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Organismal Biological Physiology Commons

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Discovering Novel Polyextremotolerant Fungi, And Determining Their Ecological Role Within The Biological Soil Crust Consortium, Erin Carr 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Discovering Novel Polyextremotolerant Fungi, And Determining Their Ecological Role Within The Biological Soil Crust Consortium, Erin Carr

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

The ecological niche of polyextremotolerant fungi within oligotrophic ecosystems such as biological soil crusts has not yet been determined. These fungi persist in locations where nutrients are depleted while simultaneously surrounded by autotrophic microbes such as algae and cyanobacteria. Yet it has not been shown that they are engaging in any exchange of nutrients the way lichens do. However, there is seemingly no other way for these fungi to obtain vital nutrients, such as carbon or nitrogen, other than from these microbes. Here we have isolated polyextremotolerant fungi from cold desert biological soil crusts which are a microbial biofilm that ...


Parameter Estimation Using Nudging On The Logistic Growth Equation, Susan Rogowski 2022 Florida State University

Parameter Estimation Using Nudging On The Logistic Growth Equation, Susan Rogowski

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


How Acetylation Regulates Metabolic Enzyme Function During Environmental Shifts, Jared Canonigo 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

How Acetylation Regulates Metabolic Enzyme Function During Environmental Shifts, Jared Canonigo

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae can regulate the mechanisms of proteins through post-translational modification. These modifications play a vital role in functional proteomic activity because they can regulate protein activity, localization, and interaction with other cellular molecules. Such modifications include phosphorylation, methylation, and acetylation. The metabolic mechanisms of yeast became of keen interest to our lab because our lab noticed many stress defense proteins were being acetylated during stress heat shock. Notably, Adh1p and Adh2p showed both an increase and a decrease in acetylation at two lysine residues (K315 and K314) overtime during heat shock respectively, though the exact function ...


Inhibition Of Biofilm Formation By The Synergistic Action Of Egcg-S And Antibiotics, Shrameeta Shinde, Lee Lee, Tinchun Chu 2021 Miami University - Oxford

Inhibition Of Biofilm Formation By The Synergistic Action Of Egcg-S And Antibiotics, Shrameeta Shinde, Lee Lee, Tinchun Chu

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Biofilm, a stress-induced physiological state, is an established means of antimicrobial tolerance. A perpetual increase in multidrug resistant (MDR) infections associated with high mortality and morbidity have been observed in healthcare settings. Multiple studies have indicated that the use of natural products can prevent bacterial growth. Recent studies in the field have identified that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea polyphenol, could disrupt bacterial biofilms. A modified lipid-soluble EGCG, epigallocatechin-3-gallate-stearate (EGCG-S), has enhanced the beneficial properties of green tea. This study focuses on utilizing EGCG-S as a novel synergistic agent with antibiotics to prevent or control biofilm. Different formulations of ...


A Race Against Time: Reduced Azithromycin Susceptibility In Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhi In Pakistan, Junaid Iqbal, Irum Fatima Dehraj, Megan E. Carey, Zoe A. Dyson, Denise Garrett, Jessica C. Seidman, Furqan Kabir, Senjuti Saha, Stephen Baker, Farah Naz Qamar 2020 Aga Khan University

A Race Against Time: Reduced Azithromycin Susceptibility In Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhi In Pakistan, Junaid Iqbal, Irum Fatima Dehraj, Megan E. Carey, Zoe A. Dyson, Denise Garrett, Jessica C. Seidman, Furqan Kabir, Senjuti Saha, Stephen Baker, Farah Naz Qamar

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Antimicrobial resistance is an ongoing issue in the treatment of typhoid fever. Resistance to first-line antimicrobials and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Salmonella Typhi isolates in Pakistan have left azithromycin as the only remaining effective oral treatment. Here, we report the emergence of organisms with a single point mutation in acrB gene, implicated in azithromycin resistance, in a S. Typhi isolate from Pakistan. The isolation of this organism is worrisome and highlights the significance of the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccine in South Asia.
Importance: The emergence of XDR Salmonella Typhi in Pakistan has left azithromycin as the only viable oral ...


Identifying Determinants Of Target Specificity In Two Related Bacterial Peptide Toxins, Andrew D. Holmes 2020 University of South Dakota

Identifying Determinants Of Target Specificity In Two Related Bacterial Peptide Toxins, Andrew D. Holmes

Honors Thesis

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems were originally identified as two-component systems ensuring the stable inheritance of plasmids in bacterial populations. Recently, they have been identified on bacterial chromosomes where their functions remain mostly undefined. The par locus of E. faecalis plasmid pAD1 (parpAD1) was the first TA system defined in a Gram-positive bacterium and a homolog encoded on the E. faecalis chromosome (parEF0409) was later described. Related loci numbering in the hundreds have been identified throughout Gram-positive bacteria based on homology to the toxin of the system, Fst, and similarities in genetic organization and regulation. Despite their similar sequences, over-expression ...


Toxicity Analysis Of 2’-Deoxyguanosine-N2-6-Aminopyrene And 2’-Deoxyguanosine-N2-8-Aminopyrene In Escherichia Coli, Emily Janeiro 2020 University of Connecticut

Toxicity Analysis Of 2’-Deoxyguanosine-N2-6-Aminopyrene And 2’-Deoxyguanosine-N2-8-Aminopyrene In Escherichia Coli, Emily Janeiro

Honors Scholar Theses

Cancer is a disease that stems from genomic errors that are not corrected properly by cellular repair mechanisms. Errors are more likely to form when organisms are subjected to DNA damage by mutagenic compounds. 1-Nitropyrene, a nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (nitro-PAH), has been shown to be a potent mutagen that causes cancer. Nitro-PAHs can arise from diesel exhaust products in the environment. Out of all nitro-PAHs, 1-nitropyrene is found in largest quantities in the environment. This poses a great need to study its effects biochemically in order to address its toxicity in DNA. Other nitropyrene derivatives, including 1,6-dinitropyrene and ...


Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan McNamara 2020 The University of Akron

Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan Mcnamara

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

I tested the hypothesis that recombinant leptin protein can be introduced to zebrafish in vivo through non-invasive soaking in a solution containing the protein. One way to study various molecules’ effects in vivo is through intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injections during the embryonic or larval stage, which is invasive, difficult to administer, and can have a high mortality rate. 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) zebrafish were soaked in a His-tagged recombinant leptin protein solution at 10 nM and 100 nM concentrations (produced by Genscript). After soaking, zebrafish larvae were washed extensively to remove all recombinant protein on their exterior before homogenization ...


Characterizing The Requirements For The Matricellular Protein, Dccn, In Nervous System Function, Elizabeth L. Catudio Garrett 2020 University of Montana

Characterizing The Requirements For The Matricellular Protein, Dccn, In Nervous System Function, Elizabeth L. Catudio Garrett

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The brain is organized as a complex network of specialized neurons that communicate via a combination of electrical and chemical signals. Our brains function to generate movement, control organ function, or direct complex behaviors; all of which requires the ability to regulate the flow of communication between circuits and networks. Work in this thesis addresses two areas of neuron communication: first, how does the release of more than one neurotransmitter from a single neuron impact behavior, and second, are matricellular proteins (MCPs) key contributors to synaptic transmission and neuron function? The conserved CCN family of MCPs have a unique mosaic ...


Screening The Cultivable Cave Microbial Mats For The Production Of Antimicrobial Compounds And Antibiotic Resistance, Jerneja Ambrožič Avguštin, Patricia Petrič, Lejla Pašić 2019 University of Ljubljana

Screening The Cultivable Cave Microbial Mats For The Production Of Antimicrobial Compounds And Antibiotic Resistance, Jerneja Ambrožič Avguštin, Patricia Petrič, Lejla Pašić

International Journal of Speleology

The current work extends the phenotypic characterization of a bacterial culture collection obtained from white, yellow, grey or pink microbial cave wall colonies that are common in the caves of Slovenian Karst. We have determined antibiotic resistance to 22 natural and synthetic antibiotics in 69 isolates from the microbial mats. Thirty-eight isolates (52%) were resistant to 1-5 antibiotics; another 27 isolates (37%) were resistant to 6-10 antibiotics; and 7 isolates (0.1%) were resistant to 11-17 antibiotics. We screened for production of antimicrobial compounds by growing cave isolates on five different media and overlaying individual cultures with ten Gram-positive and ...


Drivers And Consequences Of Carbon Use Efficiency - And Its Measurement In Soil, Grace Pold 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Drivers And Consequences Of Carbon Use Efficiency - And Its Measurement In Soil, Grace Pold

Doctoral Dissertations

Soils serve as massive carbon sinks, but their ability to continue this ecological service is contingent on how the resident soil microbial community will respond to the ongoing climate crisis. One key dimension of the microbial response to warming is its carbon use efficiency (CUE), or the fraction of carbon taken up by an organism which is allocated to growth rather than respiration. However, the scientific community is still in the early stages of understanding the drivers, consequences - and even accurate measurements of - CUE. In this dissertation, I first quantified the variability of CUE and its responsiveness to temperature and ...


Anti-Human Cd9 Antibody Fab Fragment Impairs The Internalization Of Extracellular Vesicles And The Nuclear Transfer Of Their Cargo Proteins., Mark F. Santos, Germana Rappa, Jana Karbanová, Cheryl Vanier, Chikao Morimoto, Denis Corbeil, Aurelio Lorico 2019 Touro University Nevada

Anti-Human Cd9 Antibody Fab Fragment Impairs The Internalization Of Extracellular Vesicles And The Nuclear Transfer Of Their Cargo Proteins., Mark F. Santos, Germana Rappa, Jana Karbanová, Cheryl Vanier, Chikao Morimoto, Denis Corbeil, Aurelio Lorico

College of Osteopathic Medicine (TUN) Publications and Research

The intercellular communication mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs) has gained international interest during the last decade. Interfering with the mechanisms regulating this cellular process might find application particularly in oncology where cancer cell-derived EVs play a role in tumour microenvironment transformation. Although several mechanisms were ascribed to explain the internalization of EVs, little is our knowledge about the fate of their cargos, which are crucial to mediate their function. We recently demonstrated a new intracellular pathway in which a fraction of endocytosed EV-associated proteins is transported into the nucleoplasm of the host cell via a subpopulation of late endosomes penetrating ...


Caenorhabditis Elegans As A Model For Host-Microbe-Drug Interactions, Aurian P. Garcia Gonzalez 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Caenorhabditis Elegans As A Model For Host-Microbe-Drug Interactions, Aurian P. Garcia Gonzalez

Morningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses

The microbes that inhabit the human body, our microbiota, greatly influence our physiology and propensity for disease. For instance, the gut microbiota metabolizes compounds from our diet to provide important nutrients. Similarly, the microbiota has the potential to impact drug response; directly by metabolizing drugs, or indirectly by providing metabolites to the host. The complexity of the mammalian microbiota, and the limited throughput of such models, prohibit a systematic interrogation of specific interactions between microbes and host drug response. Here, I use C. elegans and its bacterial diet as a suitable model with the scalability and genetic tractability to address ...


Ultramicrobacteria Genome Database Project, Abdullah A. Salim, Tien Tran, Andrew Putt, Terry C. Hazen 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Ultramicrobacteria Genome Database Project, Abdullah A. Salim, Tien Tran, Andrew Putt, Terry C. Hazen

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Ultramicrobacteria (UMB) are a largely uncultured, globally abundant, and metabolically active group of bacteria. UMB have cell diameters ≤0.3μm, cell volumes ≤0.1 μm3, and small streamlined genomes. Recent findings indicate that UMB aid in bioremediation and nutrient cycling, but future investigations and comprehension of current findings are skewed by highly variable nomenclature and a lack of databases for functional, genomic, geochemical, or spatial data specific to candidate UMB. We aim to develop a user-friendly open-access database of various UMB candidates linked to an open-access online map where researchers can gather genomic, spatial, and geochemical data. Our comprehensive review ...


Determining The Role Of Cdr20291_0493 Sporulation Initiation In Clostridium Difficile, Carolina Bueno 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Determining The Role Of Cdr20291_0493 Sporulation Initiation In Clostridium Difficile, Carolina Bueno

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Our lab focuses on the gene regulatory networks of Clostridium difficilesporulation and toxins virulence factors. Spores are the major reason of the disease transmission; this is why it is important to understand how this spores are formed so drugs can be targeted to formation. Our objective is to identify the gene regulatory networks that control sporulation. The candidate target gene we are studying is CDR20291_0493 in C. difficileR20291 strain. We want to understand the role of this gene in sporulation initiation of C.difficile. We first created a mutant of CDR20291_0493 mutant R20291Dto look for sporulation phenotype and ...


Diversity And Shifts Of The Bacterial Community Associated With Baikal Sponge Mass Mortalities, Sergei Belikov, Natalia Belkova, Tatiana Butina, Lubov Chernogor, Alexandra Martynova-Van Kley, Armen Nalian, Colin Rorex, Igor Khanaev, Olga Maikova, Sergey Feranchuk 2019 Limnological Institute of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Diversity And Shifts Of The Bacterial Community Associated With Baikal Sponge Mass Mortalities, Sergei Belikov, Natalia Belkova, Tatiana Butina, Lubov Chernogor, Alexandra Martynova-Van Kley, Armen Nalian, Colin Rorex, Igor Khanaev, Olga Maikova, Sergey Feranchuk

Faculty Publications

The disease of freshwater sponges was first discovered in 2011, when pink samples were found in the Central Basin of Lake Baikal. Subsequently, the visible signs of the disease have changed, and now sponges appear with various symptoms of damage to the body, such as discoloration, tissue necrosis, the formation of brown patches and dirty-purple biofilms on some branches. These signs of the disease are accompanied by the mass death of sponges. We identified differences in microbiomes by sequencing 16S rRNA genes and found changes in the consortium of microorganisms of freshwater Baikal sponges. We found that the observed imbalance ...


Illumination Of The Golgi Apparatus Of Pathogenic And Nonpathogenic Naegleria Species, Tyler M. Poe 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Illumination Of The Golgi Apparatus Of Pathogenic And Nonpathogenic Naegleria Species, Tyler M. Poe

Theses and Dissertations

In this study, Naegleria fowleri, a pathogenic amoeba and the causative agent of Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM), was utilized to determine the presence or absence of classically conserved Golgi molecules featured in the expression of a Golgi apparatus. Previous studies concluded no Golgi expression via light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, but a recent report on Naegleria gruberi indicated the presence of dispersed Golgi tubules. Non-pathogenic species of the Naegleria genus such as Naegleria gruberi 30540 and Naegleria lovaniensis 30569 were utilized in Western immunoblot analysis compared to reduced whole-cell lysate proteins of two strains of N. fowleri and Vero ...


Gut Symbiont Viability In Honey Bees Exposed To Agrochemical Stressors, Bryant Justin Gabriel 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Gut Symbiont Viability In Honey Bees Exposed To Agrochemical Stressors, Bryant Justin Gabriel

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

The honey bee gut microbiome is essential for protecting this pollinator against abiotic and biotic stressors, including the prevention of harmful gut parasites and pathogens. Previous studies have not only demonstrated a linkage of bee gut dysbiosis to increased immunodeficiencies and pathogen sensitivities, but also report the maladaptation of the gut microbiome in bees exposed to agricultural and apicultural chemistries. There are few techniques available that allow for a simple and reliable analysis of the relative proportions of live and dead gut microbes in bees exposed to these chemistries. Previous techniques for measuring gut symbiont dysbiosis are temporally limited by ...


The Zinc Transporter Zipt-7.1 Regulates Sperm Activation In Nematodes, Yanmei Zhao, Chieh-Hsiang Tan, Amber Krauchunas, Andrea Scharf, Nicholas Dietrich, Kurt Warnhoff, Zhiheng Yuan, Marina Druzhinina, Sam Guoping Gu, Long Miao, Andrew Singson, Ronald E Ellis, Kerry Kornfeld 2018 Rowan University

The Zinc Transporter Zipt-7.1 Regulates Sperm Activation In Nematodes, Yanmei Zhao, Chieh-Hsiang Tan, Amber Krauchunas, Andrea Scharf, Nicholas Dietrich, Kurt Warnhoff, Zhiheng Yuan, Marina Druzhinina, Sam Guoping Gu, Long Miao, Andrew Singson, Ronald E Ellis, Kerry Kornfeld

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Sperm activation is a fascinating example of cell differentiation, in which immotile spermatids undergo a rapid and dramatic transition to become mature, motile sperm. Because the sperm nucleus is transcriptionally silent, this transition does not involve transcriptional changes. Although Caenorhabditis elegans is a leading model for studies of sperm activation, the mechanisms by which signaling pathways induce this transformation remain poorly characterized. Here we show that a conserved transmembrane zinc transporter, ZIPT-7.1, regulates the induction of sperm activation in Caenorhabditis nematodes. The zipt-7.1 mutant hermaphrodites cannot self-fertilize, and males reproduce poorly, because mutant spermatids are defective in responding ...


Regulation Of The Tubulin Homolog Ftsz In Escherichia Coli, Monika S. Buczek 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Regulation Of The Tubulin Homolog Ftsz In Escherichia Coli, Monika S. Buczek

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Escherichia coli is a well-known pathogen, and importantly, a widely used model organism in all fields of biological sciences for cloning, protein purification, and as a model for Gram-negative bacterial species. And yet, researchers do not fully understand how this bacterium replicates and divides. Every year additional division proteins are discovered, which adds complexity to how we understand E. coli undergoes cell division. Due to their specific roles in cytokinesis, some of these proteins may be potential targets for development of antibacterials or bacteriostatics, which are much needed for fighting the current global antibacterial deficit. My thesis work focuses on ...


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