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Characterizing The Role Of Pa5189 Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa In Deletion And Overexpression Mutants, Seh Na Mellick 2024 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Characterizing The Role Of Pa5189 Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa In Deletion And Overexpression Mutants, Seh Na Mellick

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

In the context of rising multidrug resistance in biofilm-forming pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, this study investigates the role of the understudied transcription factor PA5189 in antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. PA5189 deletion and overexpression mutants were created in a parent P. aeruginosa strain using pEX18Tc-based recombinant suicide vectors, with genotypic verification of putative triparental conjugants achieved through restriction digestion and PCR. The study revealed that PA5189 overexpression significantly increases resistance to commonly used broad spectrum antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin and imipenem. Additionally, differential expression of PA5189 was found to notably affect biofilm formation, with variations contingent on the nutrient …


Characterization Of Ato Family Transporters In The Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus Neoformans, Will Betsill 2024 Clemson University

Characterization Of Ato Family Transporters In The Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus Neoformans, Will Betsill

All Theses

Fungal pathogens are a significant threat to public health as they are becoming increasingly common and more resistant to treatment. Cryptococcus neoformans contributes greatly to this threat annually by causing an estimated 278,000 cases of cryptococcal meningitis resulting in approximately 181,000 deaths globally according to the CDC. C. neoformans is ubiquitous across most of the globe and can be found in such places as in trees or soil. Exposure to this fungus is especially dangerous to individuals who are immunocompromised or immunosuppressed. In these cases, inhalation of spores can lead to infection in the lungs. Once in the lungs, C. …


Determining The Antimicrobial Activity And Permeabilizing Effects Of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids And Piscidins On Vibrio Parahaemolyticus And Vibrio Vulnificus, Christina Harris 2024 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Determining The Antimicrobial Activity And Permeabilizing Effects Of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids And Piscidins On Vibrio Parahaemolyticus And Vibrio Vulnificus, Christina Harris

Honors Theses

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found in all organisms and have gained attention for their effectiveness against a variety of pathogens. Piscidins are AMPs that were discovered in mast cells of vertebrates, mostly within marine animals, and are an important part of the innate immune system due to their potent antimicrobial properties. Piscidin 1 (P1) and piscidin 3 (P3) are found within sea bass and have different antimicrobial activities. P1 exhibits strong membrane disruptive properties, while P3 goes through the membrane to the targeted DNA. These piscidins can experience metalation with copper (Cu2+) which enhances their antimicrobial activity in vitro (P1-Cu2+ …


Antimicrobial Activity Of Cat Flea (Ctenocephalides Felis) Gut Proteins On Different Days After Blood Feeding, Dhruva K. Karnik 2024 Georgia Southern University

Antimicrobial Activity Of Cat Flea (Ctenocephalides Felis) Gut Proteins On Different Days After Blood Feeding, Dhruva K. Karnik

Honors College Theses

Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) are a blood-feeding ectoparasitic insect and a common domestic pest found throughout the world. Because of their reliance on host blood, fleas are exposed to blood-borne pathogens; however, the flea gut lumen is a hostile environment for microbial colonization. For example, the gut epithelia differentially express immune genes in response to feeding. In the present study, we measured the antimicrobial activity of gut proteins from cat fleas at different days after feeding (2, 5, 7, and 14). Dissected flea guts were homogenized, passed through a syringe filter, and measured in a protein assay kit. …


Investigating Vital Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Pathogen Response In Neutropenic Individuals, Ryan Illig 2024 University of Southern Maine

Investigating Vital Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Pathogen Response In Neutropenic Individuals, Ryan Illig

Thinking Matters Symposium

Neutrophils, also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), constitute the majority of innate immune cells. These cells possess a complex arsenal of functions that allow them to detect and eliminate a broad spectrum of pathogens. Neutropenia is characterized by decreased levels of neutrophils in the bloodstream, typically falling below the normal range. Moderate to severe neutropenia can increase the risk of pathogenic infections and without treatment can be life-threatening. Although the concentration of neutrophils in neutropenic individuals is decreased, upon activation, neutrophils still release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are pivotal in combating a spectrum of pathogens through their non-selective nature. Overreactive …


Adherent-Invasive Escherichia Coli (Aiec) Promotes Mild Colitis In The C57bl/6 Il-10 Ko Mouse Model Of Crohn's Disease, Sarah SM Zaw 2024 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Adherent-Invasive Escherichia Coli (Aiec) Promotes Mild Colitis In The C57bl/6 Il-10 Ko Mouse Model Of Crohn's Disease, Sarah Sm Zaw

Senior Theses

Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10 KO) mice are crucial in CD research. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) is a subgroup of E. coli. In one study, IL-10 KO mice colonized with AIEC developed colitis in the distal colon compared to wild-type (WT) mice. I investigated how AIEC NC101 WT affects colitis severity in IL-10 KO mice of the C57BL/6 genetic background. Similar results in both genotypes would enhance mouse strain accessibility. Germ-free C57BL6 IL-10 KO mice were divided into groups: colonized with AIEC NC101 for 12, 15, or 18 weeks, or kept germ-free. Histopathological …


Knowledge, Attitude, And Practice Regarding Deep Dentinal Caries Removal Before Root Canal Treatment And Restoration Among Practicing Dental Surgeons, Sangram Panda, Anamika Sinha, Shakti Rath, Kajal Kiran Sahoo 2024 Department of Prosthodontics and Crown & Bridge, Institute of Dental Sciences, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan (Deemed to be) University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

Knowledge, Attitude, And Practice Regarding Deep Dentinal Caries Removal Before Root Canal Treatment And Restoration Among Practicing Dental Surgeons, Sangram Panda, Anamika Sinha, Shakti Rath, Kajal Kiran Sahoo

Palestinian Medical and Pharmaceutical Journal

This article aims to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding Deep Dentinal Caries Removal before Root Canal Treatment (RCT) and Restoration among practicing dental surgeons. A descriptive cross-sectional study was executed amongst dental surgeons practicing with undergraduate and post-graduate degrees. A Google questionnaire form was developed and distributed, and 111 authentic entries were short-listed. Data obtained from the study were recorded in Microsoft Excel 2007 version, and SPSS version 18.0 was used for statistical analysis. Most dental surgeons who participated in the study practiced for over 15-20 years. Among them, 60% believe in removing dentinal caries before RCT; 83.8% …


Listeria Adhesion Protein Orchestrates Caveolae-Mediated Apical Junctional Remodeling Of Epithelial Barrier For Listeria Monocytogenes Translocation, Rishi Drolia, Donald B. Bryant, Shivendra Tenguria, Zuri A. Jules-Culver, Jessie Thind, Breanna Amelunke, Donqi Liu, Nicholas L. F. Gallina, Krishna K. Mishra, Manalee Samaddar, Manoj R. Sawale, Dharmendra K. Mishra, Abigail D. Cox, Arun K. Bhunia 2024 Old Dominion University

Listeria Adhesion Protein Orchestrates Caveolae-Mediated Apical Junctional Remodeling Of Epithelial Barrier For Listeria Monocytogenes Translocation, Rishi Drolia, Donald B. Bryant, Shivendra Tenguria, Zuri A. Jules-Culver, Jessie Thind, Breanna Amelunke, Donqi Liu, Nicholas L. F. Gallina, Krishna K. Mishra, Manalee Samaddar, Manoj R. Sawale, Dharmendra K. Mishra, Abigail D. Cox, Arun K. Bhunia

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The cellular junctional architecture remodeling by Listeria adhesion protein-heat shock protein 60 (LAP-Hsp60) interaction for Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) passage through the epithelial barrier is incompletely understood. Here, using the gerbil model, permissive to internalin (Inl) A/B-mediated pathways like in humans, we demonstrate that Lm crosses the intestinal villi at 48 h post-infection. In contrast, the single isogenic (lap− or ΔinlA) or double (lap−ΔinlA) mutant strains show significant defects. LAP promotes Lm translocation via endocytosis of cell-cell junctional complex in enterocytes that do not display luminal E-cadherin. In comparison, InlA facilitates …


Host-Defense Piscidin Peptides As Antibiotic Adjuvants Against Clostridioides Difficile, Adenrele Oludiran, Areej Malik, Andriana C. Zourou, Yonghan Wu, Steven P. Gross, Albert Siryapon, Asia Poudel, Kwincy Alleyne, Savion Adams, David S. Courson, Myriam L. Cotten, Erin B. Purcell 2024 Old Dominion University

Host-Defense Piscidin Peptides As Antibiotic Adjuvants Against Clostridioides Difficile, Adenrele Oludiran, Areej Malik, Andriana C. Zourou, Yonghan Wu, Steven P. Gross, Albert Siryapon, Asia Poudel, Kwincy Alleyne, Savion Adams, David S. Courson, Myriam L. Cotten, Erin B. Purcell

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The spore-forming intestinal pathogen Clostridioides difficile causes multidrug resistant infection with a high rate of recurrence after treatment. Piscidins 1 (p1) and 3 (p3), cationic host defense peptides with micromolar cytotoxicity against C. difficile, sensitize C. difficile to clinically relevant antibiotics tested at sublethal concentrations. Both peptides bind to Cu2+ using an amino terminal copper and nickel binding motif. Here, we investigate the two peptides in the apo and holo states as antibiotic adjuvants against an epidemic strain of C. difficile. We find that the presence of the peptides leads to lower doses of …


Characterization Of Host Cell Specific Interactions During Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae Infection, Emerson Towey 2024 West Virginia University

Characterization Of Host Cell Specific Interactions During Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae Infection, Emerson Towey

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Vector-borne diseases have been increasing over the past few years due to changes in climate and disturbances in the vectors’ natural environment. To mitigate the risks of these diseases, it is necessary to understand pathogen biology and how it interacts with a host to cause disease. Here we focus our attention on the tick-borne pathogen, Rickettsia rickettsii. R. rickettsii is a member of the spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsiae and is the etiological agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a fatal human disease that is lacking an effective vaccine. Members of the bacterial genus Rickettsia are obligate intracellular endoparasites …


Investigating Birds As Dispersal Vectors Of Litylenchus Crenatae Subsp. Mccannii (Anguinidae), The Nematode Associated With Beech Leaf Disease, Spencer Rock Parkinson 2024 West Virginia University

Investigating Birds As Dispersal Vectors Of Litylenchus Crenatae Subsp. Mccannii (Anguinidae), The Nematode Associated With Beech Leaf Disease, Spencer Rock Parkinson

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Beech leaf disease (BLD) is an emerging forest pathogen primarily affecting American beech (Fagus grandifolia, Ehrh.) in North America and has been attributed to tree mortality of sapling sized trees within five to seven years of infection. Symptoms typically occur in regenerating American beech thickets sprouting from roots of trees killed by beech bark disease. Scientists first observed BLD in Ohio in 2012 and currently has spread to 15 states in the USA and one Canadian province. The nematode Litylenchus crenatae subsp. mccannii (Lcm) is highly associated with BLD symptoms, interveinal chlorosis and defoliation of leaves, and is currently …


Managing Stress: A Study Of Stress Response Mechanisms In Mycobacteria, Augusto C. Hunt Serracin 2024 University of Texas at Arlington

Managing Stress: A Study Of Stress Response Mechanisms In Mycobacteria, Augusto C. Hunt Serracin

Biology Dissertations

Mycobacteria encompass many pathogenic species known to cause severe disease in humans. A well-known example is Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of the lung disease tuberculosis, which kills millions of humans worldwide yearly. Pathogenic mycobacteria like Mtb are challenging to treat because of their innate ability to adapt to environmental stress. Their unique cell physiology and conserved stress responses allow them to combat biological insults, regulate growth, and regulate genes involved in stress; all these responses increase tolerance to antibiotics. The current therapies to treat mycobacterial infections are lengthy and, at times, unsuccessful, partly due to antibiotic tolerance. A …


Pathogenicity Of Acinetobacter Calcoaceticus, Kaitlan A. Sullivan 2023 Medical University of South Carolina

Pathogenicity Of Acinetobacter Calcoaceticus, Kaitlan A. Sullivan

MUSC Theses and Dissertations

Acinetobacter is a genus of gram-negative bacteria that have been appearing frequently in hospitals contributing to infections in the blood, lungs, urinary tract, and other parts of the body. It infects patients with weakened immune systems that are placed on ventilators, after the use of catheters, or have any other open wounds produced by prolonged hospital stays. This genus of bacteria is problematic due to its high probability of becoming resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics. Thus, we are determining the pathogenicity of clinical isolates of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus using the organism Caenorhabditis elegans as a model.

We are testing …


The Identification Of Small Molecule Inhibitors To Candida Albicans Phosphatidylserine Synthase, Yue Zhou 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Identification Of Small Molecule Inhibitors To Candida Albicans Phosphatidylserine Synthase, Yue Zhou

Doctoral Dissertations

Candida albicans phosphatidylserine (PS) synthase, encoded by the CHO1 gene, has been identified as a potential drug target for new antifungals against systemic candidiasis due to its importance in virulence, absence in the host and conservation among fungal pathogens. This dissertation is focused on the identification of inhibitors for this membrane enzyme. Cho1 has two substrates: cytidyldiphosphate-diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) and serine. Previous studies identified a conserved CDP-alcohol phosphotransferase (CAPT) binding motif present within Cho1, and here we revealed that mutations in all but one conserved amino acid within the CAPT motif resulted in decreased Cho1. For serine, we have predicted a …


Breaking Virulent: The Coincidental Evolution Of Virulence Factors In Bacteria., Rhiannon Emmanuelle Cecil 2023 University of Louisville

Breaking Virulent: The Coincidental Evolution Of Virulence Factors In Bacteria., Rhiannon Emmanuelle Cecil

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Understanding how innocuous organisms can evolve to be pathogenic to humans is of increasing global concern. Further, understanding how existing pathogens may evolved to be more virulent is also vital to our ability to provide healthcare to people afflicted with diseases that promote chronic bacterial infections, such as cystic fibrosis. With the rise of antibiotic resistance in both bacteria and fungi it is paramount that new therapeutics are identified. Understanding what mutations occur that result in increased virulence in microbes can potentially provide new targets for antimicrobial drugs to combat antibiotic resistance. The Coincidental Evolution Hypothesis is a fundamental hypothesis …


A Biochemical Approach To Characterize A Divergent Trypanosoma Brucei Mitochondrial Dna Polymerase, Polib, Stephanie B. Delzell 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

A Biochemical Approach To Characterize A Divergent Trypanosoma Brucei Mitochondrial Dna Polymerase, Polib, Stephanie B. Delzell

Doctoral Dissertations

Trypanosoma brucei is a single-celled parasitic protist that causes African sleeping sickness in people and nagana in cattle in sub-Saharan Africa. T. brucei and related trypanosomatid parasites contain an unusual catenated mitochondrial genome known as kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) composed of dozens of 23 kb maxicircles and thousands of 1 kb minicircles. The kDNA structure and replication mechanism are divergent from other eukaryotes and essential for parasite survival. POLIB is one of three Family A DNA polymerases that are independently essential to maintain the kDNA network, and has been implicated in minicircle replication. However, the division of labor among the paralogs, …


Connecting The Nebraska Water Quality Index To The Aquatic Microbial Community Of The North Platte River Basin, Nebraska, Paula R. Guastello 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Connecting The Nebraska Water Quality Index To The Aquatic Microbial Community Of The North Platte River Basin, Nebraska, Paula R. Guastello

School of Natural Resources: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The Nebraska Water Quality Index, under development by the Nebraska Department of Environment and Energy, summarizes in a single value eight environmental parameters that have been monitored in Nebraska for nearly 20 years. Water quality parameters including those used in the Nebraska Water Quality Index have been shown in previous studies to impact bacterial growth. As such, this index has the potential to correlate with the freshwater microbial community. Here, I relate the Nebraska Water Quality Index to microbial community composition and structure using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequence data collected from the North Platte River Basin, Nebraska. This index …


Molecular Mimicry Of Noda Genes By An N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-Alanine Amidases Gene In A Nodule Forming Staphylococcus Cohnii [Research Note], Aberathne Herath Mudiyanselage Nadeeshani Ruwandika Aberathne, Wedage Methsala Madurangi Wedage, Dilantha Gunawardana 2023 Department of Botany, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

Molecular Mimicry Of Noda Genes By An N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-Alanine Amidases Gene In A Nodule Forming Staphylococcus Cohnii [Research Note], Aberathne Herath Mudiyanselage Nadeeshani Ruwandika Aberathne, Wedage Methsala Madurangi Wedage, Dilantha Gunawardana

The Philippine Agricultural Scientist

A rare, nodule-forming, Gram-positive bacterium (Sub4) was isolated from the forage and cover crop Pueraria phaseoloides, which aligned at 99.26% sequence identity to a partial 16S rDNA sequence of Staphylococcus cohnii sp. This was the first record of a strain/species of Staphylococcus capable of independent, unassisted nodule formation in a legume host. When a nodA gene was sought by PCR using a pair of gene-specific primers synthesized using a related (Firmicutes) Paenibacillus sp. nodA gene, the reaction yielded a PCR product of similar size but a distinct identity. The resulting ~400bp PCR product coded for a likely N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase …


Evaluation Of The Virulence Potential Of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Isolated From Broiler Breeders With Colibacillosis In Mississippi, Jiddu Joseph 2023 Mississippi State University

Evaluation Of The Virulence Potential Of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Isolated From Broiler Breeders With Colibacillosis In Mississippi, Jiddu Joseph

Theses and Dissertations

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is a bacterium that is responsible for colibacillosis in birds. However, information about broiler breeder APEC isolates is limited, but the data is critical due to the transfer of this bacteria down the production pyramid to progenies resulting in high mortality. Therefore, we evaluated the phenotypic virulence characteristics of 28 isolates using embryo lethality and day-old chick challenge assays. Also, the in vitro adhesion and invasion potential of selected nine isolates were identified. Results showed more than 1/3rd of the isolates were highly virulent and the virulence increased as the number of virulence-associated genes …


Use Of Transposon Screening For Salicylic Acid-Assisted Desiccation Killing In Salmonella, Shannon D. Elliott 2023 East Tennessee State University

Use Of Transposon Screening For Salicylic Acid-Assisted Desiccation Killing In Salmonella, Shannon D. Elliott

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is one of the most prevalent food-borne pathogens, affecting millions around the world every year, making it a threat to global health. Salmonella possesses the ability to survive the normally lethal condition of desiccation, however, discovery of the genes and mechanisms behind this phenomenon are still ongoing. Using a transposon mutagenesis approach to construct a broad transposon library, this study aimed to uncover genes that may be contributing to changes in Salmonella’s survivability under desiccation, particularly when exposed to the antimicrobial molecule salicylic acid. Building on previous findings showing salicylic acid can alter cell viability …


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