Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Virology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,504 Full-Text Articles 4,391 Authors 288,120 Downloads 101 Institutions

All Articles in Virology

Faceted Search

1,504 full-text articles. Page 2 of 55.

The 20th Anniversary Meeting Of The Rocky Mountain Virology Association, Joel Rovnak, Laura A. St Clair, Carley McAlister, Chinemerem P. Ogbu, Jessica Smolenske, Randall J. Cohrs, Rushika Perera 2021 Colorado State University, Fort Collins

The 20th Anniversary Meeting Of The Rocky Mountain Virology Association, Joel Rovnak, Laura A. St Clair, Carley Mcalister, Chinemerem P. Ogbu, Jessica Smolenske, Randall J. Cohrs, Rushika Perera

Virology Papers

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and multiple devastating forest fires, the 2020 meeting of the Rocky Mountain Virology Association was held virtually. The three-day gathering featured talks describing recent advances in virology and prion research. The keynote presentation described the measles virus paradox of immune suppression and life-long immunity. Special invited speakers presented information concerning visualizing antiviral effector cell biology in mucosal tissues, uncovering the T-cell tropism of Epstein-Barr virus type 2, a history and current survey of coronavirus spike proteins, a summary of Zika virus vaccination and immunity, the innate immune response to flavivirus infections, a discussion concerning prion ...


High Prevalence Of Pre-Existing Serological Cross-Reactivity Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (Sars-Cov-2) In Sub-Saharan Africa, For Yue Tso, Salum J. Lidenge, Phoebe B. Peña, Ashley A. Clegg, John R. Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Owen Ngalamika, Peter Julius, John T. West, Charles Wood 2021 Nebraska Center for Virology

High Prevalence Of Pre-Existing Serological Cross-Reactivity Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (Sars-Cov-2) In Sub-Saharan Africa, For Yue Tso, Salum J. Lidenge, Phoebe B. Peña, Ashley A. Clegg, John R. Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Owen Ngalamika, Peter Julius, John T. West, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Objective: Significant morbidity and mortality have occurred in the USA, Europe, and Asia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), whereas the numbers of infections and deaths in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have remained comparatively low. It has been hypothesized that exposure of the population in SSA to other coronaviruses prior to the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in some degree of cross-protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis. We evaluated this hypothesis by comparing SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive antibodies in pre-pandemic plasma samples collected from SSA and the USA.

Method: Pre-COVID-19 pandemic plasma samples from SSA and the USA were collected and tested by ...


Strategies Targeting Hemagglutinin As A Universal Influenza Vaccine, Brianna L. Bullard, Eric A. Weaver 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Strategies Targeting Hemagglutinin As A Universal Influenza Vaccine, Brianna L. Bullard, Eric A. Weaver

Virology Papers

Influenza virus has significant viral diversity, both through antigenic drift and shift, which makes development of a vaccine challenging. Current influenza vaccines are updated yearly to in- clude strains predicted to circulate in the upcoming influenza season, however this can lead to a mismatch which reduces vaccine efficacy. Several strategies targeting the most abundant and im- munogenic surface protein of influenza, the hemagglutinin (HA) protein, have been explored. These strategies include stalk-directed, consensus-based, and computationally derived HA immunogens. In this review, we explore vaccine strategies which utilize novel antigen design of the HA protein to improve cross-reactive immunity for development ...


Zika Virus Infection Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress And Apoptosis In Placental Trophoblasts, Philma Glora Muthuraj, Prakask K. Sahoo, Madison Kraus, Taylor Bruett, Arun S. Annamalai, Aryamav Pattnaik, Asit K. Pattnaik, Siddappa N. Byrareddy, Sathish Kumar Natarajan 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Zika Virus Infection Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress And Apoptosis In Placental Trophoblasts, Philma Glora Muthuraj, Prakask K. Sahoo, Madison Kraus, Taylor Bruett, Arun S. Annamalai, Aryamav Pattnaik, Asit K. Pattnaik, Siddappa N. Byrareddy, Sathish Kumar Natarajan

Virology Papers

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection to a pregnant woman can be vertically transmitted to the fetus via the placenta leading to Congenital Zika syndrome. This is characterized by microcephaly, retinal defects, and intrauterine growth retardation. ZIKV induces placental trophoblast apoptosis leading to severe abnormalities in the growth and development of the fetus. However, the molecular mechanism behind ZIKV-induced apoptosis in placental trophoblasts remains unclear. We hypothesize that ZIKV infection induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the trophoblasts, and sustained ER stress results in apoptosis. HTR-8 (HTR-8/SVneo), a human normal immortalized trophoblast cell and human choriocarcinoma-derived cell lines (JEG-3 and JAR ...


Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Multidomain Protein A111/114r Has Three Glycosyltransferase Functions Involved In The Synthesis Of Atypical N-Glycans, Eric Noel, Anna Notaro, Immacolata Speciale, Garry A. Duncan, Cristina De Castro, James L. Van Etten 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Multidomain Protein A111/114r Has Three Glycosyltransferase Functions Involved In The Synthesis Of Atypical N-Glycans, Eric Noel, Anna Notaro, Immacolata Speciale, Garry A. Duncan, Cristina De Castro, James L. Van Etten

Virology Papers

The structures of the four N-linked glycans from the prototype chlorovirus PBCV-1 major capsid protein do not resemble any other glycans in the three domains of life. All known chloroviruses and antigenic variants (or mutants) share a unique conserved central glycan core consisting of five sugars, except for antigenic mutant virus P1L6, which has four of the five sugars. A combination of ge- netic and structural analyses indicates that the protein coded by PBCV-1 gene a111/114r, conserved in all chloroviruses, is a glycosyltransferase with three putative domains of approximately 300 amino acids each. Here, in addition to in silico ...


High Prevalence Of Pre-Existing Serological Cross-Reactivity Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (Sars- Cov-2) In Sub-Saharan Africa, For Yue Tso, Salum Lidenge, Phoebe B. Peña, Ashley A. Clegg, John R. Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Owen Ngalamika, Peter Julius, John T. West, Charles Wood 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln & Nebraska Center for Virology

High Prevalence Of Pre-Existing Serological Cross-Reactivity Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (Sars- Cov-2) In Sub-Saharan Africa, For Yue Tso, Salum Lidenge, Phoebe B. Peña, Ashley A. Clegg, John R. Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Owen Ngalamika, Peter Julius, John T. West, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Objective: Significant morbidity and mortality have occurred in the USA, Europe, and Asia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), whereas the numbers of infections and deaths in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have remained comparatively low. It has been hypothesized that exposure of the population in SSA to other coronaviruses prior to the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in some degree of cross-protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis. We evaluated this hypothesis by comparing SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive antibodies in pre-pandemic plasma samples collected from SSA and the USA.

Method: Pre-COVID-19 pandemic plasma samples from SSA and the USA were collected and tested by ...


Entry And Replication Of Negative-Strand Rna Viruses, Kerri Boggs 2021 University of Kentucky

Entry And Replication Of Negative-Strand Rna Viruses, Kerri Boggs

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Hendra virus (HeV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are negative-sense, singled-stranded RNA viruses. The paramyxovirus HeV is classified as a biosafety level 4 pathogen due to its high fatality rate and the lack of a human vaccine or antiviral treatment. HMPV is a widespread pneumovirus that causes respiratory tract infections which are particularly dangerous for young children, immunocompromised individuals, and the elderly. Like HeV, no vaccines or therapies are available to combat HMPV infections. These viruses fuse their lipid envelopes with a cell to initiate infection. Blocking cell entry is a promising approach for antiviral development, and many vaccines are designed ...


Satellite Viruses: A Literature Review, Brian Evans 2021 Iowa State University

Satellite Viruses: A Literature Review, Brian Evans

Creative Components

Viruses as a whole have long been an infectious and deadly force of nature that has caused countless deaths and disfigurements, not only in humans but in plants and animals. Countless diseases throughout history can trace their origins back to viral infections and thus, created the necessary field of virology. With that came the discovery of satellite viruses, a subfamily of smaller viruses, with genomes of 0.22-1.5kbp, that utilize “helper viruses” to perform necessary actions required for the satellite’s survival. Whether the interaction between a satellite virus and its helper virus is symbiotic or detrimental to the ...


Virus Shedding Kinetics And Unconventional Virulence Tradeoffs, Andrew R. Wargo, Gael Kurath, Robert J. Scott, Benjamin Kerr 2021 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Virus Shedding Kinetics And Unconventional Virulence Tradeoffs, Andrew R. Wargo, Gael Kurath, Robert J. Scott, Benjamin Kerr

VIMS Articles

Tradeoff theory, which postulates that virulence provides both transmission costs and benefits for pathogens, has become widely adopted by the scientific community. Although theoretical literature exploring virulence-tradeoffs is vast, empirical studies validating various assumptions still remain sparse. In particular, truncation of transmission duration as a cost of virulence has been difficult to quantify with robust controlled in vivo studies. We sought to fill this knowledge gap by investigating how transmission rate and duration were associated with virulence for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Using host mortality to quantify virulence and viral shedding to quantify transmission ...


The Shape Of U: Mapping Out Protective Elements In Mrna Escapees, Jacob Miles 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Shape Of U: Mapping Out Protective Elements In Mrna Escapees, Jacob Miles

Masters Theses

A crucial step of the viral life cycle of Kaposi’s Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV) lytic infection is the triggering of a massive RNA decay event termed “Host Shutoff”. Host Shutoff is driven by the viral endonuclease SOX which leads to the destruction of over 70% of the total transcriptome. This process cripples cellular gene expression and allows for viral reprograming of the cell for the purpose of viral replication. Co-evolution has led to the host developing a multitude of antiviral defenses aimed at preserving certain cellular RNAs linked to antiviral responses. One such defense are RNA secondary structures located within ...


Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Innate Immunity Against Herpesviridae Infection: A Current Perspective On Viral Infection Signaling Pathways, Wenjin Zheng, Qing Xu, Yiyuan Zhang, Xiaofei E, Wei Gao, Mogen Zhang, Weijie Zhai, Ronaldjit Singh Rajkumar, Zhijun Liu 2020 Weifang Medical University

Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Innate Immunity Against Herpesviridae Infection: A Current Perspective On Viral Infection Signaling Pathways, Wenjin Zheng, Qing Xu, Yiyuan Zhang, Xiaofei E, Wei Gao, Mogen Zhang, Weijie Zhai, Ronaldjit Singh Rajkumar, Zhijun Liu

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND: In the past decades, researchers have demonstrated the critical role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the innate immune system. They recognize viral components and trigger immune signal cascades to subsequently promote the activation of the immune system.

MAIN BODY: Herpesviridae family members trigger TLRs to elicit cytokines in the process of infection to activate antiviral innate immune responses in host cells. This review aims to clarify the role of TLRs in the innate immunity defense against herpesviridae, and systematically describes the processes of TLR actions and herpesviridae recognition as well as the signal transduction pathways involved.

CONCLUSIONS: Future studies ...


Acute Ischemic Stroke As The Presenting Feature Of Covid-19 In The Young And Pregnant, Nermila A. Ballmick, Jiri F. Kubac, Hossein Akhondi 2020 MountainView Hospital-Nevada

Acute Ischemic Stroke As The Presenting Feature Of Covid-19 In The Young And Pregnant, Nermila A. Ballmick, Jiri F. Kubac, Hossein Akhondi

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Introduction: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an emerging and rapidly evolving public health issue that has become globally widespread and an overwhelming pandemic. Clinical manifestations of the disease include asymptomatic carrier states, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and even multiorgan dysfunction. Here, we present a unique and rare case of an acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in an asymptomatic pregnant woman with no predisposing medical illnesses.

Discussion: An 18-year-old G2P1 African American woman at 7 weeks gestational age with no significant medical or family history presenting to the Emergency Department during the initial phases of the pandemic with complaints of new onset left ...


Polerovirus Genomic Variation And Mechanisms Of Silencing Suppression By P0 Protein, Natalie Holste 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Polerovirus Genomic Variation And Mechanisms Of Silencing Suppression By P0 Protein, Natalie Holste

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

The family Luteoviridae consists of three genera: Luteovirus, Enamovirus, and Polerovirus. The genus Polerovirus contains 32 virus species. All are transmitted by aphids and can infect a wide variety of crops from cereals and wheat to cucurbits and peppers. However, little is known about how this wide range of hosts and vectors developed. In poleroviruses, aphid transmission and virion formation is mediated by the coat protein read-through domain (CPRT) while silencing suppression and phloem limitation is mediated by Protein 0 (P0)—a protein unique to poleroviruses. P0 gives poleroviruses a great advantage amongst plant viruses and diversifies polerovirus species, but ...


Deep Gene Sequence Cluster Analyses Of Multi-Virus Infected Mucosal Tissue Reveal Enhanced Transmission Of Acute Hiv-1, Katja Klein, Nicholas J. Hathaway, Eric J. Arts 2020 University of Western Ontario

Deep Gene Sequence Cluster Analyses Of Multi-Virus Infected Mucosal Tissue Reveal Enhanced Transmission Of Acute Hiv-1, Katja Klein, Nicholas J. Hathaway, Eric J. Arts

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Exposure of the genital mucosa to a genetically diverse viral swarm from the donor HIV-1 can result in breakthrough and systemic infection by a single transmitted/founder (TF) virus in the recipient. The highly diverse HIV-1 envelope (Env) in this inoculating viral swarm may have critical role in transmission and subsequent immune response. Thus, chronic (Envchronic) and acute (Envacute) Env chimeric HIV-1 were tested using multi-virus competition assays in human mucosal penile and cervical tissues. Viral competition analysis revealed that Envchronic viruses resided and replicated mainly in the tissue while Envacute viruses penetrated the human tissue and established infection of ...


Potential Virus-Mediated Nitrogen Cycling In Oxygen-Depleted Oceanic Waters, M. Consuelo Gazitúa, Dean R. Vik, Simon Roux, Ann C. Gregory, Benjamin Bolduc, Brittany Widner, Margaret R. Mulholland, Steven J. Hallam, Osvaldo Ulloa, Matthew B. Sullivan 2020 Old Dominion University

Potential Virus-Mediated Nitrogen Cycling In Oxygen-Depleted Oceanic Waters, M. Consuelo Gazitúa, Dean R. Vik, Simon Roux, Ann C. Gregory, Benjamin Bolduc, Brittany Widner, Margaret R. Mulholland, Steven J. Hallam, Osvaldo Ulloa, Matthew B. Sullivan

OEAS Faculty Publications

Viruses play an important role in the ecology and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems. Beyond mortality and gene transfer, viruses can reprogram microbial metabolism during infection by expressing auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs) involved in photosynthesis, central carbon metabolism, and nutrient cycling. While previous studies have focused on AMG diversity in the sunlit and dark ocean, less is known about the role of viruses in shaping metabolic networks along redox gradients associated with marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Here, we analyzed relatively quantitative viral metagenomic datasets that profiled the oxygen gradient across Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) OMZ waters, assessing whether OMZ ...


Varroa Destructor Mites Vector And Transmit Pathogenic Honey Bee Viruses Acquired From An Artificial Diet, Francisco Posada-Florez, Eugene V. Ryabov, Matthew C. Heerman, Yanping Chen, Jay D. Evans, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Steven C. Cook 2020 Old Dominion University

Varroa Destructor Mites Vector And Transmit Pathogenic Honey Bee Viruses Acquired From An Artificial Diet, Francisco Posada-Florez, Eugene V. Ryabov, Matthew C. Heerman, Yanping Chen, Jay D. Evans, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Steven C. Cook

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructoris one of the most destructive pests of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and the primary biotic cause of colony collapse in many regions of the world. These mites inflict physical injury on their honey bee hosts from feeding on host hemolymph and fat body cells/cellular components, and serve as the vector for deadly honey bee viruses, including Deformed wing virus (DWV) and the related Varroa destructor virus-1 (VDV-1) (i.e., DWV-like viruses). Studies focused on elucidating the dynamics of Varroa-mediated vectoring and transmission of DWV-like viruses may be confounded by viruses present in ...


Endothelial Cell Contributions To Covid-19, Alexandra E. Oxford, Fabio Halla, Evan B. Robertson, Brad E. Morrison 2020 Boise State University

Endothelial Cell Contributions To Covid-19, Alexandra E. Oxford, Fabio Halla, Evan B. Robertson, Brad E. Morrison

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Understanding of the clinical, histological and molecular features of the novel coronavirus 2019 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)) has remained elusive. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by this virus has unusual clinical presentation with regard to other related coronaviruses. Recent reports suggest that SARS-CoV-2, unlike other related viruses, infects and replicates within endothelial cells, which may explain a significant portion of the observed clinical pathology. Likewise, mounting evidence associates vascular and endothelial cell dysfunction with increased mortality. This review focuses on understanding how endothelial cell pathology is caused by SARS-CoV-2 at the molecular and cellular levels and how ...


A Functional K+ Channel From Tetraselmis Virus 1, A Member Of The Mimiviridae, Kerri Kukovetz, Brigitte Hertel, Christopher R. Schvarcz, Andrea Saponaro, Mirja Manthey, Ulrike Burk, Timo Greiner, Grieg F. Steward, James L. Van Etten, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel, Oliver Rauh 2020 Technische Universität Darmstadt

A Functional K+ Channel From Tetraselmis Virus 1, A Member Of The Mimiviridae, Kerri Kukovetz, Brigitte Hertel, Christopher R. Schvarcz, Andrea Saponaro, Mirja Manthey, Ulrike Burk, Timo Greiner, Grieg F. Steward, James L. Van Etten, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel, Oliver Rauh

Virology Papers

Potassium ion (K+) channels have been observed in diverse viruses that infect eukaryotic marine and freshwater algae. However, experimental evidence for functional K+ channels among these alga-infecting viruses has thus far been restricted to members of the family Phycodnaviridae, which are large, double-stranded DNA viruses within the phylum Nucleocytoviricota. Recent sequencing projects revealed that alga-infecting members of Mimiviridae, another family within this phylum, may also contain genes encoding K+ channels. Here we examine the structural features and the functional properties of putative K+ channels from four cultivated members of Mimiviridae. While all four proteins contain variations of the conserved selectivity ...


Antibody Responses In Covid-19 Patients, Shuying Liu, Shan Lu 2020 SL Consulting

Antibody Responses In Covid-19 Patients, Shuying Liu, Shan Lu

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Measuring virus-specific antibody responses to emerging pathogens is a well-established and highly useful tool to diagnose such infections, understand interactions between the immune system and pathogens, and provide potential clues for the development of vaccines or therapeutic agents against such pathogens. Since the beginning of 2020, the discovery of SARS-CoV-2 as the emerging virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic has provided new insight into the complexity of antibody responses to this dangerous virus. The current review aims to sort out diverse and sometimes seemingly confusing findings to put together a cohesive understanding on the profile of antibody responses elicited in ...


Defining The Proteolytic Landscape During Enterovirus Infection., Mohsan Saeed, Sebastian Kapell, Nicholas T Hertz, Xianfang Wu, Kierstin Bell, Alison W Ashbrook, Milica Tesic Mark, Henry A Zebroski, Maxwell L Neal, Malin Flodström-Tullberg, Margaret R MacDonald, John D Aitchison, Henrik Molina, Charles M Rice 2020 Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, WA, United States of America.

Defining The Proteolytic Landscape During Enterovirus Infection., Mohsan Saeed, Sebastian Kapell, Nicholas T Hertz, Xianfang Wu, Kierstin Bell, Alison W Ashbrook, Milica Tesic Mark, Henry A Zebroski, Maxwell L Neal, Malin Flodström-Tullberg, Margaret R Macdonald, John D Aitchison, Henrik Molina, Charles M Rice

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Viruses cleave cellular proteins to remodel the host proteome. The study of these cleavages has revealed mechanisms of immune evasion, resource exploitation, and pathogenesis. However, the full extent of virus-induced proteolysis in infected cells is unknown, mainly because until recently the technology for a global view of proteolysis within cells was lacking. Here, we report the first comprehensive catalog of proteins cleaved upon enterovirus infection and identify the sites within proteins where the cleavages occur. We employed multiple strategies to confirm protein cleavages and assigned them to one of the two enteroviral proteases. Detailed characterization of one substrate, LSM14A, a ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress