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Full-Text Articles in Virology

Psychological Impact Of Novel Coronavirus Covid-19 Across The Globe-A Review, Sadaf Shaheen, Iram Asim, Rida Zainab, Humaira Yasmeen May 2021

Psychological Impact Of Novel Coronavirus Covid-19 Across The Globe-A Review, Sadaf Shaheen, Iram Asim, Rida Zainab, Humaira Yasmeen

Journal of Bioresource Management

The recent outbreaks of novel coronavirus disease have unprecedent impact on mental health of patients, front-line healthcare workers and local population. However, the impact is not fully documented. This review explores stress-driven factors, stress-vulnerable groups and stress management interventions. Repetitive exposure to mass media and inappropriate health protective measures has heightened stress responses. Fear of not getting recovered from COVID-19 and disaffection has profound impact of infected individuals and their families. They may experience fear, anxiety, anger, sleep deprives and anorexia which may weakens their immune system thus making them vulnerable to COVID-19. The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored potential gaps ...


Mucormycosis (Block Fungus) Maiming Covid Patients: Scientometrics Analysis Through Prism Of Biblioshiny, Sivankalai S, K Sivasekaran May 2021

Mucormycosis (Block Fungus) Maiming Covid Patients: Scientometrics Analysis Through Prism Of Biblioshiny, Sivankalai S, K Sivasekaran

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This study analyses the global level outlook of research publications on Mucormycosis output between the period of 1923 to 2021 (May) on different limitations including contribution of authors, communication channel, publications on Institutions, countries, Journals, cited articles and mode of languages. 4451 data was downloaded from core collection of Web of Science bibliographic database using the search term ‘Mucormycosis’ and limited the publications 1900 to 2021, first publication was started in 1923 onwards. 3798 institutions and 8562 different disciplines contributed and 2808 records are in Articles. 4451 records published by 17320 authors and 23552 collaborated authors, documents per author are ...


Investigating The Sars-Cov-2 Orf 8 Accessory Protein: Expression, Purification, And Structural Determination, Laney Hedgeman, Caroline Salha May 2021

Investigating The Sars-Cov-2 Orf 8 Accessory Protein: Expression, Purification, And Structural Determination, Laney Hedgeman, Caroline Salha

Symposium of Student Scholars

Abstract

In order to provide insight into potential therapeutic breakthroughs for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), more research must be done to understand the structure and function of its proteins. The open reading frame 8 (ORF 8) accessory protein is particularly unstable on its own outside of the viral envelope but can be stabilized when bound to the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) protein. The stable ORF 8-SUMO protein complex can be expressed and purified using familiar techniques and later characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thus allowing us to gain knowledge about the role it plays ...


Forum 1: Social Inequality, Justice, And Vaccine Intent And Distribution In The United States, Grant Drawve, Kevin Fitzpatrick, Casey Harris May 2021

Forum 1: Social Inequality, Justice, And Vaccine Intent And Distribution In The United States, Grant Drawve, Kevin Fitzpatrick, Casey Harris

Vaccine Course

The key issues for the distribution of the COVID vaccine are shared. These issues include funding, racial and ethnic disparities, supply and logistics, communication and trust, federal, state and local roles, and coverage and costs.


Antibiotic Resistance Crisis Spurring Phage Therapy Research, Cameron Miguel Perry May 2021

Antibiotic Resistance Crisis Spurring Phage Therapy Research, Cameron Miguel Perry

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Proteomic Analysis Of Mycobacteriophage Crimd, William Moeller May 2021

Proteomic Analysis Of Mycobacteriophage Crimd, William Moeller

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Bacteriophages represent a large portion of the biomatter on our planet, and many of them have yet to be fully characterized. Here we discuss the proteomic analysis of a particular Bacteriophage, Mycobacteriophage CrimD. This phage was discovered on the Campus of William & Mary and has had its genome characterized. We took the next logical step of proteomic analysis.

In our analyses we made use high pressure liquid chromatography paired with linear ion trap mass spectrometry to analyze the proteome of CrimD at specific time points after the infection of its host, Mycobacterium smegmatis. Additionally, we used nanospray ionization with in-house ...


Sodium Pyruvate Ameliorates Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro And In Vivo, Jessica M. Reel May 2021

Sodium Pyruvate Ameliorates Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro And In Vivo, Jessica M. Reel

MSU Graduate Theses

Pyruvate is produced in duplicate at the end of glycolysis in addition to ATP and NADH. Pyruvate is the metabolite of choice in most cells, whether obtained exogenously or endogenously. Recently we found that the addition of pyruvate’s conjugate base, sodium pyruvate, to cell culture media dampened the immune response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection in cultured innate immune cells. Thus, I decided to investigate the mechanism and potential for treatment of IAV. In vitro using bone marrow derived macrophages that were infected with IAV we found that adding sodium pyruvate to the media decreased immune signaling pathways ...


Hiv-1 Drug Resistance To Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors In Hiv-1 Non-B Subtypes, Emmanuel Ndashimye Apr 2021

Hiv-1 Drug Resistance To Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors In Hiv-1 Non-B Subtypes, Emmanuel Ndashimye

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV-1) has infected over 75 million people and over 35 million have succumbed to virus related illnesses. Despite access to a variety of antiretroviral therapy (ART) options, ART programs have been disproportionally spread in the world with low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) facing challenges to access the most potent ART options. With less potent ART remaining in use in LMICs, HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) presents a growing challenge in LMICs. Since approval of the first-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTIs), Raltegravir (RAL) in 2007, INSTIs remain the best choice as a backbone of ART. Access to second generation ...


B25: Generation And Characterization Of Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein-Pseudotyped Lentivirus Particles For Use In Neutralizing Antibody Titer Testing Of Human Serum, Luis Sanchez Apr 2021

B25: Generation And Characterization Of Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein-Pseudotyped Lentivirus Particles For Use In Neutralizing Antibody Titer Testing Of Human Serum, Luis Sanchez

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


B16: Chikungunya Virus Time Course Infection Of Human Macrophages, Madison Gray, Israel Guerrero-Arguero, Antonio Solis Leal, Richard Robison, Brad Burges, Brett Pickett Apr 2021

B16: Chikungunya Virus Time Course Infection Of Human Macrophages, Madison Gray, Israel Guerrero-Arguero, Antonio Solis Leal, Richard Robison, Brad Burges, Brett Pickett

Annual Research Symposium

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an Alphavirus spread by Aedes spp. mosquitoes and is responsible for infecting 1.1 million people per year worldwide, including a large epidemic in the western hemisphere in 2014-2015. During the body’s immune response to CHIKV, human macrophages become infected after phagocytosis of CHIKV and undergo induced apoptosis, catalyzing the virus spread in the body. It is presently unclear what macrophage genes, functions, and intracellular signaling pathways are impacted during the early, intermediate, and late stages of CHIKV infection. Therefore we quantified the transcriptional response of human macrophage cells infected with CHIKV at two different ...


Characterization Of Novel Chlorovirus Glycosyltransferases That Synthesize Atypical Glycans, Eric Noel Apr 2021

Characterization Of Novel Chlorovirus Glycosyltransferases That Synthesize Atypical Glycans, Eric Noel

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Giant dsDNA chloroviruses encode a diverse repertoire of glycosyltransferases (GTases) and methyltransferases (MTases) that biosynthesize unusual, methylated sugars independent of their host chlorella-like green algae prompting a reexamination of glycobiology systems. Unlike most other viruses, the prototype chlorovirus PBCV-1 encodes most, if not all, of the machinery required to glycosylate its major capsid protein (MCP). The structures of the four N-linked glycans do not resemble any other glycans in the three domains of life. Here, we investigated the potential involvement of chlorovirus- encoded putative GTases and MTases in glycosylation of the viral MCP. First, we aimed to generate site-directed ...


Effectiveness Of Pathogen-Specific Passive Antibodies To Mitigate Infectious Diseases In Apis Mellifera, Tanner Nordseth Apr 2021

Effectiveness Of Pathogen-Specific Passive Antibodies To Mitigate Infectious Diseases In Apis Mellifera, Tanner Nordseth

Honors Thesis

Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are widely recognized as a vital part of the global ecosystem and the world's food supply due to their pivotal role in the pollination of both natural and agricultural flora. Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) is an emerging phenomenon characterized by a colony's worker bees deserting the hive and leaving the queen behind. This usually results in colony failure. CCD is a multifactorial issue, with many environmental stressors and pathogens playing a role. Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) has been identified as a leading cause in this phenomenon. Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) is another lethal pathogen that ...


Characterization Of Crispr Spacer And Protospacer Sequences In Paenibacillus Larvae And Its Bacteriophages, Casey Stamereilers, Simon Wong, Philippos K. Tsourkas Mar 2021

Characterization Of Crispr Spacer And Protospacer Sequences In Paenibacillus Larvae And Its Bacteriophages, Casey Stamereilers, Simon Wong, Philippos K. Tsourkas

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

The bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood, the most devastating bacterial disease of honeybees. Because P. larvae is antibiotic resistant, phages that infect it are currently used as alternative treatments. However, the acquisition by P. larvae of CRISPR spacer sequences from the phages could be an obstacle to treatment efforts. We searched nine complete genomes of P. larvae strains and identified 714 CRISPR spacer sequences, of which 384 are unique. Of the four epidemiologically important P. larvae strains, three of these have fewer than 20 spacers, while one strain has over 150 spacers. Of the 384 ...


Development Of Potency, Breadth And Resilience To Viral Escape Mutations In Sars-Cov-2 Neutralizing Antibodies [Preprint], Frauke Muecksch, Shurong Hou, Celia A. Schiffer, Michel Nussenzweig, Pamela J. Bjorkman, Theodora Hatziioannou, Paul Bieniasz Mar 2021

Development Of Potency, Breadth And Resilience To Viral Escape Mutations In Sars-Cov-2 Neutralizing Antibodies [Preprint], Frauke Muecksch, Shurong Hou, Celia A. Schiffer, Michel Nussenzweig, Pamela J. Bjorkman, Theodora Hatziioannou, Paul Bieniasz

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Antibodies elicited in response to infection undergo somatic mutation in germinal centers that can result in higher affinity for the cognate antigen. To determine the effects of somatic mutation on the properties of SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific antibodies, we analyzed six independent antibody lineages. As well as increased neutralization potency, antibody evolution changed pathways for acquisition of resistance and, in some cases, restricted the range of neutralization escape options. For some antibodies, maturation apparently imposed a requirement for multiple spike mutations to enable escape. For certain antibody lineages, maturation enabled neutralization of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and ...


Inhibition Of Zika Virus Replication By G-Quadruplex-Binding Ligands, Indian Institute Of Technology Indore, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Uma Shankar, Asit K. Pattnaik, Amit Kumar, Debasis Nayak Mar 2021

Inhibition Of Zika Virus Replication By G-Quadruplex-Binding Ligands, Indian Institute Of Technology Indore, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Uma Shankar, Asit K. Pattnaik, Amit Kumar, Debasis Nayak

Virology Papers

Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus, emerged in the last decade causing serious diseases and affecting human health globally. Currently, no licensed vaccines or antivirals are available to combat ZIKV, although several vaccine candidates are in the pipeline. In recent years, the presence of non-canonical G-quadruplex (GQ) secondary structures in viral genomes has ignited significant attention as potential targets for antiviral strategy. In this study, we identified several novel conserved potential GQ structures by analyzing published ZIKV genome sequences using an in-house algorithm. Biophysical and biochemical analysis of the RNA sequences containing these potential GQ sequences suggested the existence of ...


A Novel Dna And Protein Combination Covid-19 Vaccine Formulation Provides Full Protection Against Sars-Cov-2 In Rhesus Macaques, Yuzhong Li, Guangnan Hu, Shixia Wang, Qihan Li, Shan Lu, Wei Cun Feb 2021

A Novel Dna And Protein Combination Covid-19 Vaccine Formulation Provides Full Protection Against Sars-Cov-2 In Rhesus Macaques, Yuzhong Li, Guangnan Hu, Shixia Wang, Qihan Li, Shan Lu, Wei Cun

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

The current study aims to develop a safe and highly immunogenic COVID-19 vaccine. The novel combination of a DNA vaccine encoding the full-length Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 and a recombinant S1 protein vaccine induced high level neutralizing antibody and T cell immune responses in both small and large animal models. More significantly, the co-delivery of DNA and protein components at the same time elicited full protection against intratracheal challenge of SARS-CoV-2 viruses in immunized rhesus macaques. As both DNA and protein vaccines have been proven safe in previous human studies, and DNA vaccines are capable of eliciting germinal center ...


Unique Structural Solution From A Vh3-30 Antibody Targeting The Hemagglutinin Stem Of Influenza A Viruses, Wayne D. Harshbarger, Derrick Deming, Gordon J. Lockbaum, Nattapol Attatippaholkun, Maliwan Kamkaew, Shurong Hou, Mohan Somasundaran, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Quan Karen Zhu, Celia A. Schiffer, Wayne A Marasco Jan 2021

Unique Structural Solution From A Vh3-30 Antibody Targeting The Hemagglutinin Stem Of Influenza A Viruses, Wayne D. Harshbarger, Derrick Deming, Gordon J. Lockbaum, Nattapol Attatippaholkun, Maliwan Kamkaew, Shurong Hou, Mohan Somasundaran, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Quan Karen Zhu, Celia A. Schiffer, Wayne A Marasco

Schiffer Lab Publications

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) targeting conserved influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) epitopes can provide valuable information for accelerating universal vaccine designs. Here, we report structural details for heterosubtypic recognition of HA from circulating and emerging IAVs by the human antibody 3I14. Somatic hypermutations play a critical role in shaping the HCDR3, which alone and uniquely among VH3-30 derived antibodies, forms contacts with five sub-pockets within the HA-stem hydrophobic groove. 3I14 light-chain interactions are also key for binding HA and contribute a large buried surface area spanning two HA protomers. Comparison of 3I14 to bnAbs from several defined ...


Crystal Structure Of Sars-Cov-2 Main Protease In Complex With The Non-Covalent Inhibitor Ml188, Gordon J. Lockbaum, Archie C. Reyes, Jeong Min Lee, Ronak Tilvawala, Ellen A. Nalivaika, Akbar Ali, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Paul R. Thompson, Celia A. Schiffer Jan 2021

Crystal Structure Of Sars-Cov-2 Main Protease In Complex With The Non-Covalent Inhibitor Ml188, Gordon J. Lockbaum, Archie C. Reyes, Jeong Min Lee, Ronak Tilvawala, Ellen A. Nalivaika, Akbar Ali, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Paul R. Thompson, Celia A. Schiffer

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Viral proteases are critical enzymes for the maturation of many human pathogenic viruses and thus are key targets for direct acting antivirals (DAAs). The current viral pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is in dire need of DAAs. The Main protease (M(pro)) is the focus of extensive structure-based drug design efforts which are mostly covalent inhibitors targeting the catalytic cysteine. ML188 is a non-covalent inhibitor designed to target SARS-CoV-1 M(pro), and provides an initial scaffold for the creation of effective pan-coronavirus inhibitors. In the current study, we found that ML188 inhibits SARS-CoV-2 M(pro) at 2.5 microM, which is ...


Innate Lymphoid Cells And Disease Tolerance In Sars-Cov-2 Infection [Preprint], Noah J. Silverstein, Yetao Wang, Zachary Manickas-Hill, Claudia C. Carbone, Ann Dauphin, Mgh Covid-19 Collection & Processing Team, Jonathan Z. Li, Bruce D. Walker, Xu G. Yu, Jeremy Luban Jan 2021

Innate Lymphoid Cells And Disease Tolerance In Sars-Cov-2 Infection [Preprint], Noah J. Silverstein, Yetao Wang, Zachary Manickas-Hill, Claudia C. Carbone, Ann Dauphin, Mgh Covid-19 Collection & Processing Team, Jonathan Z. Li, Bruce D. Walker, Xu G. Yu, Jeremy Luban

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) increases with age, is greater in males, and is associated with decreased numbers of blood lymphoid cells. Though the reasons for these robust associations are unclear, effects of age and sex on innate and adaptive lymphoid subsets, including on homeostatic innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) implicated in disease tolerance, may underlie the effects of age and sex on COVID-19 morbidity and mortality.

METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to quantitate subsets of blood lymphoid cells from people infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), comparing those hospitalized with severe COVID-19 (n=40 ...


Disruption Of Cellular P-Bodies During An Adenovirus Infection​, La`Quita Randolph, Kevin Neubrecht, Kasey A. Karen Jan 2021

Disruption Of Cellular P-Bodies During An Adenovirus Infection​, La`Quita Randolph, Kevin Neubrecht, Kasey A. Karen

Graduate Research Posters

Adenovirus has made major contributions in medicine by serving as a model DNA virus to study other viruses, such as human papillomavirus (HPV). Adenoviruses are a diverse family of nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses that are ubiquitous to animals and humans. There are over 67 serotypes of human adenoviruses that can cause a variety of illnesses including, gastroenteritis, conjunctivitis and respiratory infections. Adenovirus can cause these infections by invading host cells and producing an environment that is favorable for viral replication. During the early phases of infection, adenovirus expresses various viral proteins such as E4 11k, which has multiple functions. One ...


The 20th Anniversary Meeting Of The Rocky Mountain Virology Association, Joel Rovnak, Laura A. St Clair, Carley Mcalister, Chinemerem P. Ogbu, Jessica Smolenske, Randall J. Cohrs, Rushika Perera Jan 2021

The 20th Anniversary Meeting Of The Rocky Mountain Virology Association, Joel Rovnak, Laura A. St Clair, Carley Mcalister, Chinemerem P. Ogbu, Jessica Smolenske, Randall J. Cohrs, Rushika Perera

Virology Papers

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and multiple devastating forest fires, the 2020 meeting of the Rocky Mountain Virology Association was held virtually. The three-day gathering featured talks describing recent advances in virology and prion research. The keynote presentation described the measles virus paradox of immune suppression and life-long immunity. Special invited speakers presented information concerning visualizing antiviral effector cell biology in mucosal tissues, uncovering the T-cell tropism of Epstein-Barr virus type 2, a history and current survey of coronavirus spike proteins, a summary of Zika virus vaccination and immunity, the innate immune response to flavivirus infections, a discussion concerning prion ...


High Prevalence Of Pre-Existing Serological Cross-Reactivity Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (Sars-Cov-2) In Sub-Saharan Africa, For Yue Tso, Salum J. Lidenge, Phoebe B. Peña, Ashley A. Clegg, John R. Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Owen Ngalamika, Peter Julius, John T. West, Charles Wood Jan 2021

High Prevalence Of Pre-Existing Serological Cross-Reactivity Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (Sars-Cov-2) In Sub-Saharan Africa, For Yue Tso, Salum J. Lidenge, Phoebe B. Peña, Ashley A. Clegg, John R. Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Owen Ngalamika, Peter Julius, John T. West, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Objective: Significant morbidity and mortality have occurred in the USA, Europe, and Asia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), whereas the numbers of infections and deaths in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have remained comparatively low. It has been hypothesized that exposure of the population in SSA to other coronaviruses prior to the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in some degree of cross-protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis. We evaluated this hypothesis by comparing SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive antibodies in pre-pandemic plasma samples collected from SSA and the USA.

Method: Pre-COVID-19 pandemic plasma samples from SSA and the USA were collected and tested by ...


Strategies Targeting Hemagglutinin As A Universal Influenza Vaccine, Brianna L. Bullard, Eric A. Weaver Jan 2021

Strategies Targeting Hemagglutinin As A Universal Influenza Vaccine, Brianna L. Bullard, Eric A. Weaver

Virology Papers

Influenza virus has significant viral diversity, both through antigenic drift and shift, which makes development of a vaccine challenging. Current influenza vaccines are updated yearly to in- clude strains predicted to circulate in the upcoming influenza season, however this can lead to a mismatch which reduces vaccine efficacy. Several strategies targeting the most abundant and im- munogenic surface protein of influenza, the hemagglutinin (HA) protein, have been explored. These strategies include stalk-directed, consensus-based, and computationally derived HA immunogens. In this review, we explore vaccine strategies which utilize novel antigen design of the HA protein to improve cross-reactive immunity for development ...


Zika Virus Infection Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress And Apoptosis In Placental Trophoblasts, Philma Glora Muthuraj, Prakask K. Sahoo, Madison Kraus, Taylor Bruett, Arun S. Annamalai, Aryamav Pattnaik, Asit K. Pattnaik, Siddappa N. Byrareddy, Sathish Kumar Natarajan Jan 2021

Zika Virus Infection Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress And Apoptosis In Placental Trophoblasts, Philma Glora Muthuraj, Prakask K. Sahoo, Madison Kraus, Taylor Bruett, Arun S. Annamalai, Aryamav Pattnaik, Asit K. Pattnaik, Siddappa N. Byrareddy, Sathish Kumar Natarajan

Virology Papers

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection to a pregnant woman can be vertically transmitted to the fetus via the placenta leading to Congenital Zika syndrome. This is characterized by microcephaly, retinal defects, and intrauterine growth retardation. ZIKV induces placental trophoblast apoptosis leading to severe abnormalities in the growth and development of the fetus. However, the molecular mechanism behind ZIKV-induced apoptosis in placental trophoblasts remains unclear. We hypothesize that ZIKV infection induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the trophoblasts, and sustained ER stress results in apoptosis. HTR-8 (HTR-8/SVneo), a human normal immortalized trophoblast cell and human choriocarcinoma-derived cell lines (JEG-3 and JAR ...


Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Multidomain Protein A111/114r Has Three Glycosyltransferase Functions Involved In The Synthesis Of Atypical N-Glycans, Eric Noel, Anna Notaro, Immacolata Speciale, Garry A. Duncan, Cristina De Castro, James L. Van Etten Jan 2021

Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Multidomain Protein A111/114r Has Three Glycosyltransferase Functions Involved In The Synthesis Of Atypical N-Glycans, Eric Noel, Anna Notaro, Immacolata Speciale, Garry A. Duncan, Cristina De Castro, James L. Van Etten

Virology Papers

The structures of the four N-linked glycans from the prototype chlorovirus PBCV-1 major capsid protein do not resemble any other glycans in the three domains of life. All known chloroviruses and antigenic variants (or mutants) share a unique conserved central glycan core consisting of five sugars, except for antigenic mutant virus P1L6, which has four of the five sugars. A combination of ge- netic and structural analyses indicates that the protein coded by PBCV-1 gene a111/114r, conserved in all chloroviruses, is a glycosyltransferase with three putative domains of approximately 300 amino acids each. Here, in addition to in silico ...


High Prevalence Of Pre-Existing Serological Cross-Reactivity Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (Sars- Cov-2) In Sub-Saharan Africa, For Yue Tso, Salum Lidenge, Phoebe B. Peña, Ashley A. Clegg, John R. Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Owen Ngalamika, Peter Julius, John T. West, Charles Wood Jan 2021

High Prevalence Of Pre-Existing Serological Cross-Reactivity Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (Sars- Cov-2) In Sub-Saharan Africa, For Yue Tso, Salum Lidenge, Phoebe B. Peña, Ashley A. Clegg, John R. Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Owen Ngalamika, Peter Julius, John T. West, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Objective: Significant morbidity and mortality have occurred in the USA, Europe, and Asia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), whereas the numbers of infections and deaths in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have remained comparatively low. It has been hypothesized that exposure of the population in SSA to other coronaviruses prior to the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in some degree of cross-protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis. We evaluated this hypothesis by comparing SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive antibodies in pre-pandemic plasma samples collected from SSA and the USA.

Method: Pre-COVID-19 pandemic plasma samples from SSA and the USA were collected and tested by ...


Entry And Replication Of Negative-Strand Rna Viruses, Kerri Boggs Jan 2021

Entry And Replication Of Negative-Strand Rna Viruses, Kerri Boggs

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Hendra virus (HeV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are negative-sense, singled-stranded RNA viruses. The paramyxovirus HeV is classified as a biosafety level 4 pathogen due to its high fatality rate and the lack of a human vaccine or antiviral treatment. HMPV is a widespread pneumovirus that causes respiratory tract infections which are particularly dangerous for young children, immunocompromised individuals, and the elderly. Like HeV, no vaccines or therapies are available to combat HMPV infections. These viruses fuse their lipid envelopes with a cell to initiate infection. Blocking cell entry is a promising approach for antiviral development, and many vaccines are designed ...


Satellite Viruses: A Literature Review, Brian Evans Jan 2021

Satellite Viruses: A Literature Review, Brian Evans

Creative Components

Viruses as a whole have long been an infectious and deadly force of nature that has caused countless deaths and disfigurements, not only in humans but in plants and animals. Countless diseases throughout history can trace their origins back to viral infections and thus, created the necessary field of virology. With that came the discovery of satellite viruses, a subfamily of smaller viruses, with genomes of 0.22-1.5kbp, that utilize “helper viruses” to perform necessary actions required for the satellite’s survival. Whether the interaction between a satellite virus and its helper virus is symbiotic or detrimental to the ...


Virus Shedding Kinetics And Unconventional Virulence Tradeoffs, Andrew R. Wargo, Gael Kurath, Robert J. Scott, Benjamin Kerr Jan 2021

Virus Shedding Kinetics And Unconventional Virulence Tradeoffs, Andrew R. Wargo, Gael Kurath, Robert J. Scott, Benjamin Kerr

VIMS Articles

Tradeoff theory, which postulates that virulence provides both transmission costs and benefits for pathogens, has become widely adopted by the scientific community. Although theoretical literature exploring virulence-tradeoffs is vast, empirical studies validating various assumptions still remain sparse. In particular, truncation of transmission duration as a cost of virulence has been difficult to quantify with robust controlled in vivo studies. We sought to fill this knowledge gap by investigating how transmission rate and duration were associated with virulence for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Using host mortality to quantify virulence and viral shedding to quantify transmission ...


The Shape Of U: Mapping Out Protective Elements In Mrna Escapees, Jacob Miles Dec 2020

The Shape Of U: Mapping Out Protective Elements In Mrna Escapees, Jacob Miles

Masters Theses

A crucial step of the viral life cycle of Kaposi’s Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV) lytic infection is the triggering of a massive RNA decay event termed “Host Shutoff”. Host Shutoff is driven by the viral endonuclease SOX which leads to the destruction of over 70% of the total transcriptome. This process cripples cellular gene expression and allows for viral reprograming of the cell for the purpose of viral replication. Co-evolution has led to the host developing a multitude of antiviral defenses aimed at preserving certain cellular RNAs linked to antiviral responses. One such defense are RNA secondary structures located within ...