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Growth Of Methanogens On Kaolinite, A Clay That Has Been Identified On Mars, Hailey Littrell 2024 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Growth Of Methanogens On Kaolinite, A Clay That Has Been Identified On Mars, Hailey Littrell

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Methanogens have been studied as a model for life on Mars for 28 years now in the Kral lab. The discovery of methane in the Martian atmosphere by ground-based and orbital observations as well as Curiosity Rover (Formisano, V. et al., Krasnopolsky, V.A. et al., Mumma, M.J. et al.) has added relevance to these types of studies. Methanogens were chosen due to their ability to live in harsh environments, very similar to the Martian terrain. In addition to methane in the atmosphere, phyllosilicate clays have also been identified. One of those clays is kaolinite. Kaolinite has been found to not …


Novel Microbial Guilds Implicated In N2o Reduction, Guang He 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Novel Microbial Guilds Implicated In N2o Reduction, Guang He

Doctoral Dissertations

N2O is a long-recognized greenhouse gas (GHG) with potential in global warming and ozone depletion. Terrestrial ecosystems are a major source of N2O due to imbalanced N2O production and consumption. Soil pH is a chief modulating factor controlling net N2O emissions, and N2O consumption has been considered negligible under acidic conditions (pH <6). In this dissertation, we obtained solids-free cultures reducing N2O at pH 4.5. Furthermore, a co-culture (designated culture EV) comprising two interacting bacterial population was acquired via consecutive transfer in mineral salt medium. Integrated phenotypic, metagenomic and metabolomic analysis dictated that the Serratia population excreted certain …


Mimicking Biofilms: Photosynthetic Assessments Of C. Reinhardtii In 3 Physical Forms, John Michael Roesgen 2023 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Mimicking Biofilms: Photosynthetic Assessments Of C. Reinhardtii In 3 Physical Forms, John Michael Roesgen

Biology ETDs

Oxygenic photosynthesis supports the majority of life on Earth through the capture of energy from sunlight and the assimilation of CO2 into basic building blocks of cells. Microalgae are fast growing and account for about half of global photosynthesis. In addition, they can be cultivated and their metabolism can be redirected to generate additional useful products ranging from biofuels to pharmaceuticals. However, the efficiency of metabolite production is severely impacted by the slow diffusion of CO2 through water and the high energetic costs of harvesting microalgae from liquid cultures. Microalgae grow in open water, but they also form …


Short Chain Fatty Acid Combination Treatment Protects Against 6-Ohda And Wt Α-Synuclein Induced Decreases In Neurite Growth In In Vitro Models Of Parkinson’S Disease., Alex Morris 2023 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland.

Short Chain Fatty Acid Combination Treatment Protects Against 6-Ohda And Wt Α-Synuclein Induced Decreases In Neurite Growth In In Vitro Models Of Parkinson’S Disease., Alex Morris

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dopaminergic neuron degeneration. This degeneration is partly driven by over expression of α-synuclein (α-syn) and development of α-syn aggregates known as Lewy bodies throughout the substantia nigra. As well as motor dysfunction, PD presents with several chronic gastrointestinal comorbidities, which cause a decline of gut microbial diversity and microbially derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Recent in vivo studies have shown SCFAs to be neuroprotective in various degenerative disease states, suggesting that SCFAs may protect against dopaminergic degeneration.

Methods

Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were used as a model of human …


Bactericidal Effects Of Chlorine And Bacteriophages On Mycobacteria In Conventionally Treated Water., Max Kevane-Campbell 2023 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland.

Bactericidal Effects Of Chlorine And Bacteriophages On Mycobacteria In Conventionally Treated Water., Max Kevane-Campbell

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Introduction

Mycobacteria are members of the order Actinomycetales and the only genus in the family Mycobacteriaceae. The distinguishing characteristics that are found in mycobacteria include acid-fastness and the presence of mycolic acids. Mycobacteria can be commonly classified as non-spore-forming, aerobic, slender rod-shaped, and are slow-growers. Natural reservoirs that mycobacteria can be found in are aquatic and terrestrial environments. Recent studies have shown that mycobacteria that can cause skin lesions, immune and/or pulmonary dysfunctions and chronic diseases, i.e., Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis, M. kansasii, and M. xenopi, can be isolated from common household tap water. Tap water can originate from …


Canine Testes Thin Sections Culture​, Nguyen Khoi Nguyen, Ramanpreet Singh 2023 Eastern Washington University

Canine Testes Thin Sections Culture​, Nguyen Khoi Nguyen, Ramanpreet Singh

2023 Symposium

Canine testes thin section culture

Testes tissue culture systems would provide a tool to elucidate spermatogenesis mechanisms, with the aim of genetic preservation of mammals, especially endangered species. Our experiment aims to develop a culture system capable of producing viable mammalian sperm cells in vitro.

Dogs were chosen as the model organism because testes are readily available. Canine testes were obtained from a local veterinary clinic. Thin sections were generated using a commercial electric slicer. They then were cleaned using Dulbecco’s Phosphate-Buffered Saline (DPBS) supplemented with antibiotics then cultured in a modified Tissue Culture Medium 199 (TCM-199). Sections were …


Canine Testes Thin Sections Culture, Nguyen Khoi Nguyen, Ramanpreet Singh 2023 Eastern Washington University

Canine Testes Thin Sections Culture, Nguyen Khoi Nguyen, Ramanpreet Singh

2023 Symposium

Canine testes thin section culture

Testes tissue culture systems would provide a tool to elucidate spermatogenesis mechanisms, with the aim of genetic preservation of mammals, especially endangered species. Our experiment aims to develop a culture system capable of producing viable mammalian sperm cells in vitro.

Dogs were chosen as the model organism because testes are readily available. Canine testes were obtained from a local veterinary clinic. Thin sections were generated using a commercial electric slicer. They then were cleaned using Dulbecco’s Phosphate-Buffered Saline (DPBS) supplemented with antibiotics then cultured in a modified Tissue Culture Medium 199 (TCM-199). Sections were …


What Is Microbial Dormancy?, Mark D. McDonald, Carlos Owusu-Ansah, Jared B. Ellenbogen, Zachary D. Malone, Michael P. Ricketts, Steve E. Frolking, Jessica Gilman Ernakovich, Michael Ibba, Sarah C. Bagby, J. L. Weissman 2023 Argonne National Laboratory

What Is Microbial Dormancy?, Mark D. Mcdonald, Carlos Owusu-Ansah, Jared B. Ellenbogen, Zachary D. Malone, Michael P. Ricketts, Steve E. Frolking, Jessica Gilman Ernakovich, Michael Ibba, Sarah C. Bagby, J. L. Weissman

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Life can be stressful. One way to deal with stress is to simply wait it out. Microbes do this by entering a state of reduced activity and increased resistance commonly called ‘dormancy’. But what is dormancy? Different scientific disciplines emphasize distinct traits and phenotypic ranges in defining dormancy for their microbial species and system-specific questions of interest. Here, we propose a unified definition of microbial dormancy, using a broad framework to place earlier discipline-specific definitions in a new context. We then discuss how this new definition and framework may improve our ability to investigate dormancy using multi-omics tools. Finally, we …


The Stringent Response In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Influences The Phenotypes Controlled By The Gac/Rsm System, Michael Shawn Hooker 2023 East Tennessee State University

The Stringent Response In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Influences The Phenotypes Controlled By The Gac/Rsm System, Michael Shawn Hooker

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous, opportunistic pathogen that causes acute and chronic infections. Infection is typically initiated via motile and virulent strains. After exposure to stressors, acute infections make both genotypic and phenotypic switches to a chronic, sessile strain. This is due to intricate regulatory networks directing gene expression in response to stressors. One network, GacA/GacS, has been established to control virulence factors. The stringent response of bacteria is mediated by alarmones produced primarily by RelA which responds to starvation.

To study the effect of the stringent response on the virulence switch. A series of experiments were run in both …


Rna Virus-Mediated Changes In Organismal Oxygen Consumption Rate In Young And Old Drosophila Melanogaster Males, Eli Hagedorn, Dean Bunnell, Beate Henschel, Daniel Smith Jr, Stephanie Dickinson, Andrew Brown, Maria De Luca, Ashley Turner, Stanislava Chtarbanova 2023 University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa

Rna Virus-Mediated Changes In Organismal Oxygen Consumption Rate In Young And Old Drosophila Melanogaster Males, Eli Hagedorn, Dean Bunnell, Beate Henschel, Daniel Smith Jr, Stephanie Dickinson, Andrew Brown, Maria De Luca, Ashley Turner, Stanislava Chtarbanova

Research, Publications & Creative Work

Aging is accompanied by increased susceptibility to infections including with viral pathogens resulting in higher morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Significant changes in host metabolism can take place following virus infection. Efficient immune responses are energetically costly, and viruses divert host molecular resources to promote their own replication. Virus-induced metabolic reprogramming could impact infection outcomes, however, how this is affected by aging and impacts organismal survival remains poorly understood. RNA virus infection of Drosophila melanogaster with Flock House virus (FHV) is an effective model to study antiviral responses with age, where older flies die faster than younger flies due …


Evaluation Of Some Toxic Trace Elements In Crocus Sativus L. And Soil Using Neutron Activation Analysis Technique, Ehsan Taghizadeh Tousi 2023 University of Torbat Heydarieh

Evaluation Of Some Toxic Trace Elements In Crocus Sativus L. And Soil Using Neutron Activation Analysis Technique, Ehsan Taghizadeh Tousi

The Philippine Agricultural Scientist

Neutron activation analysis was used in this research to measure the concentrations of aluminum (Al), bromine (Br), chlorine (Cl), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), and thorium (Th) in soil and saffron plants as well as their contamination, enrichment, and translocation rates. The edible part of the saffron showed a higher Hg concentration than the WHO/FAO-permitted level in the urban area. The soil was not intoxicated and contaminated by Al, As, and Th except in the urban areas, which were slightly polluted by As. The calculated contamination degree and pollution load index indicated that the soil was almost uncontaminated. The enrichment factors …


Editorial: New Frontiers In The Application Of Stable Isotopes To Ecological And Ecophysiological Research, Keith A. Hobson, John P. Whiteman, Seth D. Newsome 2023 Western University London

Editorial: New Frontiers In The Application Of Stable Isotopes To Ecological And Ecophysiological Research, Keith A. Hobson, John P. Whiteman, Seth D. Newsome

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Sex-Dependent Effects Of Induced Acute Inflammation On Glucose Homeostasis And Rna Editing Enzymes, Christian A. Rivas 2023 Missouri State University

Sex-Dependent Effects Of Induced Acute Inflammation On Glucose Homeostasis And Rna Editing Enzymes, Christian A. Rivas

MSU Graduate Theses

The first line of defense against bodily insults, like pathogen invasion, is the innate immune system. Innate immunity sets in motion countless cascades that result in inflammation. Inflammation simultaneously affects multiple biological processes like metabolism and gene expression. Males and females react differently to inflammation. To understand both molecular and physiological sex differences in inflammation, we examined how inflammation affects gene expression and glucose metabolism. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR1) is upregulated by inflammation and catalyzes RNA editing, a process where nucleotides encoded by the genome are modified. ADAR1 also controls the innate immune reaction by decreasing activity of …


The Role Of Dha In The Impact Of Trem2 On Microglia Activation And Alzheimer’S Disease, Michael A. Palmieri III 2022 Seton Hall University

The Role Of Dha In The Impact Of Trem2 On Microglia Activation And Alzheimer’S Disease, Michael A. Palmieri Iii

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurological disease that is associated with microglia activation. An important receptor involved in microglia activation is Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2). Recent studies suggest that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could reduce the neuroinflammation that is associated with microglia activation. We hypothesized that when DHA concentration was increased, TREM2 expression would decrease, microglia activity would be inhibited, and a resulting decrease in neuroinflammation would be observed. We examined peer-reviewed journal articles from 2017-2022 that investigated the relationship between TREM2 activation and severity of AD symptoms, the protective properties of DHA against AD, and the …


Optimization Of Clostridium Septicum Antigen Production And Evaluation Of Vaccine Administration Parameters For A Candidate Bacterin-Toxoid To Prevent Dermatitis In Commercial Turkeys, Aaron Forga 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Optimization Of Clostridium Septicum Antigen Production And Evaluation Of Vaccine Administration Parameters For A Candidate Bacterin-Toxoid To Prevent Dermatitis In Commercial Turkeys, Aaron Forga

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this thesis was to optimize the hemolytic activity of two isolates of Clostridium septicum to evaluate if hemolytic titer of C. septicum antigen at time of formalin inactivation corresponded to increased serum antibody titer to the C. septicum alpha-toxin of turkeys immunized with an experimental formalin inactivated bacterin-toxoid vaccine. Chapter 1 provides a brief overview of the thesis. Chapter 2 consists of a literature review focused on clostridial dermatitis, specifically C. septicum-associated dermatitis (cellulitis) that affects commercial turkeys. Chapter 3 outlines our attempts to optimize an experimental autogenous bacterin-toxoid vaccine as a potential strategy to mitigate clostridial …


Mutation Of Aspergillus Sp. Using Ultraviolet Light And Nitrous Acid For Amylase Production From Banana Peels, Cyprian Erumiseli Oshoma, Johnson Oche Akor, Beckley Ikhajiagbe, Marcel James Ikenebomeh 2022 Department of Microbiology, University of Benin, Benin City 300213, Nigeria

Mutation Of Aspergillus Sp. Using Ultraviolet Light And Nitrous Acid For Amylase Production From Banana Peels, Cyprian Erumiseli Oshoma, Johnson Oche Akor, Beckley Ikhajiagbe, Marcel James Ikenebomeh

Makara Journal of Science

Strain improvement through mutagenesis is important in the commercial development of microbial fermentation. This study aimed to produce amylase from banana (Musa sapientum) peels by using mutant Aspergillus sp. strains obtained via ultraviolet (UV) radiation and nitrous acid-based mutagenesis. Results revealed that banana peels pretreated with 0.8 N HCl had a biomass yield of 3.02 g/L and amylase activity of 2.81 U/L. Of the UV mutants, strain AUV1 had the highest biomass and amylase activity of 4.50 ± 0.21 g/L and 3.46 ± 0.14 U/L, respectively. Subsequently, HNO2 mutants showed that strain ANA6 had 30.64% and …


Identification And Characterization Of Genetic Elements That Regulate A C-Di-Gmp Mediated Multicellular Trait In Pseudomonas Fluorescens, Collin Kessler 2022 Duquesne University

Identification And Characterization Of Genetic Elements That Regulate A C-Di-Gmp Mediated Multicellular Trait In Pseudomonas Fluorescens, Collin Kessler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Microbial communities contain densely packed cells where competition for space and resources are fierce. These communities are generally referred to as biofilms and provide advantages to individual cells against immunological and antimicrobial intervention, dehydration, and predation. High intracellular pools of cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) cause cells to aggregate during biofilm formation through the production of diverse extracellular polymers. Genes that encode c-di-GMP catalytic enzymes are commonly mutated during chronic infections where opportunists display enhanced resistance to phagocytosis and antibiotics. Our lab uses an emergent multicellular trait in the model organism Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 to study the emergence of c-di-GMP mutations …


Perception Of Illness And Its Association With Willingness To Adhere To Treatment In Chronic Hepatitis C Patients With New Diagnosis Of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Carmel Kruse 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Perception Of Illness And Its Association With Willingness To Adhere To Treatment In Chronic Hepatitis C Patients With New Diagnosis Of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Carmel Kruse

The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing Student Works

Chronic liver disease is becoming the most common cause of mortality, morbidity, and utilization of healthcare services globally. Both nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) are frequent causes of chronic liver disease. Recently, there have been significant findings on the relationship between NAFLD and CHC; patients with CHC have a higher incidence of NAFLD. The introduction of direct-acting antivirals has cured more CHC patients than ever before. Unfortunately, the current interventions for NAFLD requiring behavioral change remain ineffective. Patient’s ability to follow advice depends largely on their health beliefs; therefore, understanding their illness perception is an …


Discovering Novel Polyextremotolerant Fungi, And Determining Their Ecological Role Within The Biological Soil Crust Consortium, Erin Carr 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Discovering Novel Polyextremotolerant Fungi, And Determining Their Ecological Role Within The Biological Soil Crust Consortium, Erin Carr

School of Biological Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The ecological niche of polyextremotolerant fungi within oligotrophic ecosystems such as biological soil crusts has not yet been determined. These fungi persist in locations where nutrients are depleted while simultaneously surrounded by autotrophic microbes such as algae and cyanobacteria. Yet it has not been shown that they are engaging in any exchange of nutrients the way lichens do. However, there is seemingly no other way for these fungi to obtain vital nutrients, such as carbon or nitrogen, other than from these microbes. Here we have isolated polyextremotolerant fungi from cold desert biological soil crusts which are a microbial biofilm that …


A Conserved Mechanism For Hormesis In Molecular Systems, Sharon N. Greenwood, Regina G. Belz, Brian P. Weiser 2022 Rowan University

A Conserved Mechanism For Hormesis In Molecular Systems, Sharon N. Greenwood, Regina G. Belz, Brian P. Weiser

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Hormesis refers to dose-response phenomena where low dose treatments elicit a response that is opposite the response observed at higher doses. Hormetic dose-response relationships have been observed throughout all of biology, but the underlying determinants of many reported hormetic dose-responses have not been identified. In this report, we describe a conserved mechanism for hormesis on the molecular level where low dose treatments enhance a response that becomes reduced at higher doses. The hormetic mechanism relies on the ability of protein homo-multimers to simultaneously interact with a substrate and a competitor on different subunits at low doses of competitor. In this …


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