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Conformational Flexibility And Local Frustration In The Functional States Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike B.1.1.7 And B.1.351 Variants: Mutation-Induced Allosteric Modulation Mechanism Of Functional Dynamics And Protein Stability, Gennady M. Verkhivker 2022 Chapman University

Conformational Flexibility And Local Frustration In The Functional States Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike B.1.1.7 And B.1.351 Variants: Mutation-Induced Allosteric Modulation Mechanism Of Functional Dynamics And Protein Stability, Gennady M. Verkhivker

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Structural and functional studies of the SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins have recently determined distinct functional states of the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 spike variants, providing a molecular framework for understanding the mechanisms that link the effect of mutations with the enhanced virus infectivity and transmissibility. A detailed dynamic and energetic analysis of these variants was undertaken in the present work to quantify the effects of different mutations on functional conformational changes and stability of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We employed the efficient and accurate coarse-grained (CG) simulations of multiple functional states of the D614G mutant, B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 spike variants to characterize …


The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole 2022 Wright State University

The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is an essential cellular protein that is involved in cell adhesion, cell signaling, and viral infection. The 8-exon encoded isoform (CAREx8) resides at the apical surface of polarized epithelia, where it is accessible as a receptor for adenovirus entering the airway lumen. Given its pivotal role in viral infection, it is a target for antiviral strategies. To understand the regulation of CAREx8 and determine the feasibility of receptor down regulation, the half-life of total and apical localized CAREx8 was determined and correlated with adenovirus transduction. Total and apical CAREx8 has a relatively short half-life …


Bisacodyl Limits Chikungunya Virus In Vitro And Is Broadly Antiviral, Natalie June Lomascolo 2022 Loyola University Chicago

Bisacodyl Limits Chikungunya Virus In Vitro And Is Broadly Antiviral, Natalie June Lomascolo

Master's Theses

Identifying novel antivirals requires significant time and resource investment, and the continuous threat of viruses to human health necessitates commitment to antiviral identification and development. Developing antivirals requires years of research and validation, and recent outbreaks have highlighted the need for preparedness in counteracting pandemics. One way to facilitate development is to repurpose molecules already used clinically. By screening such compounds, we can accelerate antiviral development. Here, we screened compounds from the National Institutes of Health’s Developmental Therapeutic Program for activity against chikungunya virus, an alphavirus that is responsible for a significant outbreak in the Americas in 2013. Using this …


Adenoviral-Vectored Centralized Consensus Hemagglutinin Vaccine Provides Broad Protection Against H2 Influenza A Virus, Erika M. Petro-Turnquist, Brianna L. Bullard, Matthew J. Pekarek, Eric A. Weaver 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Adenoviral-Vectored Centralized Consensus Hemagglutinin Vaccine Provides Broad Protection Against H2 Influenza A Virus, Erika M. Petro-Turnquist, Brianna L. Bullard, Matthew J. Pekarek, Eric A. Weaver

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Several influenza pandemics have occurred in the past century, one of which emerged in 1957 from a zoonotic transmission of H2N2 from an avian reservoir into humans. This pandemic caused 2–4 million deaths and circulated until 1968. Since the disappearance of H2N2 from human populations, there has been waning immunity against H2, and this subtype is not currently incorporated into seasonal vaccines. However, H2 influenza remains a pandemic threat due to consistent circulation in avian reservoirs. Here, we describe a method of pandemic preparedness by creating an adenoviral-vectored centralized consensus vaccine design against human H2 influenza. We also assessed the …


Expanding Mouse-Adapted Yamagata-Like Influenza B Viruses In Eggs Enhances In Vivo Lethality In Balb/C Mice, Matthew J. Pekarek, Erika M. Petro-Turnquist, Adam Rubrum, Richard J. Webby, Eric A. Weaver 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Expanding Mouse-Adapted Yamagata-Like Influenza B Viruses In Eggs Enhances In Vivo Lethality In Balb/C Mice, Matthew J. Pekarek, Erika M. Petro-Turnquist, Adam Rubrum, Richard J. Webby, Eric A. Weaver

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Despite the yearly global impact of influenza B viruses (IBVs), limited host range has been a hurdle to developing a readily accessible small animal disease model for vaccine studies. Mouseadapting IBV can produce highly pathogenic viruses through serial lung passaging in mice. Previous studies have highlighted amino acid changes throughout the viral genome correlating with increased pathogenicity, but no consensus mutations have been determined. We aimed to show that growth system can play a role in mouse-adapted IBV lethality. Two Yamagata-lineage IBVs were serially passaged 10 times in mouse lungs before expansion in embryonated eggs or Madin–Darby canine kidney cells …


Isolation And Characterization Of Novel B. Subtilis Bacteriophages, Johnson Phung, Rebecca Adams 2022 Teaching Center Faculty

Isolation And Characterization Of Novel B. Subtilis Bacteriophages, Johnson Phung, Rebecca Adams

Science University Research Symposium (SURS)

Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria cells. Bacteria, being the most abundant form of life on the planet, have an estimated ten to a hundred different types of bacteriophages that infect each species. Bacteriophages are everywhere on Earth, but the number of phages that have been identified is only a fraction of what are thought to exist. This project focuses on isolating and identifying phages that infect the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. B subtilis is a decomposition microbe commonly found in the soil. Our first goal was to determine whether the 3 samples of Bacillus subtilis phages that were previously …


Spatial Localization Of Markers And 3d-Cell Model For Study Of The Human Cytomegalovirus Cytoplasmic Virion Assembly Compartment, Taylor Alan Vensko 2022 Wayne State University

Spatial Localization Of Markers And 3d-Cell Model For Study Of The Human Cytomegalovirus Cytoplasmic Virion Assembly Compartment, Taylor Alan Vensko

Wayne State University Theses

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes severe disease in immunocompromised individuals and is a leading cause of congenital disease. Efficient assembly of virions (viral particles) is an intricate process that requires modulation and modification of host systems. HCMV induces an extensive rearrangement of the cellular endocytic recycling compartment into the site of virion maturation and egress: the cytoplasmic virion assembly compartment (cVAC). The HCMV cVAC is a distinguishing characteristic of infection, although studies have only been performed in traditional cell culture with limited observations in infectedhuman tissues. To study the cVAC, viral and cellular markers that are discrete to their respective compartments …


Determinants Of Virus Variation, Evolution, And Host Adaptation, Katherine LaTourrette, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Determinants Of Virus Variation, Evolution, And Host Adaptation, Katherine Latourrette, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Virus evolution is the change in the genetic structure of a viral population over time and results in the emergence of new viral variants, strains, and species with novel biological properties, including adaptation to new hosts. There are host, vector, environmental, and viral factors that contribute to virus evolution. To achieve or fine tune compatibility and successfully establish infection, viruses adapt to a particular host species or to a group of species. However, some viruses are better able to adapt to diverse hosts, vectors, and environments. Viruses generate genetic diversity through mutation, reassortment, and recombination. Plant viruses are exposed to …


Immunogenicity And Protective Efficacy Of A Recombinant Pichinde Viral-Vectored Vaccine Expressing Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Antigen In Pigs, Sushmita Kumari, Jayeshbhai Chaudhari, Qinfeng Huang, Phillip Gauger, Marcelo Nunes De Almeida, Yuying Liang, Hinh Ly, Hiep Vu 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Immunogenicity And Protective Efficacy Of A Recombinant Pichinde Viral-Vectored Vaccine Expressing Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Antigen In Pigs, Sushmita Kumari, Jayeshbhai Chaudhari, Qinfeng Huang, Phillip Gauger, Marcelo Nunes De Almeida, Yuying Liang, Hinh Ly, Hiep Vu

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Influenza A virus of swine (IAV-S) is an economically important swine pathogen. The IAV-S hemagglutinin (HA) surface protein is the main target for vaccine development. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using the recombinant tri-segmented Pichinde virus (rPICV) as a viral vector to deliver HA antigen to protect pigs against IAV-S challenge. Four groups of weaned pigs (T01–T04) were included in the study. T01 was injected with PBS to serve as a non-vaccinated control. T02 was inoculated with rPICV expressing green fluorescence protein (rPICV-GFP). T03 was vaccinated with rPICV expressing the HA antigen of the IAV-S H3N2 strain …


Tracking Cryptic Sars-Cov-2 Lineages Detected In Nyc Wastewater, Davida S. Smyth, Monica Trujillo, Devon A. Gregory, Kristen Cheung, Anna Gao, Maddie Graham, Yue Guan, Caitlyn Guldenpfennig, Irene Hoxie, Sherin Kannoly, Nanami Kubota, Terri D. Lyddon, Michelle Markman, Clayton Rushford, Kaung Myat San, Geena Sompanya, Fabrizio Spagnolo, Reinier Suarez, Emma Teixeiro, Mark Daniels, Marc C. Johnson, John J. Dennehy 2022 Texas A & M University - San Antonio

Tracking Cryptic Sars-Cov-2 Lineages Detected In Nyc Wastewater, Davida S. Smyth, Monica Trujillo, Devon A. Gregory, Kristen Cheung, Anna Gao, Maddie Graham, Yue Guan, Caitlyn Guldenpfennig, Irene Hoxie, Sherin Kannoly, Nanami Kubota, Terri D. Lyddon, Michelle Markman, Clayton Rushford, Kaung Myat San, Geena Sompanya, Fabrizio Spagnolo, Reinier Suarez, Emma Teixeiro, Mark Daniels, Marc C. Johnson, John J. Dennehy

Publications and Research

Tracking SARS-CoV-2 genetic diversity is strongly indicated because diversifying selection may lead to the emergence of novel variants resistant to naturally acquired or vaccine-induced immunity. To monitor New York City (NYC) for the presence of novel variants, we deep sequence most of the receptor binding domain coding sequence of the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from the New York City wastewater. Here we report detecting increasing frequencies of novel cryptic SARS-CoV-2 lineages not recognized in GISAID’s EpiCoV database. These lineages contain mutations that had been rarely observed in clinical samples, including Q493K, Q498Y, E484A, and T572N and share many mutations …


Bioinformatic Pipeline For Determining Terminal Repeats In The Human Cytomegalovirus Genome Assembled With Pacbio Long Read Sequences, Ahmed Al Qaffas 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Bioinformatic Pipeline For Determining Terminal Repeats In The Human Cytomegalovirus Genome Assembled With Pacbio Long Read Sequences, Ahmed Al Qaffas

Theses and Dissertations

Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a member of the betaherpesvirinae subfamily of the Herpesvirus family. HCMV infection is common among adults worldwide, with an estimated seroprevalence of 66 to 95%, depending on the geographic region (Zuhair et al., 2019). Although most of the virus genomic content has been studied extensively, the terminal repeating region sequences remain understudied. Two main challenges hindered the study of the region: a) limitations of sequencing technologies; and b) misassembly of the repeats due to its complex nature. Here I show a novel bioinformatics pipeline that takes advantage of PacBio's long reads to resolve the challenges mentioned …


Response And Molecular Control Of Cd8 T Cells During Infection And Cancer, Nicholas K. Preiss Dr. 2022 Dartmouth College

Response And Molecular Control Of Cd8 T Cells During Infection And Cancer, Nicholas K. Preiss Dr.

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

CD8 T cells are potent immune effector cells capable of vast clonal expansion and clearance of infected or cancerous cells. After control of the pathogenic insult, CD8 T cells develop into quiescent, long-lived memory populations that are poised to mediate rapid protection upon reencounter with cognate antigen. These properties make control of CD8 T cell responses a highly desirable outcome of vaccine strategies and immunotherapy. Therefore, understanding how the effector function and memory differentiation of CD8 T cells are controlled at a molecular level is of great importance. In the context of infection with gammaherpesviruses (γHV), which form a latent …


Phage Hunters: The Discovery Of Two Novel Bacteriophages That Infect Gordonia Rubripertincta, Sarah Ballarin, Neel Balusa, Melissa Bell, Samia Caballero, Joshua Chan, Maria Farez, Ashley J. Guillen-Tapia, Nashrah Pierre-Louis, Victoria Polishuk, Bhavya Soni, Julie Torruellas Garcia, Katie E. Crump 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Phage Hunters: The Discovery Of Two Novel Bacteriophages That Infect Gordonia Rubripertincta, Sarah Ballarin, Neel Balusa, Melissa Bell, Samia Caballero, Joshua Chan, Maria Farez, Ashley J. Guillen-Tapia, Nashrah Pierre-Louis, Victoria Polishuk, Bhavya Soni, Julie Torruellas Garcia, Katie E. Crump

Sea-Phages

Antibiotic resistance is a global healthcare concern because it poses a threat to effectively treating bacterial infections and the need for alternative therapeutics are urgently required. Phage therapy, which uses viruses to treat bacterial infections, is a promising alternative to conventional antibiotics. Phages have also been widely used in the food industry to prevent microbial growth on certain foods and are currently being explored as a method for bioremediation of oil spills and wastewater treatment. Although phages are ubiquitous in nature, many have yet to be discovered. Through the SEA-PHAGES (Science Education Alliance-Phage Hunters Advancing Genomics and Evolutionary Science) program …


An Investigation Of Hhv6'S Impact On The Cognitive Progression And Microglial Changes In An Alzheimer's Disease Cohort, Charles E. Seaks 2022 University of Kentucky

An Investigation Of Hhv6'S Impact On The Cognitive Progression And Microglial Changes In An Alzheimer's Disease Cohort, Charles E. Seaks

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

The role of herpesviruses and, more specifically, HHV6 in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and associated cognitive decline is still being investigated. High ubiquity and prevalence in the population have led to a high degree of skepticism about HHV6 as a potential contributor to cognitive decline and dementias. However, recent evidence related to another herpesvirus, herpes simplex virus 1, suggests that reactivation, not carriage, of the virus may be the key factor to explain the dissonance between the virus’ ubiquity and contributions to dementias. With that in mind, we set out to assess cases from the Sanders-Brown Center on …


The Isolation And Characterization Of Bacteriophage Hasitha, Gillian Brown 2022 Western Kentucky University

The Isolation And Characterization Of Bacteriophage Hasitha, Gillian Brown

Mahurin Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Microbacteriophage Hasitha is a virus that infects Microbacterium foliorum, a bacterium associated with grasses that was first discovered in Germany. Hasitha was isolated from an enriched compost sample and is of particular interest due to its unusual growth pattern. Most bacteriophages require actively growing host cells to produce new phage progeny. However, Hasitha can infect and kill stationary (non-replicating) bacterial cells. We discovered this unusual characteristic through a fortuitous observation of infected lawns that were allowed to incubate in the lab workspace for approximately one month. During this time, a noticeable “halo” grew around the initial site of infection …


Alternative Splicing Regulates The Innate Immune Response To Viral Infection, Luke A. White 2022 University of Montana, Missoula

Alternative Splicing Regulates The Innate Immune Response To Viral Infection, Luke A. White

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne RNA virus that infects humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian peninsula, causing disease ranging from a mild flu-like illness to liver damage, blindness, hemorrhagic fever, death, and, especially in livestock animals, high rates of abortive pregnancies. There is no approved vaccine for RVFV, and as a disease with a high rate of spread that causes severe illness, it is listed as a Category A pathogen by the USA CDC. A better understanding of RVFV’s molecular virology will be instrumental to combating RVFV as climate change causes its mosquito host …


Antiviral Effects Of Metalloshielding: Differential Antiviral Activity Of Polynuclear Platinum And Cobalt Compounds, Mary Zoepfl 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Antiviral Effects Of Metalloshielding: Differential Antiviral Activity Of Polynuclear Platinum And Cobalt Compounds, Mary Zoepfl

Theses and Dissertations

The majority of antiviral drug development has focused on virus-specific discovery targeting discrete steps in the individual life cycles. Although great strides have been made for a number of clinically relevant diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus, influenza virus, and hepatitis B, broad spectrum antivirals do not exist. Broad spectrum antivirals would offer (1) treatment for viruses without specifically-targeted antivirals, (2) treatment for viruses which have developed resistance to their available treatments, and (3) a rapidly deployable treatment option in viral epidemics. Many viruses including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), HIV, and SARS-CoV-2. rely on heparan sulfate (HS), a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan …


Human Papillomavirus 16 E2 Regulates Host Cell Pathways Important For Cancer Progression And Treatment Sensitivity Which May Contribute To Cancer Outcomes, Christian Fontan 2022 Phillips Graduate Institute

Human Papillomavirus 16 E2 Regulates Host Cell Pathways Important For Cancer Progression And Treatment Sensitivity Which May Contribute To Cancer Outcomes, Christian Fontan

Theses and Dissertations

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causative agents in around 5% of all cancers, including cervical and oropharyngeal. A feature of HPV cancers is their better clinical outcome compared with non-HPV anatomical counterparts. In turn, the presence of E2 predicts a better clinical outcome in HPV-positive cancers; the reason(s) for the better outcome of E2-positive patients is not fully understood.

Previously, we demonstrated that HPV16 E2 regulates host gene transcription that is relevant to the HPV16 lifecycle in N/Tert-1 cells. One of the genes repressed by E2 and the entire HPV16 genome in N/Tert-1 cells is TWIST1. In these studies, we demonstrate …


The Quest To Identify A New Virus Disease Of Sunflower From Nebraska, Robert M. Harveson, Maher Al Rwahnih, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Alex Karasev, Tom J. Gulya, Jeff Bradshaw 2022 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

The Quest To Identify A New Virus Disease Of Sunflower From Nebraska, Robert M. Harveson, Maher Al Rwahnih, California Department Of Food And Agriculture, Alex Karasev, Tom J. Gulya, Jeff Bradshaw

Panhandle Research and Extension Center

Between 2010 and 2018, sunflower plants exhibiting virus-like symptoms, including stunting, mottling, and chlorotic ringspots on leaves, were observed from commercial fields and research plots from four sites within three distinct counties of western Nebraska (Box Butte, Kimball, and Scotts Bluff). Near identical symptoms from field samples were reproduced on seedlings mechanically in the greenhouse on multiple occasions, confirming the presence of a sap-transmissible virus from each site. Symptomatic greenhouse-inoculated plants from the 2010 and 2011 Box Butte samples tested negative for sunflower mosaic virus (SuMV), sunflower chlorotic mottle virus (SuCMoV), and all potyviruses in general by ELISA and RT-PCR. …


Role Of Host Restriction Factors On Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv) Replication, Pratik Katwal 2022 South Dakota State University

Role Of Host Restriction Factors On Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv) Replication, Pratik Katwal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this study, the role of IFITM3 on PRRSV replication was studied in vitro by expressing exogenous IFITM3 in MARC-145 cells. An average of 31% reduction in PRRSV N protein expression and an average of 5.4 fold decrease in virus titer in the supernatant were observed in IFITM3 overexpressing cells as compared to vector control cells at 24 hours post infection (hpi). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between interferon- induced IFITM3 up-regulation and reduced PRRSV replication. To determine the role of endogenous IFITM3 in PRRSV replication, siRNA induced knockdown of IFITM3 was employed. RT-PCR validated the successful silencing of …


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