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The Potential Of Endophytic Bacteria As The Biocontrol Agents Of Fusarium Proliferatum, Rima Ernia, Nisa Rachmania Mubarik, Lisdar Idwan Sudirman 2023 Study Program of Microbiology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor 16680, Indonesia

The Potential Of Endophytic Bacteria As The Biocontrol Agents Of Fusarium Proliferatum, Rima Ernia, Nisa Rachmania Mubarik, Lisdar Idwan Sudirman

Makara Journal of Science

Fusarium proliferatum decreases the productivity of shallot (Allium cepa L.). Endophytic bacteria are potential biocontrol agents in controlling the growth of F. proliferatum. This study aimed to select and characterize endophytic bacteria producing bioactive compounds that inhibit the growth of F. proliferatum. The endophytic bacteria used were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and soil of shallot plants from healthy and diseased shallot farming fields. The endophytic bacteria were selected using the dual culture method and extracted using ethyl acetate solvent. The results of the 16S rRNA identification suggested that isolate ABP5.2 is similar to Pseudomonas …


Detection And Control Of Environmentally Transmissible Viruses, Anand R. Soorneedi 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Detection And Control Of Environmentally Transmissible Viruses, Anand R. Soorneedi

Doctoral Dissertations

Viruses, owing to their ubiquitous nature and ability to infect almost every other species, have long been a subject of interest for scientists. Some of the virus species can be very deadly to humans and animals alike and can impose a huge economic and health burden across the world. The recent CoVID-19 pandemic underscores the importance of timely detection for developing effective intervention strategies. Unfortunately, some of the virus species that cause significant health and economic impacts do not have robust and reliable detection methods due to several reasons. In some cases, despite having gold standard methods for detection of …


Bactericidal Effects Of Chlorine And Bacteriophages On Mycobacteria In Conventionally Treated Water., Max Kevane-Campbell 2023 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland.

Bactericidal Effects Of Chlorine And Bacteriophages On Mycobacteria In Conventionally Treated Water., Max Kevane-Campbell

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Introduction

Mycobacteria are members of the order Actinomycetales and the only genus in the family Mycobacteriaceae. The distinguishing characteristics that are found in mycobacteria include acid-fastness and the presence of mycolic acids. Mycobacteria can be commonly classified as non-spore-forming, aerobic, slender rod-shaped, and are slow-growers. Natural reservoirs that mycobacteria can be found in are aquatic and terrestrial environments. Recent studies have shown that mycobacteria that can cause skin lesions, immune and/or pulmonary dysfunctions and chronic diseases, i.e., Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis, M. kansasii, and M. xenopi, can be isolated from common household tap water. Tap water can originate from …


Exploring Experimental Design And Multivariate Analysis Techniques For Evaluating Community Structure Of Bacteria In Microbiome Data, Kelsey Karnik 2023 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Exploring Experimental Design And Multivariate Analysis Techniques For Evaluating Community Structure Of Bacteria In Microbiome Data, Kelsey Karnik

Department of Statistics: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Work

The gut microbiome plays a crucial role in human health, and by working collaboratively with microbiologists, we aim to further our understanding of the human gut and its impact on human health. Promoting a diverse microbiome is emphasized throughout microbiology literature, and involving a statistician in designing experiments to relate gut bacteria and some measured health outcome is crucial for ensuring valid and accurate results. By adopting new experimental design and analysis methods, researchers can begin to gain a deeper understanding of how the genetics of our food affect the composition of taxa within the gut microbiome. This dissertation is …


Effect Of Authentic Kefir And Nigella Sativa On Broilers Challenged By Coccidia And Clostridium Perfringens, Julian E. Nixon 2023 Clemson University

Effect Of Authentic Kefir And Nigella Sativa On Broilers Challenged By Coccidia And Clostridium Perfringens, Julian E. Nixon

All Dissertations

Black seed oil concentrations of 0%, 0.1%, 1% and 5% were added to milk inoculated with kefir grains and incubated at 25°C for 22 h. The pH and microbial count indicated 1% black seed oil caused low inhibition (P > 0.05) of fermentation, but 5% black seed oil caused significant inhibition of the kefir microorganisms (P < 0.05).

Cobb 500 male chicks (n = 256) were distributed in a randomized block design and received one of four treatments: CTRL1 (Non-medicated, no kefir, no Clostridium perfringens), CTRL2 (Non-medicated, no kefir, C. perfringens inoculated), CTRL3 (BMD medicated, no kefir, C. perfringens inoculated), KTRT (Non-medicated, …


Characterization Of Antimicrobial Properties Of Excrement And Functional Microbiome Of Black Vultures (Coragyps Atratus), Bridgette Gray 2023 Jacksonville State University

Characterization Of Antimicrobial Properties Of Excrement And Functional Microbiome Of Black Vultures (Coragyps Atratus), Bridgette Gray

Theses

Black vultures, Coragyps atratus, are obligate scavenging birds that consume and dispose of decaying carcasses and carrion. They fulfill a key ecological niche in the environments in which they live. It has been observed that these vultures sometimes excrete bodily waste onto their legs. This adaptive behavior could help aid them in controlling bacteria and other microbes they encounter while stepping into a carcass to eat. This study directly examined the antimicrobial properties of the excrement of black vultures across various bacterial species utilizing a zone of inhibition test and a nematode species utilizing a survival assay. The black vulture …


Enhancing Lovastatin Biosynthesis In Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus Ostreatus) Using Phytohormones, Fransisca Astrid Mustafa, Mamat Kandar, I Nyoman Pugeg Aryantha 2023 Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132, Indonesia

Enhancing Lovastatin Biosynthesis In Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus Ostreatus) Using Phytohormones, Fransisca Astrid Mustafa, Mamat Kandar, I Nyoman Pugeg Aryantha

Makara Journal of Science

The biosynthesis of lovastatin, the anti-cholesterol compound, in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), has the potential to be enhanced by utilizing phytohormones, which activate the expression of certain genes. This research aimed to determine the best type and concentration of phytohormone among auxin, gibberellin, and cytokinin, as well as the best mycelial colonization percentage in F2 medium to realize the greatest increase in lovastatin biosynthesis in oyster mushrooms. Lovastatin was extracted from the fruiting bodies and mycelia and analyzed by spectrophotometry. The analysis of CYP450 linked to lovastatin biosynthesis was conducted by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using samples containing …


The Influence Of Microorganisms On Human Health, Tiffany Bui 2023 Portland State University

The Influence Of Microorganisms On Human Health, Tiffany Bui

University Honors Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to explore the interplay between the environment, lifestyle, and composition of human microbiomes across different communities, with a specific focus on immune and digestive health. This literature review investigates three distinct types of communities: isolated/traditional, transitional, and urban/industrialized communities, each characterized by unique environments, societal structures, and interactions. These factors contribute to the distinct microbial populations and compositions within each community. It is impossible to avoid contact with microorganisms as they are present in every aspect of our lives, from the air we breathe, the water we drink, the soil we walk on, the …


Helices In Fluids And Their Applications, Eva M. Strawbridge 2023 James Madison University

Helices In Fluids And Their Applications, Eva M. Strawbridge

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Aloe Vera On The Human Gut Microbiome, Samantha Leon 2023 University of Mississippi

The Effects Of Aloe Vera On The Human Gut Microbiome, Samantha Leon

Honors Theses

The human gut microbiome is a diverse community of bacteria influenced by multiple factors including host age, geographical location, and diet. This study observed the effects of aloe vera juice on the human gut microbiome. Fecal samples were taken every two weeks over a period of one year; the subject consumed aloe vera juice in alternating cycles of consumption “on” and abstaining “off” with each cycle lasting for eight weeks. The bacterial community in each sample was characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sequences were identified and their relative abundances were used to look for patterns distinguishing “on” and “off” …


The Stringent Response In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Influences The Phenotypes Controlled By The Gac/Rsm System, Michael Shawn Hooker 2023 East Tennessee State University

The Stringent Response In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Influences The Phenotypes Controlled By The Gac/Rsm System, Michael Shawn Hooker

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous, opportunistic pathogen that causes acute and chronic infections. Infection is typically initiated via motile and virulent strains. After exposure to stressors, acute infections make both genotypic and phenotypic switches to a chronic, sessile strain. This is due to intricate regulatory networks directing gene expression in response to stressors. One network, GacA/GacS, has been established to control virulence factors. The stringent response of bacteria is mediated by alarmones produced primarily by RelA which responds to starvation.

To study the effect of the stringent response on the virulence switch. A series of experiments were run in both …


The Effects Of Salt And Temperature On Three Methanogen Species: Implications For Mars, Katy Dunlap 2023 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of Salt And Temperature On Three Methanogen Species: Implications For Mars, Katy Dunlap

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The question of whether life has ever existed on Mars – either in the past or currently – has been pursued for decades. This debate has been prompted by a variety of discoveries regarding similarities between Mars and Earth and more recently concerns over human extinction. Mars, like Earth, once had large amounts of water, a key ingredient for life. H2O exists on Mars in various forms now, and it is theorized that there is liquid water beneath the surface as well. Mars also contains salt and is very cold at its surface, pointing researchers towards the idea …


Determining The Effects Of Maternal Adiposity On Preterm Neonatal Microbiome And Short Chain Fatty Acid Profiles, Dalton James, William A. Clark PhD, Kristy L. Thomas 2023 East Tennessee State University

Determining The Effects Of Maternal Adiposity On Preterm Neonatal Microbiome And Short Chain Fatty Acid Profiles, Dalton James, William A. Clark Phd, Kristy L. Thomas

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The gut microbiota and its metabolites have vast impacts on the human digestive system, immune system, and health outcomes. Short chain volatile fatty acids (SCVFAs) present in feces can be representative of the interactions of the microbiota present in the gut. Low microbiota diversity in the human gut is highly associated with obesity and adverse health outcomes. Furthermore, the maternal microbiome has a direct impact on neonatal microbiota through various pathways such as environment, skin flora, breast milk composition, and vaginal secretions. This study is aimed to further understand the associations between various factors (maternal adiposity, gestational time, length of …


Effect Of Temperature On The Microbiome Of A Laboratory-Reared Colony Of Haemaphysalis Longicornis Ticks, Brianna L. Mitchell 2023 University of South Alabama

Effect Of Temperature On The Microbiome Of A Laboratory-Reared Colony Of Haemaphysalis Longicornis Ticks, Brianna L. Mitchell

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks are invasive to the United States with potential to transmit several tick-borne pathogens that are native to the United States. Based on existing locations of H. longicornis in its native regions in Asia, as well as its invasive populations that are established in the United States, several geographic range prediction models have been produced to help understand future range expansion and distribution of this invasive tick in North America. Unfortunately, these models do not all agree and there is uncertainty associated with the potential geographic range expansion of H. longicornis ticks in North America. Climate can affect …


Development, Optimization, And In Vitro/In Vivo Evaluation Of Azelaic Acid Transethosomal Gel For Antidermatophyte Activity, Ali Nasr, Noha Badawi, Yasmine Tartor, Nader Sobhy, Ali Nasr 2023 The British University in Egypt

Development, Optimization, And In Vitro/In Vivo Evaluation Of Azelaic Acid Transethosomal Gel For Antidermatophyte Activity, Ali Nasr, Noha Badawi, Yasmine Tartor, Nader Sobhy, Ali Nasr

Pharmacy

Treatment of dermatophytosis is quite challenging. This work aims to investigate the antidermatophyte action of Azelaic acid (AzA) and evaluate its efficacy upon entrapment into transethosomes (TEs) and incorporation into a gel to enhance its application. Optimization of formulation variables of TEs was carried out after preparation using the thin film hydration technique. The antidermatophyte activity of AzA-TEs was first evaluated in vitro. In addition, two guinea pig infection models with Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes and Microsporum (M.) canis were established for the in vivo assessment. The optimized formula showed a mean particle size of 219.8 ± 4.7 nm and a …


From Micro To Macro: Examining Potential Microbiome Mediated Influences On Human Growth And Health Outcomes Through Breastfeeding And Antibiotic Exposures, Nicole K. Phillips 2023 The University of Western Ontario

From Micro To Macro: Examining Potential Microbiome Mediated Influences On Human Growth And Health Outcomes Through Breastfeeding And Antibiotic Exposures, Nicole K. Phillips

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Human microbiome research has rapidly developed over the past two decades yet absent from most research is the composition and dynamics of microbiomes within human populations. Given the limitations in longitudinal studies which requires decades of repeated microbe taxonomic testing of a population sample, an alternative option is to examine microbiomes and their influences via proxies using pre-existing health datasets. This research demonstrates preliminary associations between presumed disrupted and supportive microbiomes dynamics proxied by antibiotic and breastmilk exposure respectively. Using health record data across the life span from approximately 500,000 U.K. participants, this research demonstrates variable altered growth and health …


Examining The Effect Of Varying Dilutions Of Octopamine On The Gut Microbiome Of Lab-Raised And Wild Acheta Domesticus By Brandon Nelson University Of Puget Sound Biology, Brandon Nelson 2023 University of Puget Sound

Examining The Effect Of Varying Dilutions Of Octopamine On The Gut Microbiome Of Lab-Raised And Wild Acheta Domesticus By Brandon Nelson University Of Puget Sound Biology, Brandon Nelson

Summer Research

For my research I am comparing the gut microbiome of lab raised A. Domesticus that are given various levels of Octopamine, a stress hormone, and comparing that to the gut microbiome of wild cricket types. Crickets are a widely used organism across the world for various experiments as both subject and feed. Knowing how the gut microbiome of these crickets is affected by various levels of stress will allow us to better take care of these crickets. This could also help us determine if there are any diseases that lab raised crickets may be susceptible to. A large part of …


Rapid Bacterial And Fungal Successional Dynamics In First Year After Chaparral Wildfire, M. Fabiola Pulido-Chavez, James W. J. Randolph, Cassandra A. Zalman, Loralee Larios, Peter M. Homyak, Sydney I. Glassman 2022 University of California, Riverside

Rapid Bacterial And Fungal Successional Dynamics In First Year After Chaparral Wildfire, M. Fabiola Pulido-Chavez, James W. J. Randolph, Cassandra A. Zalman, Loralee Larios, Peter M. Homyak, Sydney I. Glassman

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The rise in wildfire frequency and severity across the globe has increased interest in secondary succession. However, despite the role of soil microbial communities in controlling biogeochemical cycling and their role in the regeneration of post-fire vegetation, the lack of measurements immediately post-fire and at high temporal resolution has limited understanding of microbial secondary succession. To fill this knowledge gap, we sampled soils at 17, 25, 34, 67, 95, 131, 187, 286, and 376 days after a southern California wildfire in fire-adapted chaparral shrublands. We assessed bacterial and fungal biomass with qPCR of 16S and 18S and richness and composition …


Effects Of Microcystin-Lr On Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) Susceptibility To Microbial Pathogens (Aeromonas Hydrophila And Edwardsiella Piscicida), Alison Marchant 2022 Mississippi State University

Effects Of Microcystin-Lr On Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) Susceptibility To Microbial Pathogens (Aeromonas Hydrophila And Edwardsiella Piscicida), Alison Marchant

Theses and Dissertations

Microcystin-LR is a hepatotoxin produced by cyanobacteria. Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella piscicida infections are leading causes of losses in market-sized channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). These older fish should have natural immunity in place and a predisposing factor is likely a prerequisite for these disease outbreaks. While microcystin-LR rarely causes mortality in warm-water aquaculture, we believe it may be a predisposing factor that leads to bacterial disease outbreaks during the summer months due to its ability to damage the liver. Our study investigated microcystin-LR’s effects on channel catfish susceptibility to these pathogens. We found that a sublethal dose of microcystin-LR induced …


Functional Characterization Of Mycobacterium Smegmatis Phage Moomoo Gene Products: Identification Of Toxic Genes, Whitney Heard 2022 Western Kentucky University

Functional Characterization Of Mycobacterium Smegmatis Phage Moomoo Gene Products: Identification Of Toxic Genes, Whitney Heard

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Mycobacteriophages are a group of phages that infect members of the genus Mycobacteria. Previous studies have conducted extensive comparisons of the mycobacteriophage genomes and amino acid sequences to establish different phage families. MooMoo is a singleton mycobacteriophage that has been characterized due to its lack of appreciable homology to other phages. Some of its unique properties include its structure and the isolation of a mutant that causes clear plaque phenotypes. The experiments described in this thesis identified three MooMoo phage (gp87, gp90, and gp91) encoded proteins that are toxic to the bacterial host, Mycobacterium smegmatis.Through the use of a …


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