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Investigation Of An Alternative Protocol For The Production Of Sars-Cov-2 Antigenic Proteins, Nichole Ninaltowski 2021 University of South Florida

Investigation Of An Alternative Protocol For The Production Of Sars-Cov-2 Antigenic Proteins, Nichole Ninaltowski

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With the COVID-19 pandemic showing no signs of slowing down, large-scale antigenic protein production is still needed for surveillance using serologic assays. From screening to vaccines to biotherapeutics, being able to produce the proteins for these assays is essential; however, the current gold standard method for producing SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins is prohibitively expensive for most research groups.

Alternative methods of transfecting mammalian cells to produce recombinant proteins that are relatively inexpensive have been used for years. Unlike the expensive, commercially available lipid-based methods, other established methods such as polyethyleneimine (PEI), are considerably easier, and cheaper to meet the needs of …


Immunometabolic Dysregulation At The Intersection Of Obesity And Covid-19, Collins N. Khwatenge, Marquette Pate, Laura C. Miller, Yongming Sang 2021 Tennessee State University

Immunometabolic Dysregulation At The Intersection Of Obesity And Covid-19, Collins N. Khwatenge, Marquette Pate, Laura C. Miller, Yongming Sang

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

Obesity prevails worldwide to an increasing effect. For example, up to 42% of American adults are considered obese. Obese individuals are prone to a variety of complications of metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Recent meta-analyses of clinical studies in patient cohorts in the ongoing coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic indicate that the presence of obesity and relevant disorders is linked to a more severe prognosis of COVID-19. Given the significance of obesity in COVID-19 progression, we provide a review of host metabolic and immune responses in the immunometabolic dysregulation exaggerated by obesity and the …


A Bioinformatic And Biochemical Analysis Of Cruciviruses, George William Kasun 2021 Portland State University

A Bioinformatic And Biochemical Analysis Of Cruciviruses, George William Kasun

Dissertations and Theses

Cruciviruses are novel ssDNA viruses discovered through metagenomics and direct environmental DNA amplification and cloning. The genomes of cruciviruses suggest that gene transfer between RNA and DNA viruses occurred due to the presence of putative protein-encoding genes that are homologous to both ssRNA and ssDNA viruses. In order to gain a better understanding of this group of viruses both bioinformatic analyses and in vitro biochemical experiments were employed. The results of the bioinformatic analyses show that cruciviruses are a highly diverse group of ssDNA viruses. Their placement within established ssDNA phylogenies is difficult due to heterogeneity in their putative replication-associated …


Harness Organoid Models For Virological Studies In Animals: A Cross-Species Perspective, Yongming Sang, Laura C. Miller, Rahul K. Nelli, Luis Gabriel Giménez-Lirola 2021 Tennessee State University

Harness Organoid Models For Virological Studies In Animals: A Cross-Species Perspective, Yongming Sang, Laura C. Miller, Rahul K. Nelli, Luis Gabriel Giménez-Lirola

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

Animal models and cell culture in vitro are primarily used in virus and antiviral immune research. Whereas the limitation of these models to recapitulate the viral pathogenesis in humans has been made well aware, it is imperative to introduce more efficient systems to validate emerging viruses in both domestic and wild animals. Organoids ascribe to representative miniatures of organs (i.e., mini-organs), which are derived from three-dimensional culture of stem cells under respective differential conditions mimicking endogenous organogenetic niches. Organoids have broadened virological studies in the human context, particularly in recent uses for COVID19 research. This review examines the status and …


Editorial: Pathogens, Pathobionts, And Autoimmunity, Linda A. Spatz, Gregg J. Silverman, Judith A. James 2021 CUNY City College

Editorial: Pathogens, Pathobionts, And Autoimmunity, Linda A. Spatz, Gregg J. Silverman, Judith A. James

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Biocontrol Of Foodborne Pathogens Using Bacteriophages, Dzhuliya Ignatova, Erion Hogan, Simone Dakare, Jean Lu 2021 Kennesaw State University

Biocontrol Of Foodborne Pathogens Using Bacteriophages, Dzhuliya Ignatova, Erion Hogan, Simone Dakare, Jean Lu

Symposium of Student Scholars

Biocontrol of Foodborne Pathogens Using Bacteriophages

Dzhuliya Ignatova, Erion Hogan, Simone Dakare, and Jean Lu

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology

Abstract

Salmonella and Shigella are two important groups of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Salmonella cause an illness called salmonellosis while Shigella cause shigellosis (bacillary dysentery). The most common symptoms of these illnesses are abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and fever. Shigella can also cause bloody diarrhea. It was estimated that each year Salmonella cause 93.8 million cases of gastroenteritis and 155,000 deaths globally. Shigella causes 164.7 million cases and 1.1 million deaths throughout the world yearly. People get these illnesses mainly by …


Bacteriophages Infecting Enterobacter Cloacae To Reduce Bloater Damage In Fermented Cucumbers, 2021 Kennesaw State University

Bacteriophages Infecting Enterobacter Cloacae To Reduce Bloater Damage In Fermented Cucumbers

Symposium of Student Scholars

Fermented cucumbers are one of the most important fermented vegetables consumed worldwide. During cucumber fermentations, certain undesirable changes may occur. One of such changes is known as bloater defect (hollow cavities in fermented cucumbers), which is primarily caused by gas-producing bacteria including Enterobacter cloacae. Bloater defect lowers product quality and leads to significant economic loss to the pickle industry, and effective preventative methods are needed. Bacteriophages (phages) are highly host-specific bacterial killers. Use of phages to control unwanted bacteria in foods is a promising approach because phages do not change food properties. This research was to isolate, characterize, and …


Effectiveness Of Bacteriophages Against Bloater-Causing Bacteria Enterobacter Cloacae In A Model Food System, Ashley Reed, Dzhuliya Ignatova, Sandra Kopic, Unique Sardeneta 2021 Kennesaw State University

Effectiveness Of Bacteriophages Against Bloater-Causing Bacteria Enterobacter Cloacae In A Model Food System, Ashley Reed, Dzhuliya Ignatova, Sandra Kopic, Unique Sardeneta

Symposium of Student Scholars

Effectiveness of bacteriophages against bloater-causing bacteria Enterobacter cloacae in a model food system

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology

Ashley Reed, Dzhuliya Ignatova, Sandra Kopic, Unique Sardeneta, and Jean Lu

Abstract

Cucumber fermentation is one of the most important vegetable fermentations in the United States and Europe. Enterobacter cloacae and other gas-producing bacteria can cause bloater defect (the gas pockets or hollow cavities formed in fermented cucumbers) which lowers the quality and the yield of fermented cucumbers, thereby resulting in significant economic losses to the pickling industry. Cost-effective strategies to control E. cloacae and other microbiota need to be …


Type I Interferon Regulation Of Chikungunya Virus Pathogenesis, Marissa Christine Locke 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Type I Interferon Regulation Of Chikungunya Virus Pathogenesis, Marissa Christine Locke

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus that acutely causes fever as well as severe joint and muscle pain. Chronic musculoskeletal pain persists in a substantial fraction of patients for months to years after the initial infection, yet we still have a poor understanding of the mechanisms responsible for chronic disease. While replicating virus has not been detected in joint-associated tissues of patients with persistent arthritis nor in various animal models at convalescent time points, viral RNA is detected months after acute infection. However, there has been a lack of tools to study the mechanisms of chronic CHIKV disease. To …


Regulation Of Host-Microbe Interactions In Autoimmunity And Antiviral Immunity By Cytosolic Nucleic Acid Sensing And Interferon Signaling, Derek Jerome Platt 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Regulation Of Host-Microbe Interactions In Autoimmunity And Antiviral Immunity By Cytosolic Nucleic Acid Sensing And Interferon Signaling, Derek Jerome Platt

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cytosolic nucleic acid sensing and interferon (IFN) signaling are central to the host immune response to microbial pathogens. However, dysregulation of immunological pathways such as these can result in devastating autoimmune disease. In order to provide a robust immune response to pathogen without causing harm to self, the host immune system must engage in a delicate balancing act, interacting with microbes and determining whether they are commensal or pathogenic. The cGAS-STING pathway is a key regulator of host-microbe interactions by cytosolic nucleic sensing and IFN signaling. Loss of function in the cGAS-STING pathway leads to increased susceptibility to pathogenic threats, …


Roles Of A Bradykinin Storm And A Cytokine Storm In Covid-19 Cases, Nouha H. Odeh 2021 Wayne State University

Roles Of A Bradykinin Storm And A Cytokine Storm In Covid-19 Cases, Nouha H. Odeh

Honors College Theses

In the light of recent events, it is imperative to understand the key inflammatory response elements that appear to be the source of more severe ailments resulting from a SARS-CoV-2 viral infection known as Covid-19 The more severe cases of Covid-19 are characterized by a severe inflammatory response resulting in tissue damage. My research proposal aims to investigate the two possible culprits of this response: a bradykinin (BK) storm and an interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated cytokine storm. In both systems respectively, the excess release of these signals subsequently signals the production of even more of the same response element, resulting in …


A Review Of Novel Coronavirus: Cross-Disciplinal Perspective, Iram Asim, Hafsa Rehman, Rabeea Anwar, Humaira Yasmeen 2021 Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The Women University Multan, Pakistan

A Review Of Novel Coronavirus: Cross-Disciplinal Perspective, Iram Asim, Hafsa Rehman, Rabeea Anwar, Humaira Yasmeen

Journal of Bioresource Management

The whole world is under the influence of coronavirus after its first report from Wuhan, China in December 2019. The virus is from coronaviridae family which has zoonotic viruses that can spread from animals to humans. The coronavirus like other viruses of this family produces mild flu-like symptoms within 2-14 days in the human host which progresses to death in severe cases. Unlikely coronavirus spread fast among humans-infectious diseases. Up till now (27/04/2020) around 2.97M cases and 207K deaths have been reported. The presence of a virus in respiratory secretions is diagnosed through molecular methods and chest scans. For this …


Deciphering The Perpetual Fight Between Virus And Host: Utilizing Bioinformatics To Elucidate The Host's Genetic Mechanisms That Influence Jc Polyomavirus Infection, Michael P. Wilczek 2021 University of Maine

Deciphering The Perpetual Fight Between Virus And Host: Utilizing Bioinformatics To Elucidate The Host's Genetic Mechanisms That Influence Jc Polyomavirus Infection, Michael P. Wilczek

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is a human-specific pathogen that infects 50-80% of the population, and can cause a deadly, demyelinating disease, known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). In most of the population, JCPyV persistently infects the kidneys but during immunosuppression, it can reactivate and spread to the central nervous system (CNS), causing PML. In the CNS, JCPyV targets two cell types, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Due to the hallmark pathology of oligodendrocyte lysis observed in disease, oligodendrocytes were thought to be the main cell type involved during JCPyV infection. However, recent evidence suggests that astrocytes are targeted by the virus and act …


Interleukin-17a Facilitates Chikungunya Virus Infection By Inhibiting Ifn-Α2 Expression, Biswas Neupane 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

Interleukin-17a Facilitates Chikungunya Virus Infection By Inhibiting Ifn-Α2 Expression, Biswas Neupane

Dissertations

Interferons (IFNs) are the key components of innate immunity and are crucial for host defense against viral infections. Here, we report a novel role of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) in inhibiting IFN-α2 expression, thus promoting chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. CHIKV infected IL-17A deficient (Il17a-/-) mice expressed a higher level of IFN-α2 and developed diminished viremia and milder footpad swelling in comparison to wild-type (WT) control mice, this was also recapitulated in IL-17A receptor-deficient (Il17ra-/-) mice. Interestingly, IL-17A selectively blocked IFN-α2 production during CHIKV, but not West Nile virus (WNV) or Zika virus (ZIKV), infections. Recombinant IL-17A …


Determinants Of Fine-Scale Heterogeneity In Mosquito-Borne Virus Systems, Elizabeth Handly Mayton 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Determinants Of Fine-Scale Heterogeneity In Mosquito-Borne Virus Systems, Elizabeth Handly Mayton

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are the etiological agents of much morbidity and mortality, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Many of these viruses are spread and maintained by mosquitoes, particularly the urban mosquito Aedes aegypti. Zika virus (ZIKV) is responsible for one of the largest vector-borne disease outbreaks in the past decade, affecting millions in Central and South America including a wave of microcephaly among newborns. Mayaro virus (MAYV) is a mosquito-borne virus endemic to South America and is predicted to become an emergent public health threat. Describing the vector-virus transmission systems are critical for understanding the potential spread …


Novel Scalable And Simplified System To Generate Microglia-Containing Cerebral Organoids From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Brittany Bodnar, Yongang Zhang, Jinbiao Liu, Yuan Lin, Peng Wang, Zhengyu Wei, Sami Saribas, Yuanjun Zhu, Fang Li, Xu Wang, Wenli Yang, Qingsheng Li, Wen-Zhe Ho, Wenhui Hu 2021 Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine

Novel Scalable And Simplified System To Generate Microglia-Containing Cerebral Organoids From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Brittany Bodnar, Yongang Zhang, Jinbiao Liu, Yuan Lin, Peng Wang, Zhengyu Wei, Sami Saribas, Yuanjun Zhu, Fang Li, Xu Wang, Wenli Yang, Qingsheng Li, Wen-Zhe Ho, Wenhui Hu

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Human cerebral organoid (CO) is a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture system that recapitulates the developing human brain. While CO has proved an invaluable tool for studying neurological disorders in a more clinically relevant matter, there have still been several shortcomings including CO variability and reproducibility as well as lack of or underrepresentation of certain cell types typically found in the brain. As the technology to generate COs has continued to improve, more efficient and streamlined protocols have addressed some of these issues. Here we present a novel scalable and simplified system to generate microglia-containing CO (MCO). We characterize the cell …


Protective Role Of Palmitoleate Against Zika Virus-Induced Apoptosis In Placental Trophoblasts, Philma Glora Muthuraj 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Protective Role Of Palmitoleate Against Zika Virus-Induced Apoptosis In Placental Trophoblasts, Philma Glora Muthuraj

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnant women causes congenital Zika syndrome which involves birth defects such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), retinal defects and microcephaly in the fetus. ZIKV infection results in placental pathology which plays a crucial role in disease transmission from mother to fetus. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved vaccine or therapeutic drug against ZIKV. In this thesis, we have elucidated the cell signaling pathways connected to ZIKV-induced apoptosis in trophoblasts and also the protective effect of palmitoleate against ZIKV-induced apoptosis. First, we demonstrated the molecular mechanism behind ZIKV-induced apoptosis using an in …


The Persistence Of Human Norovirus Surrogate In Leafy Greens Production System, Wenjun Deng 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Persistence Of Human Norovirus Surrogate In Leafy Greens Production System, Wenjun Deng

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Since mostly consumed raw, foodborne pathogen contamination of leafy greens has led to a large number of foodborne disease outbreaks and illnesses each year in the United States. Human noroviruses (hNoV) are the most common viral pathogen transmitted by leafy greens. In this dissertation, the persistence of the hNoV surrogate Tulane virus (TV) on pre-harvest lettuce and microgreens was investigated. Lettuces are the most studied leafy green model, while previous hNoV research has mainly focused on the post-harvest stage of production. Here, pre-harvest hydroponically grown lettuce were used to determine TV persistence on leafy greens. After inoculation on leaves at …


Development And Validation Of An Isothermal Amplification Assay For Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus, Mikayla D. Maddison 2021 University of South Florida

Development And Validation Of An Isothermal Amplification Assay For Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus, Mikayla D. Maddison

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a neurotrophic alphavirus for which there is no effective treatment or vaccine for humans. Periodic outbreaks in the Eastern United States represent an ongoing public health problem; Florida serves as the reservoir for EEEV for the rest of the country. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the current gold standard for molecular diagnostic testing of the presence of EEEV in vectors. However, RT-PCR is technically complex and can be difficult for mosquito control districts to utilize. In order to provide a simple, cost-effective alternative for mosquito surveillance and control, a novel one step reverse …


Global Analysis Of High Cited Papers On “Impact Of Covid-19 On Mental Health” During 2020-21, Ghouse Modin Nabeesab Mamdapur Mr., Brij Mohan Gupta Dr., Sandeep Grover Dr. 2021 Synthite Industries (P) Ltd., Kolenchery, Kerala, INDIA

Global Analysis Of High Cited Papers On “Impact Of Covid-19 On Mental Health” During 2020-21, Ghouse Modin Nabeesab Mamdapur Mr., Brij Mohan Gupta Dr., Sandeep Grover Dr.

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

A bibliometric analysis based on 160 highly cited papers extracted from the Scopus international database was carried out to provide insights into literature characteristics and publication performances of various participating actors on “Impact of COVID-19 on Mental Health”. Quantitative and qualitative Indicators were applied to measure the productivity and citation impact of most productive participating countries, organizations, authors, journals and significant keywords and to visualise and measure collaborative interaction among them using VOSviewer software. Results obtained from this study can provide valuable information for researchers and policy-makers to identify present and future hotspots in research on “Impact of COVID-19 on …


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