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Predicting The Next Pandemic: Utilizing Wastewater-Based Epidemiology As A Novel Technique For Detecting Mpox Dna, Austin Tang, Michael Moshi, Hayley Baker, Ching-Lan Chang 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Predicting The Next Pandemic: Utilizing Wastewater-Based Epidemiology As A Novel Technique For Detecting Mpox Dna, Austin Tang, Michael Moshi, Hayley Baker, Ching-Lan Chang

Undergraduate Research Symposium Lightning Talks

Mpox cases are trending downward in Las Vegas, aligning with national trends. The study demonstrates that it is possible to extract mpox DNA directly from wastewater and quantify the genetic material using qPCR. This research indicates that WBE can be utilized to give a relative abundance of virual nucleic acids in wastewater, giving opportunities for early-warning systems and other public health interventions. Mpox remains a global threat to public health, continued surveillance of MPXV using wastewater is necessary to ensure that we can detect unusual spike in viral DNA level. Mpox detected in the wastewater samples will be sequences to …


Quantification Of Sars-Cov-2 Prevalence Using Wastewater Surveillance, Moonis Ghani, Hayley Baker, Nabih Ghani, Anthony Harrington, Ching-Lan Chang 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Quantification Of Sars-Cov-2 Prevalence Using Wastewater Surveillance, Moonis Ghani, Hayley Baker, Nabih Ghani, Anthony Harrington, Ching-Lan Chang

Undergraduate Research Symposium Lightning Talks

SARS-CoV-2 RNA was successfully detected in the wastewater samples. PMMoV concentrations varied little, meaning it was a valid control. The diversity of SARS-CoV-2 concentrations indicated varying levels of infection within different parts of the community. PCR and WGS can help determine viral load and identify variants.


Genotype Classification Of Moraxella Bovis Using Maldi-Tof Ms Profiles, Hannah G. Olson, John Dustin Loy, Michael L. Clawson, Emily L. Wynn, Matthew M. Hille 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Genotype Classification Of Moraxella Bovis Using Maldi-Tof Ms Profiles, Hannah G. Olson, John Dustin Loy, Michael L. Clawson, Emily L. Wynn, Matthew M. Hille

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Moraxella bovis (M. bovis) is regarded as a causative agent of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), the most common ocular disease of cattle. Recently, whole genome sequencing identified the presence of two distinct genotypes within M. bovis that differ in chromosome content, potential virulence factors, as well as prophage and plasmid profiles. It is unclear if the genotypes equally associate with IBK or if one is more likely to be isolated from IBK lesions. We utilized 39 strains of M. bovis that had previously undergone whole genome sequencing and genotype classification to determine the utility of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization …


Isolation And Characterization Of Chi-Like Salmonella Bacteriophages Infecting Two Salmonella Enterica Serovars, Typhimurium And Enteritidis, Addisu D. Teklemariam, Mona G. Alharbi, Rashad R. Al-Hindi, Ibrahim Alotibi, Abdullah A. Aljaddawi, Sheren A. Azhari, Ahmed Esmael 2022 King Abdulaziz University

Isolation And Characterization Of Chi-Like Salmonella Bacteriophages Infecting Two Salmonella Enterica Serovars, Typhimurium And Enteritidis, Addisu D. Teklemariam, Mona G. Alharbi, Rashad R. Al-Hindi, Ibrahim Alotibi, Abdullah A. Aljaddawi, Sheren A. Azhari, Ahmed Esmael

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis are well-known pathogens that cause foodborne diseases in humans. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella serovars has caused serious public health problems worldwide. In this study, two lysogenic phages, STP11 and SEP13, were isolated from a wastewater treatment plant in Jeddah, KSA. Transmission electron microscopic images revealed that both phages are new members of the genus “Chivirus” within the family Siphoviridae. Both STP11 and SEP13 had a lysis time of 90 min with burst sizes of 176 and 170 PFU/cell, respectively. The two phages were thermostable (0 C …


Biology And Ecology Of Aedes (Stegomyia) Aegypti In The Northern Chihuahuan Desert, Adam Joseph Vera 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Biology And Ecology Of Aedes (Stegomyia) Aegypti In The Northern Chihuahuan Desert, Adam Joseph Vera

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Aedes aegypti is a medically important mosquito species that transmits multiple arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and yellow fever. This mosquito species has expanded its geographical range into expanded into the Northern Chihuahuan Desert to further increase the risk of infection by these viruses in naïve human populations. Although Ae. aegypti is abundant along the U.S.â??Mexico border, the biology and ecology of this mosquito species in this temperate/arid climate region is not understood. The objective of this study was to understand the environmental factors that influence the invasive species of Ae. aegypti abundance, breeding habitat selection, host feeding behavior, and …


Investigating The Pi3k/Akt/Atm Pathway, Telomeric Dna Damage, T Cell Death, And Crispr/Cas9-Mediated Gene Editing During Acute And Chronic Hiv Infection, Sushant Khanal 2022 East Tennessee State University

Investigating The Pi3k/Akt/Atm Pathway, Telomeric Dna Damage, T Cell Death, And Crispr/Cas9-Mediated Gene Editing During Acute And Chronic Hiv Infection, Sushant Khanal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection initiates major metabolic and cell- survival complications. Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is the current approach to suppress active HIV replication to a level of undetected viral load, but it is not a curative approach. Newer and sophisticated gene editing technologies could indeed be a potent antiviral therapy to achieve a clinical sterilization/cure of HIV infection. Chronic HIV patients, even under a successful ART regimen, exhibit a low-grade inflammation, immune senescence, premature aging, telomeric DNA attrition, T cell apoptosis, and cellular homeostasis. In this dissertation, we investigated CD4 T cell homeostasis, degree of T cell apoptosis, an …


Biology And Epidemiology Of Dengue Viruses In The El Paso And The Surrounding Usa And Mexico Border Communities, Pedro Miguel Palermo Infante 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Biology And Epidemiology Of Dengue Viruses In The El Paso And The Surrounding Usa And Mexico Border Communities, Pedro Miguel Palermo Infante

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Dengue is considered one of the most important human arboviral diseases worldwide. Dengue cases have increased in the last three decades in the Americas, especially along the United States (US)- Mexico (MX) border region, where the main vector of dengue, Aedes aegypti mosquito, is widely distributed. Explosive outbreaks of dengue in northern Mexico have been associated with imported and local transmission of dengue in the US border communities, especially in the Southeast Texas area, also known as Rio Grande Valley. Due to the unknown if dengue virus (DENV) is present in other areas in the US border located west of …


T-Cell Antigen Receptors In Multiple Sclerosis, Lisa Lanée Keyes Jones 2022 Old Dominion University

T-Cell Antigen Receptors In Multiple Sclerosis, Lisa Lanée Keyes Jones

Biomedical Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is T-cell mediated autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and degeneration of axons in the brain and spinal cord. A T cell-mediated immune response in MS is directed against myelin components and possibly other antigens in genetically susceptible individuals and is triggered by a viral infection. The T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) on T cells is responsible for antigen recognition and determines specificity. Our overall hypothesis is to determine whether clonally expanded T cells in patients with MS recognize viral or self-antigens and to determine whether molecular mimicry is involved in the development of the disease. To study …


A Common Mechanism Links Epstein‐Barr Virus Infections And Autoimmune Diseases, Luwen Zhang 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A Common Mechanism Links Epstein‐Barr Virus Infections And Autoimmune Diseases, Luwen Zhang

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Epstein‐Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with a variety of the autoimmune diseases. There is apparently no unified model for the role of EBV in autoimmune diseases. In this article, the development of autoimmune diseases is proposed as a simple two‐step process: specific autoimmune initiators may cause irreversible changes to genetic materials that increase autoimmune risks, and autoimmune promoters promote autoimmune disease formation once cells are susceptible to autoimmunity. EBV has several types of latencies including type III latency with higher proliferation potential. EBV could serve as autoimmune initiators for some autoimmune diseases. At the same time, EBV may play …


Il-33 Promotes Increased Replication Of Theiler’S Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus In Raw264.7 Macrophage Cells With An Irf3-Dependent Response, Ahmed Esmael, Thomas M. Petro 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Il-33 Promotes Increased Replication Of Theiler’S Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus In Raw264.7 Macrophage Cells With An Irf3-Dependent Response, Ahmed Esmael, Thomas M. Petro

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Interleukin-33 (IL-33), which promotes M2 macrophage development, may influence the control of viruses, such as Theiler’s Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (TMEV) that infect macrophages. Because Interferon Regulatory Factor-3 (IRF3) is also critical to control of TMEV infection in macrophages, information on the relationship between IL-33 and IRF3 is important. Thus, RAW264.7 Lucia murine macrophage lineage cells with an endogenous IRF3-ISRE promoter driving secreted luciferase and IRF3KO RAW Lucia, a subline deficient in IRF3, were challenged with TMEV. After the challenge, considerable TMEV RNA detected at 18 and 24 h in RAW cells was significantly elevated in IRF3KO RAW cells. TMEV induction …


A Single Amino Acid Substitution In Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Glycoprotein 2 Significantly Impairs Its Infectivity In Macrophages, Jayeshbhai Chaudhari, Raquel Arruda Leme, Kassandra Durazo-Martinez, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, Aspen M. Workman, Hiep Vu 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Single Amino Acid Substitution In Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Glycoprotein 2 Significantly Impairs Its Infectivity In Macrophages, Jayeshbhai Chaudhari, Raquel Arruda Leme, Kassandra Durazo-Martinez, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, Aspen M. Workman, Hiep Vu

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a restricted tropism for macrophages and CD163 is a key receptor for infection. In this study, the PRRSV strain NCV1 was passaged on MARC-145 cells for 95 passages, and two plaque-clones (C1 and C2) were randomly selected for further analysis. The C1 virus nearly lost the ability to infect porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), as well as porcine kidney cells expressing porcine CD163 (PK15-pCD163), while the C2 virus replicates well in these two cell types. Pretreatment of MARC-145 cells with an anti-CD163 antibody nearly blocked C1 virus infection, indicating that the virus still …


Il-33 Promotes Increased Replication Of Theiler’S Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus In Raw264.7 Macrophage Cells With An Irf3-Dependent Response, Ahmed Esmael, Thomas M. Petro 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Il-33 Promotes Increased Replication Of Theiler’S Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus In Raw264.7 Macrophage Cells With An Irf3-Dependent Response, Ahmed Esmael, Thomas M. Petro

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Interleukin-33 (IL-33), which promotes M2 macrophage development, may influence the control of viruses, such as Theiler’s Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (TMEV) that infect macrophages. Because Interferon Regulatory Factor-3 (IRF3) is also critical to control of TMEV infection in macrophages, information on the relationship between IL-33 and IRF3 is important. Thus, RAW264.7 Lucia murine macrophage lineage cells with an endogenous IRF3-ISRE promoter driving secreted luciferase and IRF3KO RAW Lucia, a subline deficient in IRF3, were challenged with TMEV. After the challenge, considerable TMEV RNA detected at 18 and 24 h in RAW cells was significantly elevated in IRF3KO RAW cells. TMEV induction …


Polyphenolics, Glucosinolates And Isothiocyanates Profiling Of Aerial Parts Of Nasturtium Officinale (Watercress), Sotiris Kyriakou, Kyriaki Michailidou, Tom Amery, Kyle Stewart, Paul G. Winyard, Dimitrios T. Trafalis, Rodrigo Franco, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis 2022 The Cyprus Institute of Neurology & Genetics

Polyphenolics, Glucosinolates And Isothiocyanates Profiling Of Aerial Parts Of Nasturtium Officinale (Watercress), Sotiris Kyriakou, Kyriaki Michailidou, Tom Amery, Kyle Stewart, Paul G. Winyard, Dimitrios T. Trafalis, Rodrigo Franco, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) is a rich source of secondary metabolites with disease-preventing and/or health-promoting properties. Herein, we have utilized extraction procedures to isolate fractions of polyphenols, glucosinolates and isothiocyanates to determine their identification, and quantification. In doing so, we have utilized reproducible analytical methodologies based on liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry by either positive or negative ion mode. Due to the instability and volatility of isothiocyanates, we followed an ammonia derivatization protocol which converts them into respective ionizable thiourea derivatives. The analytes’ content distribution map was created on watercress flowers, leaves and stems. We have demonstrated that …


The “Big Six”: Hidden Emerging Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens, Mona G. Alharbi, Rashad R. Al-Hindi, Ahmed Esmael, Ibrahim A. Alotibi, Sheren A. Azhari, Mazen S. Alseghayer, Addisu D. Teklemariam 2022 King Abdulaziz University

The “Big Six”: Hidden Emerging Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens, Mona G. Alharbi, Rashad R. Al-Hindi, Ahmed Esmael, Ibrahim A. Alotibi, Sheren A. Azhari, Mazen S. Alseghayer, Addisu D. Teklemariam

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are emerging serogroups that often result in diseases ranging from diarrhea to severe hemorrhagic colitis in humans. The most common non-O157 STEC are O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145. These serogroups are known by the name “big six” because they cause severe illness and death in humans and the United States Department of Agriculture declared these serogroups as food contaminants. The lack of fast and efficient diagnostic methods exacerbates the public impact of the disease caused by these serogroups. Numerous outbreaks have been reported globally and most of these outbreaks were caused by …


Viruses In Astrobiology, Ignacio de la Higuera, Ester Lázaro 2022 Portland State University

Viruses In Astrobiology, Ignacio De La Higuera, Ester Lázaro

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on Earth, and yet, they have not received enough consideration in astrobiology. Viruses are also extraordinarily diverse, which is evident in the types of relationships they establish with their host, their strategies to store and replicate their genetic information and the enormous diversity of genes they contain. A viral population, especially if it corresponds to a virus with an RNA genome, can contain an array of sequence variants that greatly exceeds what is present in most cell populations. The fact that viruses always need cellular resources to multiply means that they establish very …


Sars-Cov-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) Variant: Structural Features, Biological Characteristics, Impact On Scientific Research, General Precautions And Protective Procedures; A Systematic Review, Prithivi Nagarajan, Anitha Vetrivel, Jayanthi Kumar, Anusheela Howlader, Kumar Rangarajalu, Satheesh Kumar Sabapathy, Muthu Gopal, Saravanaavel Kumar 2022 ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, MULTI-DISCIPLINARY CENTRE FOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH, AARUPADAI VEEDU MEDICAL COLLEGE & HOSPITAL, INDIA

Sars-Cov-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) Variant: Structural Features, Biological Characteristics, Impact On Scientific Research, General Precautions And Protective Procedures; A Systematic Review, Prithivi Nagarajan, Anitha Vetrivel, Jayanthi Kumar, Anusheela Howlader, Kumar Rangarajalu, Satheesh Kumar Sabapathy, Muthu Gopal, Saravanaavel Kumar

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

The SARS-CoV-2 mutations that have occurred have alarmed the entire medical community. Thus, global concerns have been expressed regarding the transmission, pathogenicity and immune evasion of the Omicron strain, which shares mutations with the variants of concern Alpha, Beta, and Gamma strains. Still, Omicron transmission has crossed numerous borders worldwide compared to other types of SARS-CoV-2. The number of confirmed cases has increased and is reappearing in India. Given the worrisome situation created by the Omicron outbreak, scientists and postgraduates have had to make decisions about current research programs at institutions around the globe. The Omicron variants under development have …


Proteômica Plasmática Quantitativa De Pacientes Sobreviventes E Não Sobreviventes De Covid-19 Internados No Hospital Revela Potenciais Biomarcadores Prognósticos E Alvos Terapêuticos, D C. Flora, A D. Valle, H ABS Pereira, T F. Garbieri, L. T. Grizzo, T J. Dionisio, A L. Leite, D MC Rosa, C F. Santos, M AR Buzalaf 2022 Universidade de São Paulo, Bauru

Proteômica Plasmática Quantitativa De Pacientes Sobreviventes E Não Sobreviventes De Covid-19 Internados No Hospital Revela Potenciais Biomarcadores Prognósticos E Alvos Terapêuticos, D C. Flora, A D. Valle, H Abs Pereira, T F. Garbieri, L. T. Grizzo, T J. Dionisio, A L. Leite, D Mc Rosa, C F. Santos, M Ar Buzalaf

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

O desenvolvimento de novas abordagens que permitam a avaliação precoce de quais casos de COVID-19 provavelmente se tornarão críticos e a descoberta de novos alvos terapêuticos são importantes. Neste estudo de coorte, foi avaliado o perfil proteômico e laboratorial do plasma de 163 pacientes internados no Hospital Estadual de Bauru (Bauru, SP, Brasil) entre 4 de maio e 4 de julho de 2020, que foram diagnosticados com COVID-19 por RT-PCR a partir de amostras de swab nasofaríngeo amostras. Amostras de plasma foram coletadas na admissão para análises laboratoriais de rotina e análise proteôomica quantitativa shotgun livre de marcadores. De acordo …


Role Of Tetraspanins In Sars-Cov-2 Fusion And Entry, Marcos Saul Santiago Figueroa 2022 Loyola University Chicago

Role Of Tetraspanins In Sars-Cov-2 Fusion And Entry, Marcos Saul Santiago Figueroa

Master's Theses

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the pandemic the world has been facing in recent years. Even as new countermeasures are developed, there is still much we don’t know in terms of its entry into host cells. Tetraspanins are transmembrane proteins that are near ubiquitous amongst cell types. They fulfill numerous roles, including that of a viral co-receptor. Here, we considered whether tetraspanins, specifically CD9, CD63, and CD81 influence SARS-CoV-2 fusion and entry. Using ACE2-LgBit and tetraspanin overexpressing EVs and HeLa cells, we find that the presence of excess tetraspanins inhibit fusion and entry. However, we …


Using A One Health Approach For The Assessment Of Rabies Control In Rural Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe, Ryan LaPenna 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Using A One Health Approach For The Assessment Of Rabies Control In Rural Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe, Ryan Lapenna

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Rabies, a viral zoonotic disease, is widespread in Zimbabwe, with human fatalities reported annually in the country. To supplement the Government’s effort on rabies control, the Victoria Falls Wildlife Trust and Veterinarians for Animal Welfare Zimbabwe have joined forces to carry out dog rabies vaccinations in rural communities adjacent to the major tourist attraction of The Victoria Falls. A One Health approach was used to 1) determine the level of protective rabies antibodies among a sample of rural dogs and 2) collect information and describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to rabies among dog owners. In 2020, blood was …


Developing A Nasal Organotypic Model To Investigate The Effects Of The Nasal Microbiome On Susceptibility To Pathogens, Victor H.K. Lam Mr. 2022 Western University

Developing A Nasal Organotypic Model To Investigate The Effects Of The Nasal Microbiome On Susceptibility To Pathogens, Victor H.K. Lam Mr.

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The microbiota is essential to the functioning of the immune system. The nasal milieu secretes immune molecules that can be influenced by diverse bacteria. Hence commensals that enhance anti-viral responses may confer resistance to respiratory viral infection.

Our collaborators have identified 7 microbial state types (CST) defined by indicator species in the nose and recently, through analyses of nasal immune molecules, we have categorized the nasal immune profile types into 8 groups (IPT). Although the IPTs correlated with certain CSTs, the influence of the nasal microbiome on susceptibility to respiratory pathogens is still unknown.

Defining this complex relationship requires a …


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