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Full-Text Articles in Virology

An Antiviral Response Unleashed: Deciphering The Relationship Between Shiftless And Rna Granules During Kshv Infection, David C. Hatfield Mar 2024

An Antiviral Response Unleashed: Deciphering The Relationship Between Shiftless And Rna Granules During Kshv Infection, David C. Hatfield

Masters Theses

Herpesviruses persist as a parasitic actor among many species. These viral agents can rapidly seize control over host cells by influencing global gene expression. Through a process known as host shutoff, herpesviruses cause a widespread degradation event of host transcripts within the cytoplasm. Specifically, Kaposi Sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes for an endoribonuclease, termed SOX, that orchestrates this manipulation of gene expression. We and others have discovered certain transcripts that escape this fate; we suggest that this is an active escape, where transcripts have 3’ UTR elements that disallow SOX cleavage. One of the escapees that has been found is …


Vitro Bacteriophage Treatment For A Staphylococcus Aureus And Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Co-Culture, Alexis Perry Mar 2024

Vitro Bacteriophage Treatment For A Staphylococcus Aureus And Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Co-Culture, Alexis Perry

Arkansas Women in STEM Conference

Recent studies show that up 27-36% of all infections are polymicrobial, involving more than one bacteria species. In all categories, polymicrobial infections are often more virulent and harmful to the patient. Since different types of bacteria can communicate with each other through quorum-sensing when in the presence of each other, they can display different genomic characteristics. Further research into polymicrobial infections needs to be done because these changing characteristics can prevent treatment from working, such as antibiotics or bacteriophage therapy. This experiment focused on the co-culture between the two bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, which can be found co-existing …


Investigating The Escape Mechanism Of Sre Bearing Mrna Transcripts During Viral Host Shutoff, Daniel Macveigh-Fierro Mar 2024

Investigating The Escape Mechanism Of Sre Bearing Mrna Transcripts During Viral Host Shutoff, Daniel Macveigh-Fierro

Doctoral Dissertations

During viral infection, the virus and host clash for control over gene expression in an evolutionarily arms race that has raged for thousands of years. During lytic replication, Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) triggers a massive RNA decay event known as host shut off. This causes over 70% of all RNA to be degraded suppressing the host antiviral response while freeing resources for viral replication. Our lab focuses on a subset of transcripts that escape from this viral degradation event using a cis acting 3’ UTR element known as a “SOX resistant element” or SRE. Although we have identified a …


Using Single Cell Genomics To Explore The Impact Of Marine Viruses On Microbial Respiration., Paxton Tomko Jan 2024

Using Single Cell Genomics To Explore The Impact Of Marine Viruses On Microbial Respiration., Paxton Tomko

MCB Articles

Viral metabolic reprograming of marine prokaryotes, through the use of virally encoded auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs), plays a critical role in marine ecosystem function by influencing biochemical cycles and genetic diversity in these environments. Despite the fundamental role viruses play in global environmental ecosystems, they remain an understudied aspect of microbial ecology and evolution, in part due to the methods available for studying virus host interactions in natural systems. Thus far, metagenomic analyses have been used to study the interactions of virus host pairs, but these types of analyses have their limitations in accurately linking viruses to hosts, or culture-based …


Developing Disinfection Strategies For Controlling Human Norovirus, Sars-Cov-2, And Clostridioides Difficile Endospores In Long-Term Care Facilities, Jinge Huang Dec 2023

Developing Disinfection Strategies For Controlling Human Norovirus, Sars-Cov-2, And Clostridioides Difficile Endospores In Long-Term Care Facilities, Jinge Huang

All Dissertations

Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) provide an environment favorable for the transmission of three critical human pathogens: human norovirus (HuNoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and Clostridioides difficile. Given residents in LTCFs are susceptible to infections due to their advanced ages and compromised immune systems, effective environmental surface disinfection plays a crucial role in controlling the spread of human pathogens within these settings and, therefore, mitigates the risk of infections caused by these pathogens. This dissertation aimed to assess the efficacy of various types of disinfectants against two HuNoV surrogates [feline calicivirus (FCV) and Tulane virus (TuV)], two …


Cell Surface And Plasma Biomarkers Of Kaposi Sarcoma, Sara R. Privatt Dec 2023

Cell Surface And Plasma Biomarkers Of Kaposi Sarcoma, Sara R. Privatt

Dissertations and Doctoral Documents from University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 2023–

Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is the etiological agent of several pathologies including Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman’s disease. Here, we investigated both the tumor microenvironment (TME) in KS lesions as well as plasma from KSHV-infected individuals and how metabolic dysfunction and dysregulated cytokines might have a systemic effect on KS tumorigenesis. Based on previously published KS tumor transcriptomics, one aspect of our investigation involved characterizing cell surface glycoproteins with potential to serve as therapeutic targets against KSHV-infected cells or KS tumors or as biomarkers for disease. Expression patterns of such markers may also suggest the cellular origin of …


Detection And Control Of Environmentally Transmissible Viruses, Anand R. Soorneedi Nov 2023

Detection And Control Of Environmentally Transmissible Viruses, Anand R. Soorneedi

Doctoral Dissertations

Viruses, owing to their ubiquitous nature and ability to infect almost every other species, have long been a subject of interest for scientists. Some of the virus species can be very deadly to humans and animals alike and can impose a huge economic and health burden across the world. The recent CoVID-19 pandemic underscores the importance of timely detection for developing effective intervention strategies. Unfortunately, some of the virus species that cause significant health and economic impacts do not have robust and reliable detection methods due to several reasons. In some cases, despite having gold standard methods for detection of …


Climate Change, Giant Viruses And Their Putative Hosts, Sarah K. Tucker Nov 2023

Climate Change, Giant Viruses And Their Putative Hosts, Sarah K. Tucker

Masters Theses

Viruses hold our attention for the horrific impact they have on human health and welfare. However, viruses are a critical part of our ecosystem and facilitate the cycling of carbon and other important nutrients. The cycle of virus infection, followed by host resistance and the subsequent evolution of new strains enables adaptation to changing hosts and the environment. Giant viruses, some with particle sizes large enough to be visible in light microscopes and their bewildering array of accessory genes, have captivated scientists and the general public since their discovery two decades ago. Giant viruses are part of the Nucleocytoviricota (NCV) …


Mycobacteriophage: A Demonstration Of The Reduction Of M. Smegmatis In Various Matrices., Laura O'Connell Nov 2023

Mycobacteriophage: A Demonstration Of The Reduction Of M. Smegmatis In Various Matrices., Laura O'Connell

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background

Mycobacterial disease is a major cause of fatality worldwide, with approximately 1.5 million deaths for every 10 million infections. These infections are difficult to treat due to the intrinsic resistance of its mycolic acid rich cell wall to many antibiotics. There is potential for mycobacteriophage (MP) to be used therapeutically for multidrug- and extensively-drug resistant infections. Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2 155 is a useful substitute for slow-growing pathogenic mycobacteria, as it propagates quickly under lab conditions. This feature of M. smegmatis increases the pace of analysis, by ensuring the quick isolation and characterisation of MP and acting as a …


Bactericidal Effects Of Chlorine And Bacteriophages On Mycobacteria In Conventionally Treated Water., Max Kevane-Campbell Nov 2023

Bactericidal Effects Of Chlorine And Bacteriophages On Mycobacteria In Conventionally Treated Water., Max Kevane-Campbell

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Introduction

Mycobacteria are members of the order Actinomycetales and the only genus in the family Mycobacteriaceae. The distinguishing characteristics that are found in mycobacteria include acid-fastness and the presence of mycolic acids. Mycobacteria can be commonly classified as non-spore-forming, aerobic, slender rod-shaped, and are slow-growers. Natural reservoirs that mycobacteria can be found in are aquatic and terrestrial environments. Recent studies have shown that mycobacteria that can cause skin lesions, immune and/or pulmonary dysfunctions and chronic diseases, i.e., Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis, M. kansasii, and M. xenopi, can be isolated from common household tap water. Tap water can originate from …


Sars-Cov-2: Tale Of A Microscopic Murderer, Josiah P. Garner Oct 2023

Sars-Cov-2: Tale Of A Microscopic Murderer, Josiah P. Garner

Quest

Independent Study

Research in progress for BIOL1406: Biology for Science Majors I

Faculty Mentor: Amina Tassa, Ph.D.

I am delighted to introduce Josiah Garner’s “SARS-CoV-2: Tale of a Microscopic Murderer.” This independent study assignment explores the impact of a novel, deadly, and worldwide virus. The assignment also examines the fast development of vaccines to control the spread and reduce the symptoms of the virus.

Josiah’s paper focuses on the early history of the emergence of COVID-19, the world response, and vaccine development. He demonstrates critical thinking skills and effectively utilizes various research methods to obtain and communicate his information. Josiah …


Predicted Structure And Analysis Of The Glycoprotein From Sars-Cov-2 Variants Of Interest, Boris Shabaltiy Oct 2023

Predicted Structure And Analysis Of The Glycoprotein From Sars-Cov-2 Variants Of Interest, Boris Shabaltiy

Honors Theses

SARS-CoV-2 has had a devastating effect on the world, and while the public concern and severity of the diseased caused by it have decreased, it is still crucial to monitor the virus for mutations so we can rapidly identify new variants of concern, and then rapidly prepare new vaccines and treatments. The SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein from the first isolates of the virus (root variant) was structurally characterized in early 2021. The spike protein structure, designated 7CZW, was uploaded to RCSB Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB). All subsequent mutations the S protein has accumulated are based on the amino acid …


Functional Characterization Of The Human And Murine Schlafen Family Group Iii, Carlos A. Valenzuela Oct 2023

Functional Characterization Of The Human And Murine Schlafen Family Group Iii, Carlos A. Valenzuela

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The Schlafen (SLFN) family of proteins are known for being encoded by interferon stimulated genes. The family is divided into three groups (I, II, III), for which the largest in size belong to the subgroup III. In humans, group III has the most members (SLFN5, SLFN11, SLFN13 and SLFN14); there is no member of group I and only one member of group II (SLFN12). All human SLFNs belonging to group III have been reported to impair viral protein expression or infection across a variety of viruses. The antiviral function is mediated in SLFN11 and SLFN13 by their tRNase activity, and …


Multiple Rsv Strains Infecting Hep-2 And A549 Cells Reveal Cell Line-Dependent Differences In Resistance To Rsv Infection, Anubama Rajan, Felipe-Andres Piedra, Letisha Aideyan, Trevor Mcbride, Matthew Robertson, Hannah L. Johnson, Gina Marie Aloisio, David Henke, Cristian Coarfa, Fabio Stossi, Vipin Kumar Menon, Harshavardhan Doddapaneni, Donna Marie Muzny, Sara Joan Javornik Cregeen, Kristi Louise Hoffman, Joseph Petrosino, Richard A. Gibbs, Vasanthi Avadhanula, Pedro A. Piedra Sep 2023

Multiple Rsv Strains Infecting Hep-2 And A549 Cells Reveal Cell Line-Dependent Differences In Resistance To Rsv Infection, Anubama Rajan, Felipe-Andres Piedra, Letisha Aideyan, Trevor Mcbride, Matthew Robertson, Hannah L. Johnson, Gina Marie Aloisio, David Henke, Cristian Coarfa, Fabio Stossi, Vipin Kumar Menon, Harshavardhan Doddapaneni, Donna Marie Muzny, Sara Joan Javornik Cregeen, Kristi Louise Hoffman, Joseph Petrosino, Richard A. Gibbs, Vasanthi Avadhanula, Pedro A. Piedra

Research Symposium

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major viral driver of a global pediatric respiratory disease burden disproportionately borne by the poor1. Thus, RSV, like SARS-CoV-2, combines with congenital and environmental and host-history-dependent factors to create a spectrum of disease with greatest severity most frequently occurring in those least able to procure treatment.

Methods: Here we apply whole genome sequencing and a suite of other molecular biological techniques to survey host-virus dynamics in infections of two distinct cell lines (HEp2 and A549) with four strains representative of known RSV genetic diversity.

Results: We observed non-gradient patterns of RSV …


Modeling Nonsegmented Negative-Strand Rna Virus (Nnsv) Transcription With Ejective Polymerase Collisions And Biased Diffusion, Felipe-Andres Piedra Sep 2023

Modeling Nonsegmented Negative-Strand Rna Virus (Nnsv) Transcription With Ejective Polymerase Collisions And Biased Diffusion, Felipe-Andres Piedra

Research Symposium

Background: The textbook model of NNSV transcription predicts a gene expression gradient. However, multiple studies show non-gradient gene expression patterns or data inconsistent with a simple gradient. Regarding the latter, several studies show a dramatic decrease in gene expression over the last two genes of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) genome (a highly studied NNSV). The textbook model cannot explain these phenomena.

Methods: Computational models of RSV and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV – another highly studied NNSV) transcription were written in the Python programming language using the Scientific Python Development Environment. The model code is freely available on GitHub: …


Sero-Epidemiology Of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis In Children In Ilorin, Kwara State, Omosigho Omoruyi Pius, Izevbuwa Osazee Ekundayo, Saheed Ibrahim Damilare Aug 2023

Sero-Epidemiology Of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis In Children In Ilorin, Kwara State, Omosigho Omoruyi Pius, Izevbuwa Osazee Ekundayo, Saheed Ibrahim Damilare

Journal of Bioresource Management

Rotavirus is responsible for the most severe dehydrating diarrhea among young children due to gastroenteritis. In this study, we aimed to ascertain the occurrence of childhood gastroenteritis caused by Rotavirus among infants and young children who are younger than 5 years of age in Ilorin, Kwara State and determined the risk factors posing the challenges to be susceptible to diarrhea associated with rotavirus in Ilorin, Kwara State. Diarrhea stool samples were collected from children who passed watery stools, who met predetermined inclusion criteria and who presented at the study hospitals Viz: General Hospital and Specialist Hospital Alagbado and Children Specialist …


Evolution Of Overlapping Reading Frames In Virus Genomes, Laura Muñoz Baena Aug 2023

Evolution Of Overlapping Reading Frames In Virus Genomes, Laura Muñoz Baena

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Viruses are formidable pathogens that represent the majority of biological entities in our planet, and their genomes are a source of interesting enigmas. One feature in which virus genomes are usually rich, is the presence of overlapping reading frames (OvRFs) — portions of the genome where the same nucleotide sequence encodes more than one protein. OvRFs are hypothesized to be used by viruses to encode proteins more compactly and to regulate transcription. In addition, OvRFs might be a source of gene novelty, facilitating the creation of new open reading frames (ORF) within the transcriptional context of existing ones.

To characterize …


Mutation-Induced Changes In The Stability, B-Cell Epitope, And Antigenicity Of The Sars-Cov-2 Variant Spike Protein: A Comparative Computational Stud, Nira Meirita Wijayanti, Muhammad Hermawan Widyananda, Lailil Muflikhah, Nashi Widodo Aug 2023

Mutation-Induced Changes In The Stability, B-Cell Epitope, And Antigenicity Of The Sars-Cov-2 Variant Spike Protein: A Comparative Computational Stud, Nira Meirita Wijayanti, Muhammad Hermawan Widyananda, Lailil Muflikhah, Nashi Widodo

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

The spike (S) protein is a major antigenicity site that targets neutralizing antibodies and drugs. The growing number of S protein mutations has become a severe problem for developing effective vaccines. Here, we investigated four severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that were the most infectious and widespread during the COVID-19 pandemic to determine the trends and patterns of mutation-induced changes in the stability, B-cell epitope, and antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein. The data showed that the Beta and Gamma variants had three mutations on the receptor-binding domain (RBD), which is the specific site on the S …


Analyzing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa With Bacteriophage Tags Using Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry, Jennifer C. Schinke Aug 2023

Analyzing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa With Bacteriophage Tags Using Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry, Jennifer C. Schinke

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The number of daily bacterial infections is climbing and the CDC explains that this is due to the antibiotic-resistant threat in the United States. Finding a faster way of bacterial identification is necessary as it currently takes 1-4 days for a medical lab to culture and identify bacteria. Photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC) can be used as an alternative method resulting in swift identification within an hour (Edgar, 2019). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cell line PA01, will be coated in up to a few hundred red dyed phages making it detectible by the photoacoustic flow cytometry system. Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that …


A Shift In Rna Fate: Investigating The Role Of C19orf66 During Kshv Lytic Replication, William Rodriguez Jr. Aug 2023

A Shift In Rna Fate: Investigating The Role Of C19orf66 During Kshv Lytic Replication, William Rodriguez Jr.

Doctoral Dissertations

During viral infection, virus and host clash for control of the cell in a conflict that ultimately drives the evolution of both sides and has lasting consequences in the form of pathogenesis. At the heart of this struggle is a contest for control of cellular gene expression, a struggle epitomized by an evolutionary tug-of-war for supremacy over RNA fate. During lytic replication, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) triggers a massive RNA decay event known as viral “Host Shutoff” which decimates greater than 70% of the host transcriptome, simultaneously suppressing the cellular anti-viral response and freeing host resources for viral replication. However, …


Vertical Transmission Of Zika Virus In Monodelphis Domestica, Mohini Moulick Aug 2023

Vertical Transmission Of Zika Virus In Monodelphis Domestica, Mohini Moulick

Theses and Dissertations

Zika Viral infection in pregnant women may lead to infants born with microcephaly and other neurological complications, making Zika viral research imperative. Prior research demonstrated Monodelphis domestica to be a unique animal model for Zika virus studies, and viral proteins were detected in brain tissue of juveniles after intracerebral inoculation of infants. We wanted to determine if we can detect a viral protein, non-structural protein 1 (NS1), in brain tissue after intraperitoneal inoculation and we found it to be possible through immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. We also investigated if inoculated dams (mothers) would give rise to Zika positive pups (natural inoculation), …


The Role Of Adenovirus Serotype 5 E4 11k In The Relocalization Of The Cellular P Body Proteins, Kasey A. Karen, La`Quita Randolph, Kevin Neubrecht, Heather Vincent Jul 2023

The Role Of Adenovirus Serotype 5 E4 11k In The Relocalization Of The Cellular P Body Proteins, Kasey A. Karen, La`Quita Randolph, Kevin Neubrecht, Heather Vincent

Georgia Journal of Science

Human adenoviruses are a useful tool to understand basic cellular biology in addition to viral infections. Historically, cellular splicing was first discovered in adenovirus, but other cellular processes, such as double-strand break repair and aggresome formation, have been further elucidated through adenoviral infection. The adenovirus protein E4 11k has been shown to disrupt cytoplasmic processing bodies (p bodies), which are not well-understood but are involved in mRNA metabolism. Several p body proteins were found to be reorganized in the cytoplasm with adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) able to cause the colocalization of these p body proteins with aggresomes. The p body …


Investigating The Physiological Mechanisms Between Resistance Training And Pain Relief In The Cancer Population: A Literature Review, Yvonne Jiang, Peter C. Angeletti, Amy J. Hoffman Jul 2023

Investigating The Physiological Mechanisms Between Resistance Training And Pain Relief In The Cancer Population: A Literature Review, Yvonne Jiang, Peter C. Angeletti, Amy J. Hoffman

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

This literature review examines the mechanisms of how exercise, specifically in the form of resistance training, may lead to pain relief in the cancer population. Primary data from three different cancer populations: breast, prostate, and lung, will be examined. A number of experimental studies have been conducted to confirm the effectiveness of resistance training on pain relief as well as the biochemical pathways that relate to this process. In this review, we will examine 5 randomized controlled trials. For the purposes of this review, pain is defined as physical suffering or discomfort associated with illness. Pain is the body’s natural …


Exploring The Interactions Between Sars-Cov-2 And Host Proteins., Sojan Shrestha Jul 2023

Exploring The Interactions Between Sars-Cov-2 And Host Proteins., Sojan Shrestha

School of Biological Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the current pandemic, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 is considered to be of zoonotic origin; it originated in non-human animals and was transmitted to humans. Since the early stage of the pandemic, however, the evidence of transmissions from humans to animals (reverse zoonoses) has been found in multiple animal species including mink, white-tailed deer, and pet and zoo animals. Furthermore, secondary zoonotic events of SARS-CoV-2, transmissions from animals to humans, have been also reported. It is suggested that non-human hosts can act as SARS-CoV-2 reservoirs where accumulated …


Sars‑Cov‑2 Entry Into And Evolution Within A Skilled Nursing Facility, Nicole R. Sexton, Parker Parker Cline, Emily N. Gallichotte, Emily Fitzmeyer, Michael C. Young, Ashley J. Janich, Kristy L. Pabilonia, Nicole Ehrhart, Gregory D. Ebel Jul 2023

Sars‑Cov‑2 Entry Into And Evolution Within A Skilled Nursing Facility, Nicole R. Sexton, Parker Parker Cline, Emily N. Gallichotte, Emily Fitzmeyer, Michael C. Young, Ashley J. Janich, Kristy L. Pabilonia, Nicole Ehrhart, Gregory D. Ebel

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the family Coronaviridae which includes multiple human pathogens that have an outsized impact on aging populations. As a novel human pathogen, SARS-CoV-2 is undergoing continuous adaptation to this new host species and there is evidence of this throughout the scientific and public literature. However, most investigations of SARS-CoV-2 evolution have focused on largescale collections of data across diverse populations and/or living environments. Here we investigate SARS-CoV-2 evolution in epidemiologically linked individuals within a single outbreak at a skilled nursing facility beginning with initial introduction of the pathogen. The data demonstrate that SARSCoV- 2 was introduced to the …


Yes-Associated Protein-1 Overexpression In Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia; A Potential Diagnostic Marker And Therapeutic Target, Peter Julius, Stepfanie N. Siyumbwa, Fred Maate, Phyllis Moonga, Guobin Kang, Trevor Kaile, John T. T., Charles Wood Jul 2023

Yes-Associated Protein-1 Overexpression In Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia; A Potential Diagnostic Marker And Therapeutic Target, Peter Julius, Stepfanie N. Siyumbwa, Fred Maate, Phyllis Moonga, Guobin Kang, Trevor Kaile, John T. T., Charles Wood

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Yes-associated protein-1 (YAP-1) is a Hippo system transcription factor, which serves as an oncogene in squamous cell carcinoma, and several solid tumors when the Hippo pathway is dysregulated. Yet, the activity of YAP-1 in ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) has not been determined. Here, we investigate the relationship between YAP-1 overexpression and OSSN. Using a cross-sectional study design, we recruited 227 OSSN patients from the University Teaching Hospitals in Lusaka, Zambia. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess YAP-1 protein overexpression in tumor tissue relative to surrounding benign squamous epithelium. OSSN patient samples (preinvasive, n = 62, 27% and invasive, n = …


Exploration Of The Immune Landscape Of Ebv-Associated Gastric Cancers, Mikhail Salnikov Jun 2023

Exploration Of The Immune Landscape Of Ebv-Associated Gastric Cancers, Mikhail Salnikov

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is a gammaherpesvirus associated with 9% of all gastric cancers (GCs). EBV-associated GCs (EBVaGCs) are pathologically and clinically distinct entities from EBV-negative GCs (EBVnGCs), with EBVaGCs exhibiting differential molecular pathology and patient prognosis. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the tumor microenvironment (TME) of EBVaGCs, which has not been explored in-depth. We hypothesize that EBVaGCs and EBVnGCs are also distinct in terms of the molecular immune landscape. We employed over 400 stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), as well as a single cell dataset, for the construction of a web suite …


Viral Dna Accumulation Regulates Replication Efficiency Of Chlorovirus Osy-Ne5 In Two Closely Related Chlorella Variabilis Strains, Ahmed Esmael, Irina V. Agarkova, David D. Dunigan, You Zhou, James L. Van Etten Jun 2023

Viral Dna Accumulation Regulates Replication Efficiency Of Chlorovirus Osy-Ne5 In Two Closely Related Chlorella Variabilis Strains, Ahmed Esmael, Irina V. Agarkova, David D. Dunigan, You Zhou, James L. Van Etten

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Many chloroviruses replicate in Chlorella variabilis algal strains that are ex-endosymbionts isolated from the protozoan Paramecium bursaria, including the NC64A and Syngen 2-3 strains. We noticed that indigenous water samples produced a higher number of plaque-forming viruses on C. variabilis Syngen 2-3 lawns than on C. variabilis NC64A lawns. These observed differences led to the discovery of viruses that replicate exclusively in Syngen 2-3 cells, named Only Syngen (OSy) viruses. Here, we demonstrate that OSy viruses initiate infection in the restricted host NC64A by synthesizing some early virus gene products and that approximately 20% of the cells produce a …


Influenza C And D Viruses Demonstrated A Differential Respiratory Tissue Tropism In A Comparative Pathogenesis Study In Guinea Pigs, Chithra C. Sreenivasan, Runxia Liu, Rongyuan Gao, Yicheng Guo, Ben M. Hause, Milton Thomas, Ahsan Naveed, Travis Clement, Dana Rausch, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Eric Nelson, Julian Druce, Miaoyun Zhao, Radhey S. Kaushik, Qingsheng Li, Zizhang Sheng, Dan Dan, Feng Li May 2023

Influenza C And D Viruses Demonstrated A Differential Respiratory Tissue Tropism In A Comparative Pathogenesis Study In Guinea Pigs, Chithra C. Sreenivasan, Runxia Liu, Rongyuan Gao, Yicheng Guo, Ben M. Hause, Milton Thomas, Ahsan Naveed, Travis Clement, Dana Rausch, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Eric Nelson, Julian Druce, Miaoyun Zhao, Radhey S. Kaushik, Qingsheng Li, Zizhang Sheng, Dan Dan, Feng Li

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Influenza C virus (ICV) is increasingly associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children and its disease severity is worse than the influenza B virus, but similar to influenza A virus associated CAP. Despite the ubiquitous infection landscape of ICV in humans, little is known about its replication and pathobiology in animals. The goal of this study was to understand the replication kinetics, tissue tropism, and pathogenesis of human ICV (huICV) in comparison to the swine influenza D virus (swIDV) in guinea pigs. Intranasal inoculation of both viruses did not cause clinical signs, however, the infected animals shed virus in nasal …


Adenoviral-Vectored Epigraph Vaccine Elicits Robust, Durable, And Protective Immunity Against H3 Influenza A Virus In Swine, Erika M. Petro-Turnquist, Matthew J. Pekarek, Nicholas Jeanjaquet, Cedric Wooledge, David J. Steffen, Hiep Vu, Eric A. Weaver May 2023

Adenoviral-Vectored Epigraph Vaccine Elicits Robust, Durable, And Protective Immunity Against H3 Influenza A Virus In Swine, Erika M. Petro-Turnquist, Matthew J. Pekarek, Nicholas Jeanjaquet, Cedric Wooledge, David J. Steffen, Hiep Vu, Eric A. Weaver

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Current methods of vaccination against swine Influenza A Virus (IAV-S) in pigs are infrequently updated, induce strain-specific responses, and have a limited duration of protection. Here, we characterize the onset and duration of adaptive immune responses after vaccination with an adenoviral-vectored Epigraph vaccine. In this longitudinal study we observed robust and durable antibody responses that remained above protective titers six months after vaccination. We further identified stable levels of antigen-specific T cell responses that remained detectable in the absence of antigen stimulation. Antibody isotyping revealed robust class switching from IgM to IgG induced by Epigraph vaccination, while the commercial comparator …