Regarding Insulin Resistance And Type Ii Diabetes Mellitus, Stephen L. Romero

Honors Undergraduate Theses

As numerous bodies of research have characterized the adipocytokine adiponectin (ACRP30) as an anti-diabetic compound, this work serves as an analysis to partly elucidate the potential usage of supplementary adiponectin as a therapeutic compound in the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. In this work, a meta-analysis was conducted to centralize large amounts of data on adiponectin’s insulin sensitizing characteristics in conjunction with like-minded studies utilizing metformin treatment as the diabetic standard of care. Upon comparison of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and glucose tolerance test area under the curve reduction percentages, it is quite clear that ACRP30 has significant ...


Modeling Human T1d-Associated Autoimmune Processes, Mohsen Khosravi-Maharlooei, Rachel Madley, Chiara Borsotti, Leonardo M. R. Ferreira, Robert C. Sharp, Michael A. Brehm, Dale L. Greiner, Audrey V. Parent, Mark S. Anderson, Megan Sykes, Remi J. Creusot 2021 Columbia University Irving Medical Center

Modeling Human T1d-Associated Autoimmune Processes, Mohsen Khosravi-Maharlooei, Rachel Madley, Chiara Borsotti, Leonardo M. R. Ferreira, Robert C. Sharp, Michael A. Brehm, Dale L. Greiner, Audrey V. Parent, Mark S. Anderson, Megan Sykes, Remi J. Creusot

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by impaired immune tolerance to beta-cell antigens and progressive destruction of insulin-producing beta-cells. Animal models have provided valuable insights for understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease, but they fall short of reflecting the extensive heterogeneity of the disease in humans, which is contributed by various combinations of risk gene alleles and unique environmental factors. Collectively, these factors have been used to define subgroups of patients, termed endotypes, with distinct predominating disease characteristics.

SCOPE OF REVIEW: Here, we review the gaps filled by these models in understanding the intricate ...


Ergocalciferol In New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Benjamin U. Nwosu, Sadichchha Parajuli, Gabrielle Jasmin, Jody Fleshman, Rohit B. Sharma, Laura C. Alonso, Austin F. Lee, Bruce A. Barton 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Ergocalciferol In New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Benjamin U. Nwosu, Sadichchha Parajuli, Gabrielle Jasmin, Jody Fleshman, Rohit B. Sharma, Laura C. Alonso, Austin F. Lee, Bruce A. Barton

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

CONTEXT: The effect of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory actions of vitamin D on the duration of partial clinical remission (PR) in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is unclear.

OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to determine the effect of adjunctive ergocalciferol on residual β-cell function (RBCF) and PR in youth with newly diagnosed T1D who were maintained on a standardized insulin treatment protocol. The hypothesis was that ergocalciferol supplementation increases RBCF and prolongs PR.

METHODS: A 12-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted of 50 000 IU of ergocalciferol per week for 2 months, and then once every 2 weeks for ...


Supplementary Materials For: Ergocalciferol In New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Benjamin U. Nwosu, Sadichchha Parajuli, Gabrielle Jasmin, Jody Fleshman, Rohit B. Sharma, Laura C. Alonso, Austin F. Lee, Bruce A. Barton 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Supplementary Materials For: Ergocalciferol In New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Benjamin U. Nwosu, Sadichchha Parajuli, Gabrielle Jasmin, Jody Fleshman, Rohit B. Sharma, Laura C. Alonso, Austin F. Lee, Bruce A. Barton

Research Data and Datasets

This document consists of supplementary materials, including the 2021 Investigational Study Protocol, for a published manuscript. Manuscript abstract:

Context: The effect of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory actions of vitamin D on the duration of partial clinical remission (PR) in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is unclear.

Objective: This work aimed to determine the effect of adjunctive ergocalciferol on residual β-cell function (RBCF) and PR in youth with newly diagnosed T1D who were maintained on a standardized insulin treatment protocol. The hypothesis was that ergocalciferol supplementation increases RBCF and prolongs PR.

Methods: A 12-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted ...


A Therapeutic Convection-Enhanced Macroencapsulation Device For Enhancing Beta Cell Viability And Insulin Secretion, Kisuk Yang, Dale L. Greiner, Jeffrey M. Karp 2021 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

A Therapeutic Convection-Enhanced Macroencapsulation Device For Enhancing Beta Cell Viability And Insulin Secretion, Kisuk Yang, Dale L. Greiner, Jeffrey M. Karp

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Islet transplantation for type 1 diabetes treatment has been limited by the need for lifelong immunosuppression regimens. This challenge has prompted the development of macroencapsulation devices (MEDs) to immunoprotect the transplanted islets. While promising, conventional MEDs are faced with insufficient transport of oxygen, glucose, and insulin because of the reliance on passive diffusion. Hence, these devices are constrained to two-dimensional, wafer-like geometries with limited loading capacity to maintain cells within a distance of passive diffusion. We hypothesized that convective nutrient transport could extend the loading capacity while also promoting cell viability, rapid glucose equilibration, and the physiological levels of insulin ...


Maternal 3,3'-Diiodothyronine Sulfate Formation From Guinea Pig Placenta Perfused With 3,3',5-Triodothyronine, Sing-Yung Wu, Charles H. Emerson, Edward Tjioe, Dong-Bao Chen 2021 University of California Irvine Medical Center

Maternal 3,3'-Diiodothyronine Sulfate Formation From Guinea Pig Placenta Perfused With 3,3',5-Triodothyronine, Sing-Yung Wu, Charles H. Emerson, Edward Tjioe, Dong-Bao Chen

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

OBJECTIVE: Serum 3, 3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) remains low in near-term fetus to prevent the growing fetus from undue exposure to its active catabolic effect in mammals. The present study was undertaken to gain insight in the role of placenta in T3 metabolism, fetal to maternal transfer of T3, and its metabolites by in situ placenta perfusion with outer-ring labeled [(125)I]-T3 in pregnant guinea pig, a species showing increased sulfated 3, 3'-diiodothyronine (T2S) levels in maternal serum in late pregnancy (term = 65 days), similarly to humans in pregnancy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: One-pass placenta perfusions performed on pregnant guinea ...


Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induced Proliferation Remains Intact In Aging Mouse Beta-Cells, Jarin T. Snyder, Christine Darko, Rohit B. Sharma, Laura C. Alonso 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induced Proliferation Remains Intact In Aging Mouse Beta-Cells, Jarin T. Snyder, Christine Darko, Rohit B. Sharma, Laura C. Alonso

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Aging is associated with loss of proliferation of the insulin-secreting beta-cell, a possible contributing factor to the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the elderly. Our group previously discovered that moderate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurring during glucose exposure increases the adaptive beta-cell proliferation response. Specifically, the ATF6alpha arm of the tripartite Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) promotes beta-cell replication in glucose excess conditions. We hypothesized that beta-cells from older mice have reduced proliferation due to aberrant UPR signaling or an impaired proliferative response to ER stress or ATF6alpha activation. To investigate, young and old mouse islet cells were exposed ...


Loss Of The Ciliary Protein Chibby1 In Mice Leads To Exocrine Pancreatic Degeneration And Pancreatitis, Benjamin Cyge, Vera Voronina, Mohammed Hoque, Eunice N. Kim, Jason Hall, Jennifer M. Bailey-Lundberg, Gregory J. Pazour, Howard C. Crawford, Randall T. Moon, Feng-Qian Li, Ken-Ichi Takemaru 2021 Stony Brook University

Loss Of The Ciliary Protein Chibby1 In Mice Leads To Exocrine Pancreatic Degeneration And Pancreatitis, Benjamin Cyge, Vera Voronina, Mohammed Hoque, Eunice N. Kim, Jason Hall, Jennifer M. Bailey-Lundberg, Gregory J. Pazour, Howard C. Crawford, Randall T. Moon, Feng-Qian Li, Ken-Ichi Takemaru

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Primary cilia protrude from the apical surface of many cell types and act as a sensory organelle that regulates diverse biological processes ranging from chemo- and mechanosensation to signaling. Ciliary dysfunction is associated with a wide array of genetic disorders, known as ciliopathies. Polycystic lesions are commonly found in the kidney, liver, and pancreas of ciliopathy patients and mouse models. However, the pathogenesis of the pancreatic phenotype remains poorly understood. Chibby1 (Cby1), a small conserved coiled-coil protein, localizes to the ciliary base and plays a crucial role in ciliogenesis. Here, we report that Cby1-knockout (KO) mice develop severe exocrine pancreatic ...


Exploring Β-Cell Function And Heterogeneity In Obese Sm/J Mice, Mario Alejandro Miranda 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Exploring Β-Cell Function And Heterogeneity In Obese Sm/J Mice, Mario Alejandro Miranda

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pancreatic β-cells perform glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, a process required to maintain systemic glucose homeostasis. Obesity promotes glycemic and inflammatory stress, causing β-cell death and dysfunction, resulting in diabetes. Efforts to improve β-cell function in obesity have been hampered by observations that β-cells are highly heterogeneous, varying in morphology, function, and gene expression. There is great need to understand the breadth of β-cell heterogeneity in health and obesity to improve diabetic therapies.High fat-fed SM/J mice spontaneously transition from hyperglycemic-obese to normoglycemic-obese with age, providing a unique opportunity to study β-cell adaptation. Here, we show that as they resolve hyperglycemia ...


Insulin Sensitivity Is Retained In Mice With Endothelial Loss Of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Cell Adhesion Molecule 1, Harrison T. Muturi, Saja S. Khuder, Hilda E. Ghadieh, Emily L. Esakov, Hye Lim Noh, Heejoon Kang, Marcia F. McInerney, Jason K. Kim, Abraham D. Lee, Sonia M. Najjar 2021 Ohio University

Insulin Sensitivity Is Retained In Mice With Endothelial Loss Of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Cell Adhesion Molecule 1, Harrison T. Muturi, Saja S. Khuder, Hilda E. Ghadieh, Emily L. Esakov, Hye Lim Noh, Heejoon Kang, Marcia F. Mcinerney, Jason K. Kim, Abraham D. Lee, Sonia M. Najjar

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

CEACAM1 regulates endothelial barrier integrity. Because insulin signaling in extrahepatic target tissues is regulated by insulin transport through the endothelium, we aimed at investigating the metabolic role of endothelial CEACAM1. To this end, we generated endothelial cell-specific Ceacam1 null mice (VECadCre+Cc1(fl/fl)) and carried out their metabolic phenotyping and mechanistic analysis by comparison to littermate controls. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analysis showed intact insulin sensitivity in VECadCre+Cc1(fl/fl) mice. This was associated with the absence of visceral obesity and lipolysis and normal levels of circulating non-esterified fatty acids, leptin, and adiponectin. Whereas the loss of endothelial Ceacam1 did ...


Modulation Of Glucose Homeostasis By Nucleotide P2y2 Receptor And Biological Sex, Hailee Anne Marino 2021 Missouri State University

Modulation Of Glucose Homeostasis By Nucleotide P2y2 Receptor And Biological Sex, Hailee Anne Marino

MSU Graduate Theses

Recent insights into the pathological role of Nucleotide P2Y2 receptor suggest P2Y2R involvement in high fat diet-induced obesity and potentiates insulin resistance. However, these recent insights do not demonstrate how P2Y2R modulates glucose homeostasis under physiological conditions. Further, it remains unknown how sex biological factors influence P2Y2R receptor signaling in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. The research objective for the present study is to elucidate the novel roles of P2Y2 in fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance (basal insulin sensitivity) under resting conditions in males and females. We expected that under physiological ...


Distinct Changes In Gut Microbiota Are Associated With Estradiol-Mediated Protection From Diet-Induced Obesity In Female Mice, Kalpana D. Acharya, Hye Lim Noh, Madeline E. Graham, Sujin Suk, Randall H. Friedline, Cesiah C. Gomez, Abigail E.R. Parakoyi, Jun Chen, Jason K. Kim, Marc J. Tetel 2021 Wellesley College

Distinct Changes In Gut Microbiota Are Associated With Estradiol-Mediated Protection From Diet-Induced Obesity In Female Mice, Kalpana D. Acharya, Hye Lim Noh, Madeline E. Graham, Sujin Suk, Randall H. Friedline, Cesiah C. Gomez, Abigail E.R. Parakoyi, Jun Chen, Jason K. Kim, Marc J. Tetel

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

A decrease in ovarian estrogens in postmenopausal women increases the risk of weight gain, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and chronic inflammation. While it is known that gut microbiota regulates energy homeostasis, it is unclear if gut microbiota is associated with estradiol regulation of metabolism. In this study, we tested if estradiol-mediated protection from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and metabolic changes are associated with longitudinal alterations in gut microbiota in female mice. Ovariectomized adult mice with vehicle or estradiol (E2) implants were fed chow for two weeks and HFD for four weeks. As reported previously, E2 increased energy expenditure ...


Temperature-Induced Activation Of The Reproductive Axis Through Melatonin-Mediated Changes In Thyrotropin, Treven J. Winters 2021 Portland State University

Temperature-Induced Activation Of The Reproductive Axis Through Melatonin-Mediated Changes In Thyrotropin, Treven J. Winters

Dissertations and Theses

An animal's ability to synchronize life-history events or stages with optimal environmental conditions is paramount to successfully reproducing and maximizing fitness. Additional events including migration, foraging, rearing of young, and emergence from hibernation are all examples of processes under environmental control in one species or another. An exciting new mechanism involving neural thyroid hormone metabolism has been elucidated that links environmental control to the neuroendocrine reproductive axis. In birds and mammals with seasonal breeding cycles, this neuroendocrine pathway is activated by photoperiod-induced changes in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, also known as thyrotropin) production within the pars tuberalis region of ...


Computational Analysis Of Type 3 Iodothyronine Deiodinase: Potential Inhibitors, Substrate Binding, And Dimer Structure, Eric Scott Marsan 2021 Old Dominion University

Computational Analysis Of Type 3 Iodothyronine Deiodinase: Potential Inhibitors, Substrate Binding, And Dimer Structure, Eric Scott Marsan

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

Thyroid hormones (THs) in mammalian tissues are crucial for development and maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Iodothyronine deiodinases (Dios) remove iodines from THs by a selenocysteine (Sec) residue, which either activates or inactivates them. Halogen bonding (XB) has been proposed to describe the interaction between the Se and I atoms of the T4-Dio complex. Disruption of TH homeostasis by xenobiotics, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can cause deleterious effects on the endocrine system. Experimental studies have indicated that PBDEs and PCBs could disrupt TH homeostasis by inhibiting Dio through XB formation. However, no current quantitative study exists ...


James Davidson Fawcett (1933–2020): Imbibing With The Kiwi., Louis A. Somma 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

James Davidson Fawcett (1933–2020): Imbibing With The Kiwi., Louis A. Somma

Papers in Herpetology

An obituary and summary of the life of James D. Fawcett (1933-2020), herpetologist and instructor and professor of Biology at University of Nebraska at Omaha 1972-2015. Includes bibliography of his works, list of master's theses chaired, and recollections of former students.


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