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Assessing The Role Of Integrins In Contact Guidance By Substratum Topography, Robin S. Hong 2022 Western University

Assessing The Role Of Integrins In Contact Guidance By Substratum Topography, Robin S. Hong

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

In this project, the effect of blocking integrin subunits on contact guidance of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were assessed. Imaging was gathered through Timelapse imaging of live cells as well as immunohistochemistry of fixed cells at designated timepoints.


The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. The only curative option for patients is surgery, but over 80% of patients are not surgical candidates. Unfortunately, PDAC is resistant to the three remaining options. PDAC is characterized by a profoundly hypoxic and immunosuppressive stroma, which contributes to its therapeutic recalcitrance. Alpha-smooth muscle actin+ (αSMA+) cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant stromal component, as well as mediators of stromal deposition. The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF1 and HIF2) coordinate responses to hypoxia, yet, despite their known association to poor patient outcomes, their functions within the PDAC tumor microenvironment (TME) …


Engineering Of Ideal Systems For The Study And Direction Of Stem Cell Asymmetrical Division And Fate Determination, Martina Zamponi 2022 Old Dominion University

Engineering Of Ideal Systems For The Study And Direction Of Stem Cell Asymmetrical Division And Fate Determination, Martina Zamponi

Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The cellular microenvironment varies significantly across tissues, and it is constituted by both resident cells and the macromolecules they are exposed to. Cues that the cells receive from the microenvironment, as well as the signaling transmitted to it, affect their physiology and behavior. This notion is valid in the context of stem cells, which are susceptible to biochemical and biomechanical signaling exchanged with the microenvironment, and which plays a fundamental role in establishing fate determination and cell differentiation events. The definition of the molecular mechanisms that drive stem cell asymmetrical division, and how these are modulated by microenvironmental signaling, is …


Expression Of Claudins In Gill And Opercular Membranes In Relation To Osmoregulation In Euryhaline Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Allison McFarland 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Expression Of Claudins In Gill And Opercular Membranes In Relation To Osmoregulation In Euryhaline Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Allison Mcfarland

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) are euryhaline teleosts, which means they can thrive in environments with varying salinities, ranging from concentrated seawater (SW) to dilute fresh water (FW) and thus survive in estuaries. To be able to maintain ionic and osmotic homeostasis in these diverse salinities, osmoregulatory organs like gill and opercular membrane must be able to adjust the permeability and transport of water and ions. The surface epithelia in these organs need to prevent the passive flux of ions and water in a drastically changing environment, while being able to switch between active ion secretion or uptake dependent upon environmental …


Location And Conformation Of Titin In Caenorhabditis Elegans Muscle, Gaberielle S. Prince 2022 University of South Alabama

Location And Conformation Of Titin In Caenorhabditis Elegans Muscle, Gaberielle S. Prince

Theses and Dissertations

Striated muscles consist of contractile myofibrils that generate force. The repeating units (sarcomeres) of striated myofibrils contain thin & thick filaments composed of actin and myosin. In vertebrates, titin connects thin & thick filaments during myofibril assembly and produces passive tension. Invertebrate homologs of vertebrate titin are similar in structure molecularly. However, invertebrate titin homologs are smaller than vertebrate titin, and likely function differently within invertebrate muscles. Here, I used Ce-TTN-1, a titin homolog in the invertebrate roundworm C elegans. To visualize Ce-TTN-1 in C. elegans, I used Nested CRISPR gene editing to generate translational fusions of a red fluorescent …


Effectiveness Of Adeno-Associated Virus In H9c2 Cardiomyoblast And Hek293t Cell Lines, Cristian Saenz, Andres J. Medina, Genaro A. Ramirez-Correa 2022 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Effectiveness Of Adeno-Associated Virus In H9c2 Cardiomyoblast And Hek293t Cell Lines, Cristian Saenz, Andres J. Medina, Genaro A. Ramirez-Correa

MEDI 8127 Scholarly Activities Pre-Clerkship

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) is a prevalent disease that affects many people throughout the world leading to issues such as diabetic cardiomyopathy. O-GlcNAcylation dysregulation, caused by increased levels of serum glucose, contributes to the pathophysiology of decreased cardiac function. O-GlcNAcylation modulates cardiac contraction by reacting with either serine or threonine residues. Our goal was to demonstrate the success of infection of adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9) carrying the gene of alpha-cardiac actin (ACTC) mutated at Thr326. Here we show the expression of the mutant ACTC T326D in H9C2 cardiomyoblasts and HEK293T cell lines. Expression in H9C2 cells was significantly increased …


From Young To Old: The Effects Of Sedentary-Aging And Exercise Interventions On Structural Plasticity Of Lumbar Motor Neurons, Nmj, And Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression, Alberto Felipe Cintron-Colon 2022 Western Michigan University

From Young To Old: The Effects Of Sedentary-Aging And Exercise Interventions On Structural Plasticity Of Lumbar Motor Neurons, Nmj, And Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression, Alberto Felipe Cintron-Colon

Dissertations

Neuromuscular weakness has been associated with age progression. A possible reason is a disconnection between muscle and neuron, causing components from both the central and peripheral nervous systems to deteriorate. Exercise, however, has beneficial effects for both muscle and nervous tissue, inducing neuroprotection. Neurotrophic factors are powerful regulators of neuronal maintenance and synaptic strength. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a neurotrophic factor that has been shown to be a potent survival factor for somatic motor neurons that innervate skeletal muscle.

This study aims to evaluate changes in structural plasticity of motor neurons in the lumbar spinal cord and …


Effects Of Chronic Stress On Safety Processing And Physiology In The Medial Prefrontal-Amygdala-Basal Forebrain Circuit, Itamar S. Grunfeld 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Effects Of Chronic Stress On Safety Processing And Physiology In The Medial Prefrontal-Amygdala-Basal Forebrain Circuit, Itamar S. Grunfeld

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Chronic stress increases generalization of fear to non-threatening cues, a key symptom in numerous psychiatric mood disorders. However, the mechanisms through which stress impacts safety learning remain poorly understood. To probe the relationship between stress and safety learning, this dissertation employed multiple behaviors, in conjunction with in-vivo multisite physiology during explicit safety and fear discrimination learning. In Chapter 1, I outline the role of chronic stress in driving neurological adaptations that result in generalized fear and highlight how this occurs because of impaired safety cue encoding. In Chapter 2, I show that chronic stress in the form of social defeat …


Biochemistry Of Trehalose Accumulation In The Spring Field Cricket, Gryllus Veletis, Alyssa R. Stephens 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Biochemistry Of Trehalose Accumulation In The Spring Field Cricket, Gryllus Veletis, Alyssa R. Stephens

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The freeze tolerant spring field cricket, Gryllus veletis, accumulates trehalose in the blood and tissues during cold acclimation. Trehalose is the main blood sugar in insects, thus its blood concentration is tightly regulated, and trehalose is readily metabolized. How do crickets modify their metabolism to accumulate trehalose in their hemolymph and tissues? I hypothesized that trehalose production, transport, and consumption were modified during the cold acclimation to facilitate trehalose accumulation. Trehalose and the trehalose-specific transporter, TRET-1, are distributed among all tissues, and trehalose accumulates in the hemolymph, fat body, Malpighian tubules, and gut. Trehalose production increases during cold acclimation …


Science, Physiology, And Nutrition For The Nonscientist, Judi S. Morrill 2022 San Jose State University

Science, Physiology, And Nutrition For The Nonscientist, Judi S. Morrill

Open Educational Resources

A wonderful blend of physiology, nutrition, biochemistry, genetics, biology, evolution, chemistry--what we all need to know as informed citizens. A basic knowledge of the life sciences and how our bodies work--to promote our own good health, especially as we're bombarded with misleading advertisements, soundbites, and the like. DNA fingerprinting, calorie requirements, dietary advice, genetic engineering (including gene editing with CRISPR cas9)--all in an easy-to understand book.


Preparation Of Proteins And Peptides From Heat-Stabilized Defatted Rice Bran Via Solid State Fermentation And Investigating For Skin Health, Ali A. Bisly 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Preparation Of Proteins And Peptides From Heat-Stabilized Defatted Rice Bran Via Solid State Fermentation And Investigating For Skin Health, Ali A. Bisly

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Heat-stabilized defatted rice bran (HDRB) is an abundant and inexpensive agro-industrial by-product of rice milling and rice oil extraction process. Furthermore, HDRB is a potential source of proteins. However, the direct protein extraction has low yield of protein due to the impact of heat stabilization and oil extraction process which made the HDRB proteins bound and interact with other components. This research is based on using solid-state fermentation (SSF), which is a natural and cost-effective approach to facilitate protein extraction from HDRB using Bacillus subtilis (natto) Takahashi as a microorganism.

Response surface methodology (RSM) analysis was used with Box-Behnken design …


The Impact Of Excess Nutrients, Fatty Acids Or Glucose, On Bewo Placental Trophoblast Metabolic Function, Zachary JW Easton 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Impact Of Excess Nutrients, Fatty Acids Or Glucose, On Bewo Placental Trophoblast Metabolic Function, Zachary Jw Easton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

An adverse intrauterine environment high in circulating nutrients in pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity and diabetes mellitus has been well linked with the development of metabolic health disorders in the exposed offspring. Impairments in placental development, mitochondrial respiration, and nutrient processing are thought to specifically underlie the in-utero programming of these metabolic diseases. In these “at-risk” pregnancies a maternal diet high in fat as well as poor glycemic control have been highlighted to be important regulators of placental metabolic functions (including the transport, storage, and oxidation of dietary nutrients), and consequently regulators of offspring metabolic health outcomes. However, the independent …


Carbonyl Iron Vs Ferrous Sulfate On Blood Iron Markers In Male Division Iii Cross-Country Athletes, Sam Gunter 2022 University of Lynchburg

Carbonyl Iron Vs Ferrous Sulfate On Blood Iron Markers In Male Division Iii Cross-Country Athletes, Sam Gunter

Student Scholar Showcase

Competitive distance runners are often predisposed to developing iron deficiency. This study aimed to determine if carbonyl iron was more effective at maintaining blood iron markers and minimizing overall fatigue and GI stress than ferrous sulfate. In this randomized, independent groups study, 7 male, division III cross-country athletes were supplemented with either carbonyl iron or ferrous sulfate for 6 weeks. Blood hemoglobin, hematocrit, subjective GI distress, subjective fatigue, and relative exertion of recent training were assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 weeks. Results will be analyzed via a detailed analysis of variance to determine significant differences in outcome measures. Statistical …


Investigation Of Oncogenic Ras And Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondria Calcium Flux And Their Relationship In The Context Of Tumorigenesis, Emma Anderson 2022 Liberty University

Investigation Of Oncogenic Ras And Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondria Calcium Flux And Their Relationship In The Context Of Tumorigenesis, Emma Anderson

Senior Honors Theses

Intracellular calcium as a signaling molecule is a pervasive feature of cellular pathways, especially those that manage internal homeostasis and transitions through the cell cycle, so much so that regulated, responsive calcium flux between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mitochondria has been suggested to play a major role in cancer development. Another factor commonly implicated in tumorigenesis is RAS, an oncogene that controls signaling for many pathways that are also regulated by calcium. While both calcium and oncogenic RAS signaling are implicated in cancer development, possible links between them have yet to be determined. The identification of these links …


Collagen Iv-Β1integrin Regulation Of Exocytotic Machinery In Pancreatic Beta-Cell Insulin Secretion, Malina Barillaro 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Collagen Iv-Β1integrin Regulation Of Exocytotic Machinery In Pancreatic Beta-Cell Insulin Secretion, Malina Barillaro

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Diabetes is a prevalent metabolic disease characterized by impaired insulin secretion, action, or both. β1-integrin is a key receptor that regulates cell-ECM interactions and is important in maintaining beta-cell functions, including insulin secretion. However, little is reported about the relationship between β1-integrin and the exocytotic proteins involved in insulin secretion. This study examined the influence of ECM-mediated β1-integrin activation on exocytotic machinery involved in insulin secretion using rat insulinoma (INS-1) cells. Collagen IV (COL IV) promoted INS-1 cell adhesion, spreading, and insulin secretion. Additionally, these cells displayed changes in levels and localization of exocytotic proteins involved in insulin secretion. β1-integrin …


A Ketogenic Diet Enhances Hippocampal Mitochondrial Efficiency, Cali E. Warren, Erin R. Saito, Benjamin T. Bikman 2022 Brigham Young University - Provo

A Ketogenic Diet Enhances Hippocampal Mitochondrial Efficiency, Cali E. Warren, Erin R. Saito, Benjamin T. Bikman

Library/Life Sciences Undergraduate Poster Competition 2022

Mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive impairment are common symptoms in many neurologic disorders, as well as in nonpathological aging. Ketones have been suggested as therapeutic for their relevance in epilepsy and other neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder.


The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole 2022 Wright State University

The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is an essential cellular protein that is involved in cell adhesion, cell signaling, and viral infection. The 8-exon encoded isoform (CAREx8) resides at the apical surface of polarized epithelia, where it is accessible as a receptor for adenovirus entering the airway lumen. Given its pivotal role in viral infection, it is a target for antiviral strategies. To understand the regulation of CAREx8 and determine the feasibility of receptor down regulation, the half-life of total and apical localized CAREx8 was determined and correlated with adenovirus transduction. Total and apical CAREx8 has a relatively short half-life …


Supplemental Peer Instruction In Physiologic Core Concept Education, Austin Choat 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Supplemental Peer Instruction In Physiologic Core Concept Education, Austin Choat

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The objective of my thesis project was to create and research the importance of supplemental learning videos within core physiological concepts identified by the Advancement of Physiological Principles for the purpose of assisting Dr. Kim Hansen in better educating students with less extensive foundational knowledge of chemical and biological sciences. Through researching the benefits of peer instruction, identifying core physiological concepts crucial to wholistic physiology education, and describing a student population hypothesized to benefit substantially from the work, I created educational videos to aid Dr. Hansen in her work as an educator and in the educational research she is striving …


Characterizing And Investigating The Electrophysiological Properties Of The Plastic Cricket Auditory System In Response To Cooling, Hannah Tess Scotch 2022 Bowdoin College

Characterizing And Investigating The Electrophysiological Properties Of The Plastic Cricket Auditory System In Response To Cooling, Hannah Tess Scotch

Honors Projects

The auditory system of the Mediterranean field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) is capable of profound compensatory plasticity. Following deafferentation due to the loss of an auditory organ, the dendrites of intermediate auditory neuron Ascending Neuron 2 (AN-2) grow across the midline and functionally connect to contralateral afferents. The loss of the auditory organ can be mimicked with reversible cold-deactivation, in which cooled Peltier elements silence the auditory organ and its afferents. Though this would presumably prevent AN-2 from firing, cooling instead induces a novel firing pattern called DOPE (delayed-onset, prolonged-excitation). In this study, intracellular physiological recordings were completed before, …


T-Lymphocyte Tyrosine Hydroxylase Regulates T H 17 T-Lymphocytes During Repeated Social Defeat Stress, Safwan K. Elkhatib, Cassandra M. Moshfegh, Gabrielle F. Watson, Adam J. Case 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

T-Lymphocyte Tyrosine Hydroxylase Regulates T H 17 T-Lymphocytes During Repeated Social Defeat Stress, Safwan K. Elkhatib, Cassandra M. Moshfegh, Gabrielle F. Watson, Adam J. Case

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder which results in deleterious changes to psychological and physical health. Patients with PTSD are especially susceptible to life-threatening co-morbid inflammation-driven pathologies, such as autoimmunity, while also demonstrating increased T-helper 17 (TH17) lymphocyte-driven inflammation. While the exact mechanism of this increased inflammation is unknown, overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system is a hallmark of PTSD. Neurotransmitters of the sympathetic nervous system (i.e., catecholamines) can alter T-lymphocyte function, which we have previously demonstrated to be partially mitochondrial redox-mediated. Furthermore, we have previously elucidated that T-lymphocytes generate their own catecholamines, and strong …


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