Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Virology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,504 Full-Text Articles 4,391 Authors 288,120 Downloads 101 Institutions

All Articles in Virology

Faceted Search

1,504 full-text articles. Page 5 of 55.

Hiv-1 Did Not Contribute To The 2019-Ncov Genome, Chuan Xiao, Xiaojun Li, Shuying Liu, Yongming Sang, Shou-Jiang Gao, Feng Gao 2020 University of Texas at El Paso

Hiv-1 Did Not Contribute To The 2019-Ncov Genome, Chuan Xiao, Xiaojun Li, Shuying Liu, Yongming Sang, Shou-Jiang Gao, Feng Gao

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

When a new pathogen that causes a global epidemic in humans, one key question is where it comes from. This is especially important for a zoonotic infectious disease that jumps from animals to humans. Knowing the origin of such a pathogen is critical to develop means to block further transmission and to develop vaccines. Discovery of the origin of a newly human pathogen is a sophisticated process that requires extensive and vigorous scientific validations and generally takes many years, such as the cases for HIV-1, SARS and MERS. Unfortunately, before the natural sources of new pathogens are clearly defined, conspiracy ...


Combining Genomics And Epidemiology To Track Mumps Virus Transmission In The United States, Shirlee Wohl, Lawrence C. Madoff, Bronwyn L. MacInnis 2020 Harvard University

Combining Genomics And Epidemiology To Track Mumps Virus Transmission In The United States, Shirlee Wohl, Lawrence C. Madoff, Bronwyn L. Macinnis

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Unusually large outbreaks of mumps across the United States in 2016 and 2017 raised questions about the extent of mumps circulation and the relationship between these and prior outbreaks. We paired epidemiological data from public health investigations with analysis of mumps virus whole genome sequences from 201 infected individuals, focusing on Massachusetts university communities. Our analysis suggests continuous, undetected circulation of mumps locally and nationally, including multiple independent introductions into Massachusetts and into individual communities. Despite the presence of these multiple mumps virus lineages, the genomic data show that one lineage has dominated in the US since at least 2006 ...


Conformational Changes In The Ebola Virus Membrane Fusion Machine Induced By Ph, Ca2+, And Receptor Binding, Dibyendu Kumar Das, Uriel Bulow, William E. Diehl, Natasha D. Durham, Fernando Senjobe, Kartik Chandran, Jeremy Luban, James B. Munro 2020 Tufts University

Conformational Changes In The Ebola Virus Membrane Fusion Machine Induced By Ph, Ca2+, And Receptor Binding, Dibyendu Kumar Das, Uriel Bulow, William E. Diehl, Natasha D. Durham, Fernando Senjobe, Kartik Chandran, Jeremy Luban, James B. Munro

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The Ebola virus (EBOV) envelope glycoprotein (GP) is a membrane fusion machine required for virus entry into cells. Following endocytosis of EBOV, the GP1 domain is cleaved by cellular cathepsins in acidic endosomes, removing the glycan cap and exposing a binding site for the Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) receptor. NPC1 binding to cleaved GP1 is required for entry. How this interaction translates to GP2 domain-mediated fusion of viral and endosomal membranes is not known. Here, using a bulk fluorescence dequenching assay and single-molecule Forster resonance energy transfer (smFRET)-imaging, we found that acidic pH, Ca2+, and NPC1 binding synergistically induce conformational ...


Characterization Of A Species E Adenovirus Vector As A Zika Virus Vaccine, Brianna L. Bullard, Brigette N. Corder, David N. Gordon, Theodore C. Pierson, Eric A. Weaver 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Characterization Of A Species E Adenovirus Vector As A Zika Virus Vaccine, Brianna L. Bullard, Brigette N. Corder, David N. Gordon, Theodore C. Pierson, Eric A. Weaver

Virology Papers

The development of a safe and efficacious Zika virus (ZIKV) vaccine remains a global health priority. In our previous work, we developed an Adenovirus vectored ZIKV vaccine using a low-seroprevalent human Adenovirus type 4 (Ad4-prM-E) and compared it to an Ad5 vector (Ad5-prM-E). We found that vaccination with Ad4-prM-E leads to the development of a strong anti-ZIKV T-cell response without eliciting significant anti-ZIKV antibodies, while vaccination with Ad5-prM-E leads to the development of both anti-ZIKV antibody and T-cell responses in C57BL/6 mice. However, both vectors conferred protection against ZIKV infection in a lethal challenge model. Here we continued to ...


Glycan Profiles Of Gp120 Protein Vaccines From Four Major Hiv-1 Subtypes Produced From Different Host Cell Lines Under Non-Gmp Or Gmp Conditions, Shixia Wang, Yegor Voronin, Peng Zhao, Mayumi Ishihara, Nickita Mehta, Mindy Porterfield, Yuxin Chen, Christopher Bartley, Guangnan Hu, Dong Han, Lance Wells, Michael Tiemeyer, Shan Lu 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Glycan Profiles Of Gp120 Protein Vaccines From Four Major Hiv-1 Subtypes Produced From Different Host Cell Lines Under Non-Gmp Or Gmp Conditions, Shixia Wang, Yegor Voronin, Peng Zhao, Mayumi Ishihara, Nickita Mehta, Mindy Porterfield, Yuxin Chen, Christopher Bartley, Guangnan Hu, Dong Han, Lance Wells, Michael Tiemeyer, Shan Lu

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Envelope glycoprotein (Env) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is an important target for the development of an HIV vaccine. Extensive glycosylation of Env is an important feature that both protects the virus from antibody responses and serves as a target for some highly potent broadly neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, analysis of glycans on recombinant Env proteins is highly significant. Here we present glycosylation profiles of recombinant gp120 proteins from four major clades of HIV-1 (A, B, C, and AE) produced either as research-grade material in 293 and CHO cells or as two independent lots of clinical material under GMP ...


Reporter Assays For Ebola Virus Nucleoprotein Oligomerization, Virion-Like Particle Budding, And Minigenome Activity Reveal The Importance Of Nucleoprotein Amino Acid Position 111, Aaron E. Lin, William E. Diehl, Yingyun Cai, Courtney L. Finch, Chidiebere Akusobi, Robert N. Kirchdoerfer, Laura Bollinger, Stephen F. Schaffner, Elizabeth A. Brown, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Kristian G. Andersen, Jens H. Kuhn, Jeremy Luban, Pardis C. Sabeti 2020 Harvard Medical School

Reporter Assays For Ebola Virus Nucleoprotein Oligomerization, Virion-Like Particle Budding, And Minigenome Activity Reveal The Importance Of Nucleoprotein Amino Acid Position 111, Aaron E. Lin, William E. Diehl, Yingyun Cai, Courtney L. Finch, Chidiebere Akusobi, Robert N. Kirchdoerfer, Laura Bollinger, Stephen F. Schaffner, Elizabeth A. Brown, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Kristian G. Andersen, Jens H. Kuhn, Jeremy Luban, Pardis C. Sabeti

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

For highly pathogenic viruses, reporter assays that can be rapidly performed are critically needed to identify potentially functional mutations for further study under maximal containment (e.g., biosafety level 4 [BSL-4]). The Ebola virus nucleoprotein (NP) plays multiple essential roles during the viral life cycle, yet few tools exist to study the protein under BSL-2 or equivalent containment. Therefore, we adapted reporter assays to measure NP oligomerization and virion-like particle (VLP) production in live cells and further measured transcription and replication using established minigenome assays. As a proof-of-concept, we examined the NP-R111C substitution, which emerged during the 20132016 Western African ...


Real-Time Analysis Of Individual Ebola Virus Glycoproteins Reveals Pre-Fusion, Entry-Relevant Conformational Dynamics, Natasha D. Durham, Angela R. Howard, Ramesh Govindan, Fernando Senjobe, J. Maximilian Fels, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban, Kartik Chandran, James B. Munro 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Real-Time Analysis Of Individual Ebola Virus Glycoproteins Reveals Pre-Fusion, Entry-Relevant Conformational Dynamics, Natasha D. Durham, Angela R. Howard, Ramesh Govindan, Fernando Senjobe, J. Maximilian Fels, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban, Kartik Chandran, James B. Munro

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The Ebola virus (EBOV) envelope glycoprotein (GP) mediates the fusion of the virion membrane with the membrane of susceptible target cells during infection. While proteolytic cleavage of GP by endosomal cathepsins and binding of the cellular receptor Niemann-Pick C1 protein (NPC1) are essential steps for virus entry, the detailed mechanisms by which these events promote membrane fusion remain unknown. Here, we applied single-molecule Forster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) imaging to investigate the structural dynamics of the EBOV GP trimeric ectodomain, and the functional transmembrane protein on the surface of pseudovirions. We show that in both contexts, pre-fusion GP is dynamic ...


Structure Of The Vesicular Stomatitis Virus L Protein In Complex With Its Phosphoprotein Cofactor, Simon Jenni, Louis-Marie Bloyet, Ruben Diaz-Avalos, Bo Liang, Sean P.J. Whelan, Nikolaus Grigorieff, Stephen C. Harrison 2020 Harvard Medical School

Structure Of The Vesicular Stomatitis Virus L Protein In Complex With Its Phosphoprotein Cofactor, Simon Jenni, Louis-Marie Bloyet, Ruben Diaz-Avalos, Bo Liang, Sean P.J. Whelan, Nikolaus Grigorieff, Stephen C. Harrison

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The large (L) proteins of non-segmented, negative-strand RNA viruses are multifunctional enzymes that produce capped, methylated, and polyadenylated mRNA and replicate the viral genome. A phosphoprotein (P), required for efficient RNA-dependent RNA polymerization from the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) template, regulates the function and conformation of the L protein. We report the structure of vesicular stomatitis virus L in complex with its P cofactor determined by electron cryomicroscopy at 3.0 A resolution, enabling us to visualize bound segments of P. The contacts of three P segments with multiple L domains show how P induces a closed, compact, initiation-competent conformation. Binding ...


Characterization Of The Anti-Viral Activity Of Schlafen13, Jordan Winfield 2020 University of Texas at El Paso

Characterization Of The Anti-Viral Activity Of Schlafen13, Jordan Winfield

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Schlafen13 (Slfn13) is an enzyme that belongs to the Schlafen family whose expression and function is not very well characterized. The N-terminal has a pseudo dimer structure that contains its catalytic site. There is no characterization functionally or structurally of the C-terminal of Slfn13 other than the prediction of a region with helicase activity. The objective of my Thesis was to increase our understanding of the Slfn family of proteins. Currently, Slfn13 is reported to play a role in the differentiation of monocytes and to function as an endoribonuclease that cleaves tRNA and rRNA molecules in a site-dependent sequence-independent manner ...


Non-Naturally Occurring Porcine Reproduction And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv) And Methods Of Using, Hiep Lai Xuan Vu, Fernando Osorio, William W. Laegreid, Asit K. Pattnaik, Fangrui Ma 2020 Lincoln, Ne

Non-Naturally Occurring Porcine Reproduction And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv) And Methods Of Using, Hiep Lai Xuan Vu, Fernando Osorio, William W. Laegreid, Asit K. Pattnaik, Fangrui Ma

Virology Papers

A non-naturally occuring porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is provided herein, and methods of making and using the non-naturally occurring PRRSV also are provided.


Evaluation Of Antibody Response Directed Against Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Structural Proteins, Hung Q. Luong, Huong T.L. Lai, Hiep L.X. Vu 2020 1

Evaluation Of Antibody Response Directed Against Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Structural Proteins, Hung Q. Luong, Huong T.L. Lai, Hiep L.X. Vu

Virology Papers

Luciferase-immunoprecipitation system (LIPS), a liquid phase immunoassay, was used to evaluate antibody responses directed against the structural proteins of PRRSV in pigs that were experimentally infected with virulent PRRSV strains. First, the viral N protein was used as a model antigen to validate the assay. The LIPS results were highly comparable to that of the commercial IDEXX PRRS X3 ELISA. Subsequently, the assay was applied to simultaneously measure antibody reactivity against all eight structural proteins of PRRSV. The highest immunoreactivities were detected against GP3, M, and N proteins while the lowest reactivity was detected against ORF5a protein. Comparative analysis of ...


The Kaposi’S Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (Kshv) Gh/Gl Complex Is The Predominant Neutralizing Antigenic Determinant In Kshv-Infected Individuals, Yasaman Mortazavi, Salum J. Lidenge, Tara Tran, John T. West, Charles Wood, For Yue Tso 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Kaposi’S Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (Kshv) Gh/Gl Complex Is The Predominant Neutralizing Antigenic Determinant In Kshv-Infected Individuals, Yasaman Mortazavi, Salum J. Lidenge, Tara Tran, John T. West, Charles Wood, For Yue Tso

Virology Papers

Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), one of the most prevalent cancers of people living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. The seroprevalence for KSHV is high in the region, and no prophylactic vaccine against the virus is available. In this study, we characterized the antigenic targets of KSHV-specific neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in asymptomatic KSHV-infected individuals and KS patients with high nAbs titers. We quantified the extent to which various KSHV envelope glycoproteins (gB, ORF28, ORF68, gH, gL, gM, gN and gpK8.1) adsorbed/removed KSHV-specific nAbs from the plasma of infected ...


Analysis Of Student Perceptions Of Just-In-Time Teaching Pedagogy In Pharmd Microbiology And Immunology Courses, Charitha Madiraju, Eglis Tellez-Corrales, Henry Hua, Jozef Stec, Andromeda M. Nauli, Deborah M. Brown 2020 Marshall B. Ketchum University

Analysis Of Student Perceptions Of Just-In-Time Teaching Pedagogy In Pharmd Microbiology And Immunology Courses, Charitha Madiraju, Eglis Tellez-Corrales, Henry Hua, Jozef Stec, Andromeda M. Nauli, Deborah M. Brown

Virology Papers

Just-In-Time Teaching (JiTT) active learning pedagogy is utilized by various disciplines, but its value in a professional pharmacy curriculum has not yet been demonstrated. The purpose of our research study is to implement and evaluate JiTT in a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) program. The impetus in implementing JiTT into a PharmD curriculum was to provide students with an out-of-classroom learning opportunity to enhance knowledge-based skills. The current study summarizes the implementation of JiTT in four distinct instances: two iterations of the required courses “Integrated Microbiology and Virology” (Fall 2016 and Fall 2017) and “Integrated Immunology” (Winter 2016–2017 and Winter ...


Prevalence Of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus And Transfusion-Transmissible Infections In Tanzanian Blood Donors, Salum J. Lidenge, Tara Tran, For Yue Tso, John R. Ngowi, Danielle M. Shea, Julius Mwaiselage, Charles Wood, John T. West 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Ocean Road Cancer Institute & Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences

Prevalence Of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus And Transfusion-Transmissible Infections In Tanzanian Blood Donors, Salum J. Lidenge, Tara Tran, For Yue Tso, John R. Ngowi, Danielle M. Shea, Julius Mwaiselage, Charles Wood, John T. West

Virology Papers

Objective: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), one of the most common cancers in Tanzania. We have investigated KSHV prevalence and factors associated with KSHV infection in Tanzania.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of voluntary blood-donors from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Plasma was screened for KSHV, HIV-1, HBV, HCV and Treponema pallidum (syphilis). Associations between KSHV sero-status and risk factors were analyzed. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported to evaluate risk factors of KSHV infection. All tests were 2-tailed, and P-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: The overall KSHV seroprevalence was ...


Lack Of Cd8+ T-Cell Co-Localization With Kaposi’S Sarcoma- Associated Herpesvirus Infected Cells In Kaposi’S Sarcoma Tumors, Salum J. Lidenge, For Yue Tso, Owen Ngalamika, Jaydeep Kolape, John R. Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Charles Wood, John T. West 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Ocean Road Cancer Institute, & Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences

Lack Of Cd8+ T-Cell Co-Localization With Kaposi’S Sarcoma- Associated Herpesvirus Infected Cells In Kaposi’S Sarcoma Tumors, Salum J. Lidenge, For Yue Tso, Owen Ngalamika, Jaydeep Kolape, John R. Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Charles Wood, John T. West

Virology Papers

Despite the close association between Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and immune dysfunction, it remains unclear whether tumor infiltrating immune cells (TIIC), by their absence, presence, or dysfunction, are mechanistically correlated with KS pathogenesis. Therefore, their potential capacity to serve as prognostic biomarkers of KS disease progression or control is unclear. Because epidemic-KS (EpKS) occurs with HIV-1 co-infection, it is particularly important to compare TIIC between EpKS and HIV-negative African endemic-KS (EnKS) to dissect the roles of HIV-1 and Kaposi Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in KS pathogenesis. This cross-sectional study of 13 advanced KS (4 EnKS, 9 EpKS) patients and 3 healthy ...


Incidence Of The Covid-19 In Iraq – Implications For Travellers, Maysaa Kadhim Al-Malkey, Maitham Ahmed Al-Sammak 2020 University of Baghdad

Incidence Of The Covid-19 In Iraq – Implications For Travellers, Maysaa Kadhim Al-Malkey, Maitham Ahmed Al-Sammak

Virology Papers

The first emerged Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China at the end of 2019, then spread to the rest of China [1], followed by the spread of the COVID-19 epidemics into the world caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) [2]. Many epidemiological assessments in different countries from Asia, Europe, and North America have been published [3]. Nevertheless, there are countries in the Middle East like Iraq, with a rapid increase in cases and a high number of deaths, with a lack of studies. It is worth noting that the Iraqi Foreign Ministry was ...


Diversity Of Trna Clusters In The Chloroviruses, Garry A. Duncan, David D. Dunigan Ph. D., James L. Van Etten 2020 Nebraska Wesleyan University

Diversity Of Trna Clusters In The Chloroviruses, Garry A. Duncan, David D. Dunigan Ph. D., James L. Van Etten

Virology Papers

Viruses rely on their host’s translation machinery for the synthesis of their own proteins. Problems belie viral translation when the host has a codon usage bias (CUB) that is different from an infecting virus due to differences in the GC content between the host and virus genomes. Here, we examine the hypothesis that chloroviruses adapted to host CUB by acquisition and selection of tRNAs that at least partially favor their own CUB. The genomes of 41 chloroviruses comprising three clades, each infecting a different algal host, have been sequenced, assembled and annotated. All 41 viruses not only encode tRNAs ...


Biological And Computational Studies Of The Structure And Function Of Pul103, A Human Cytomegalovirus Tegument Protein, Ashley N. Anderson 2020 Wayne State University

Biological And Computational Studies Of The Structure And Function Of Pul103, A Human Cytomegalovirus Tegument Protein, Ashley N. Anderson

Wayne State University Dissertations

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an enveloped, single segment, double-stranded DNA virus. HCMV infection causes disease in immunocompromised (HIV patients, transplant recipients) and immunodeficient (fetuses, neonates) populations. Current treatments are effective but are either limited in use or can lead to organ damage and/or antiviral resistance, and no vaccines are available. Additional antiviral targets are needed. HCMV pUL103 is a potential antiviral target. pUL103 is a conserved herpesvirus protein present in the tegument, layer of proteins and RNA between the envelope and capsid of HCMV virions. pUL103 helps reorganize cellular secretory machinery (Golgi, endosomes) to form the cytoplasmic virion assembly ...


Recommendations For Measuring Hiv Reservoir Size In Cure- Directed Clinical Trials., Luis J. Montaner, Qingsheng Li 2020 The Wistar Institute

Recommendations For Measuring Hiv Reservoir Size In Cure- Directed Clinical Trials., Luis J. Montaner, Qingsheng Li

Virology Papers

Therapeutic strategies are being clinically tested either to eradicate the latent HIV reservoir or to achieve virologic control in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Attaining this goal will require a consensus on how best to measure the levels of persistently-infected cells with the potential to cause viral rebound upon ART cessation to assess the results of cure-directed strategies in vivo. Current measurements assess different aspects of the HIV provirus and its functionality, and produce divergent results. Here, we provide the collective insight and position from the BEAT-HIV Martin Delaney Collaboratory on which viral measurements to prioritize in HIV cure-directed ...


Mycoplasma Co-Infection Is Associated With Cervical Cancer Risk, Cameron Klein, Kandali Samwel, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwaiselage, John T. West, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mycoplasma Co-Infection Is Associated With Cervical Cancer Risk, Cameron Klein, Kandali Samwel, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwaiselage, John T. West, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti

Virology Papers

Tanzania faces one of the highest cervical cancer burdens in the world. Recent work has suggested that the bacterial family Mycoplasmataceae is associated with higher levels of human papillomavirus (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and pre-cancerous cervical lesions. Mycoplasmataceae infection in Tanzania is not well understood, especially when considering the differences between sexually transmitted species of Mycoplasmataceae. To establish the prevalence of common Mycoplasmataceae cervical infections and evaluate their relationship with risk factors for cervical cancer, 1160 Tanzanian women responded to an epidemiological questionnaire and were tested for HIV, HPV, cervical lesions, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma spp., and Lactobacillus ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress