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Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz PhD, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz Phd, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Salmonella is a relatively abundant, virulent species of bacteria that is most known for spreading gastrointestinal diseases through food. These illnesses result in approximately 1.35 million infections, including over 25,000 hospitalizations each year, in the U.S. alone (CDC.gov). As antibiotic resistance becomes an increasingly urgent public health problem, the importance of developing alternative treatment methods is only becoming more crucial. One of the genes responsible for this virulence is known as hilA. HilA is the main transcriptional regulator of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-1 gene (UniProt). SPI-1 plays an important role in the invasion of Salmonella into epithelial ...


The Role Of Fibroblast Growth Factor-9 In Influenza A Virus Pathogenesis, Bradley Edward Hiller 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

The Role Of Fibroblast Growth Factor-9 In Influenza A Virus Pathogenesis, Bradley Edward Hiller

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Influenza A virus (IAV) is a respiratory virus in the Orthomyxoviridae family which causes both seasonal epidemics and pandemics. IAV preferentially infects epithelial cells in the upper and lower respiratory tract, resulting in a range of disease severity from mild upper respiratory infections to potentially-lethal pneumonia. Ultimately, the severity of symptoms and complications from IAV infection depends on control of virus replication in the lungs, the inflammatory nature of the immune response, and the effectiveness of post-infection lung repair to regain pulmonary function. An arsenal of secreted proteins in the lung regulates these antiviral, inflammatory, and regenerative activities during infection ...


The Impact Of Processing Body Proteins On An Adenovirus Infection, La`Quita Randolph 2022 Georgia College

The Impact Of Processing Body Proteins On An Adenovirus Infection, La`Quita Randolph

Biology Theses

Adenovirus is a nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that contains a 36 Kbp genome. The E4 ORF3 region of its genome consists of an E4 11k protein that can reorganize host cell components by relocalizing cellular proteins. One such cellular component is the cytoplasmic processing body, which consists of proteins involved in translational repression of mRNA and mRNA degradation. During an adenovirus infection, processing body proteins Ddx6 and Pat1b have been shown to colocalize and form aggresomes. Aggresomes induced by E4 11k are specific to the adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad 5). In this study, cytoplasmic Pat1b foci were observed and quantified ...


Mathematical Modeling Suggests Cooperation Of Plant-Infecting Viruses, Joshua Miller, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Tessa Burch-Smith 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Mathematical Modeling Suggests Cooperation Of Plant-Infecting Viruses, Joshua Miller, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Tessa Burch-Smith

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Mathematical Modeling Of Potassium Modulated Viral Infection, Zaira Elizabeth Mather 2022 The University of Texas at El Paso

Mathematical Modeling Of Potassium Modulated Viral Infection, Zaira Elizabeth Mather

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In recent years, there is a growing interest in the investigation of using potassium to treat virus infections. In the region of infection, there is a biological observation of extracel- lular potassium level being typically very low whereas the intracellular potassium levels are much higher. There are numerous biological studies showing that elevated potassium levels in the extracellular membrane tends to block virus infections. A recent effort in this direction is a collaborative research conducted by mathematicians and biologists from the University of Texas at El Paso, New Mexico State University, and the University of New Mexico, where we develop ...


Cat Covid, Cmv And Chemokines, Oh My!, Trevor Hancock 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Cat Covid, Cmv And Chemokines, Oh My!, Trevor Hancock

Doctoral Dissertations

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen infecting most humans worldwide. CMV infection within immunocompromised individuals can cause severe morbidity and potential mortality. Disease during CMV infection is due to virus dissemination and subsequent inflammation. Host immune cells lie at the intersection potentially mediating both. The CMV-encoded viral chemokine vCXCL-1 is a proposed virulence factor in mouse models increasing immune cell recruitment and disease. However, the primary immune cell mediator is undetermined. To identify targets, Chapter 2 examines CXCR2 expression (receptor for vCXCL-1) among various mouse tissues and human peripheral blood under steady-state conditions. In vitro, isoforms of HCMV’s vCXCL-1 ...


Sars-Cov-2 Reveals That Chimeric Agents Are The Bioweapons Of The Future, Rachel Craig 2022 Liberty University

Sars-Cov-2 Reveals That Chimeric Agents Are The Bioweapons Of The Future, Rachel Craig

Senior Honors Theses

Bioweapons programs have existed since their development during the Cold War. These biowarfare programs initially utilized naturally occurring pathogens capable of infecting crops, livestock populations, and human populations. Anthrax is a widely exploited bioagent responsible for attacks ranging from the Germans’ deployment in World War I to the mailing of anthrax through the postal service in attempts on U.S. senators’ lives. With the development of genetic manipulations, the Soviet Union began modifying anthrax to resist detection and treatment. With the continued advancement of science and technology, a new bioagent has entered the scene – the man-made chimeric virus. Chimeric viruses ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez 2022 Brigham Young University - Provo

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez

Annual Research Symposium

A poster presentation and abstract for the Roseman Symposium. The project focuses on testing 3 essential oil blends and two disinfectants containing an essential oil blend against SARS CoV-2 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The project procedure involves plaque assays, disinfection, and neutralization techniques.


Meta-Analysis Of Transcriptomic Datasets For The Investigation Of Differential Expression In Hantavirus-Infected Human Tissue, John Krapohl 2022 Roseman University of Health Sciences

Meta-Analysis Of Transcriptomic Datasets For The Investigation Of Differential Expression In Hantavirus-Infected Human Tissue, John Krapohl

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Conformational Dynamics And Allosteric Modulation Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike, Marco A. Diaz-Salinas, Qi Li, Ejemel Monir, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, Jeremy Luban, Kuang Shen, Yang Wang, James B. Munro 2022 UMass Chan Medical School

Conformational Dynamics And Allosteric Modulation Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike, Marco A. Diaz-Salinas, Qi Li, Ejemel Monir, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, Jeremy Luban, Kuang Shen, Yang Wang, James B. Munro

COVID-19 Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects cells through binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This interaction is mediated by the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike (S) glycoprotein. Structural and dynamic data have shown that S can adopt multiple conformations, which controls the exposure of the ACE2-binding site in the RBD. Here, using single-molecule Forster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) imaging, we report the effects of ACE2 and antibody binding on the conformational dynamics of S from the Wuhan-1 strain and in the presence of the D614G mutation. We find that D614G modulates the energetics of the RBD ...


Conformational Flexibility And Local Frustration In The Functional States Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike B.1.1.7 And B.1.351 Variants: Mutation-Induced Allosteric Modulation Mechanism Of Functional Dynamics And Protein Stability, Gennady M. Verkhivker 2022 Chapman University

Conformational Flexibility And Local Frustration In The Functional States Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike B.1.1.7 And B.1.351 Variants: Mutation-Induced Allosteric Modulation Mechanism Of Functional Dynamics And Protein Stability, Gennady M. Verkhivker

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Structural and functional studies of the SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins have recently determined distinct functional states of the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 spike variants, providing a molecular framework for understanding the mechanisms that link the effect of mutations with the enhanced virus infectivity and transmissibility. A detailed dynamic and energetic analysis of these variants was undertaken in the present work to quantify the effects of different mutations on functional conformational changes and stability of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We employed the efficient and accurate coarse-grained (CG) simulations of multiple functional states of the D614G mutant, B.1 ...


The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole 2022 Wright State University

The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is an essential cellular protein that is involved in cell adhesion, cell signaling, and viral infection. The 8-exon encoded isoform (CAREx8) resides at the apical surface of polarized epithelia, where it is accessible as a receptor for adenovirus entering the airway lumen. Given its pivotal role in viral infection, it is a target for antiviral strategies. To understand the regulation of CAREx8 and determine the feasibility of receptor down regulation, the half-life of total and apical localized CAREx8 was determined and correlated with adenovirus transduction. Total and apical CAREx8 has a relatively short half-life ...


The Application Of The Skin Virome For Human Identification, Ema H. Graham, Jennifer Clarke, Samodha Fernando, Joshua Herr, Michael Adamowicz 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Application Of The Skin Virome For Human Identification, Ema H. Graham, Jennifer Clarke, Samodha Fernando, Joshua Herr, Michael Adamowicz

Virology Papers

The use of skin virome offers a unique approach for human identification purposes in instances where a viable and statistically relevant human DNA profile is unavailable. The skin virome may act as an alternative DNA profile and/or an additional form of probative genetic material. To date, no study has attempted to investigate the human virome over a time series across various physical locations of the body to identify its diagnostic potential as a tool for human identification. For this study, we set out to evaluate the stability, diversity, and individualization of the human skin virome. An additional goal was ...


A Deterministic Model For Understanding Nonlinear Viral Dynamics In Oysters, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen, Kimberly S. Reece 2022 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

A Deterministic Model For Understanding Nonlinear Viral Dynamics In Oysters, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen, Kimberly S. Reece

VIMS Articles

Contamination of oysters with a variety of viruses is one key pathway to trigger outbreaks of massive oyster mortality as well as human illnesses, including gastroenteritis and hepatitis. Much effort has gone into examining the fate of viruses in contaminated oysters, yet the current state of knowledge of nonlinear virus-oyster interactions is not comprehensive because most studies have focused on a limited number of processes under a narrow range of experimental conditions. A framework is needed for describing the complex nonlinear virus-oyster interactions. Here, we introduce a mathematical model that includes key processes for viral dynamics in oysters, such as ...


Role Of Host Restriction Factors On Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv) Replication, Pratik Katwal 2022 South Dakota State University

Role Of Host Restriction Factors On Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv) Replication, Pratik Katwal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this study, the role of IFITM3 on PRRSV replication was studied in vitro by expressing exogenous IFITM3 in MARC-145 cells. An average of 31% reduction in PRRSV N protein expression and an average of 5.4 fold decrease in virus titer in the supernatant were observed in IFITM3 overexpressing cells as compared to vector control cells at 24 hours post infection (hpi). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between interferon- induced IFITM3 up-regulation and reduced PRRSV replication. To determine the role of endogenous IFITM3 in PRRSV replication, siRNA induced knockdown of IFITM3 was employed. RT-PCR validated the successful silencing ...


Characterization Of Porcine Respiratory Epithelial Cells And Their Innate Immune Responses To Bacterial And Viral Ligands, Yam Prasad Gautam 2022 South Dakota State University

Characterization Of Porcine Respiratory Epithelial Cells And Their Innate Immune Responses To Bacterial And Viral Ligands, Yam Prasad Gautam

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In response to a pathogenic attack, the host produces a series of defense mechanisms through various intracellular signaling pathways. The byproduct of these signaling pathways helps tackle the invading pathogen and protects the body from getting into a diseased state. This system is called the immune system. The immune system can be divided into two branches namely the innate immune system and adaptive immune system. The groups of immune cells that provide protection regardless of the pathogen specificity constitute the innate immune system. The system that acts according to the pathogen specificity is called the adaptive immune response. The production ...


The Isolation And Characterization Of Bacteriophage Hasitha, Gillian Brown 2022 Western Kentucky University

The Isolation And Characterization Of Bacteriophage Hasitha, Gillian Brown

Mahurin Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Microbacteriophage Hasitha is a virus that infects Microbacterium foliorum, a bacterium associated with grasses that was first discovered in Germany. Hasitha was isolated from an enriched compost sample and is of particular interest due to its unusual growth pattern. Most bacteriophages require actively growing host cells to produce new phage progeny. However, Hasitha can infect and kill stationary (non-replicating) bacterial cells. We discovered this unusual characteristic through a fortuitous observation of infected lawns that were allowed to incubate in the lab workspace for approximately one month. During this time, a noticeable “halo” grew around the initial site of infection and ...


Alternative Splicing Regulates The Innate Immune Response To Viral Infection, Luke A. White 2022 University of Montana, Missoula

Alternative Splicing Regulates The Innate Immune Response To Viral Infection, Luke A. White

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne RNA virus that infects humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian peninsula, causing disease ranging from a mild flu-like illness to liver damage, blindness, hemorrhagic fever, death, and, especially in livestock animals, high rates of abortive pregnancies. There is no approved vaccine for RVFV, and as a disease with a high rate of spread that causes severe illness, it is listed as a Category A pathogen by the USA CDC. A better understanding of RVFV’s molecular virology will be instrumental to combating RVFV as climate change causes its mosquito ...


Virology: Mutagenizing The Proteolytic Cleavage Site In The Major Capsid Protein In Ssv1, Thejanee Liyanaarachchi 2021 Portland State University

Virology: Mutagenizing The Proteolytic Cleavage Site In The Major Capsid Protein In Ssv1, Thejanee Liyanaarachchi

University Honors Theses

SSV1, spindle-shaped virus 1, is an archaeal virus with a unique shape that belongs to the family of fuselloviruses and infects hyperthermophilic archaea that thrive at 80°C and pH 3. SSV1 has two capsid proteins, VP1 and VP3, that presumably produce the lemon-shaped virion structure characteristic of fuselloviruses. The VP1 amino acid sequence is highly conserved among SSVs. Here, we investigate the importance of the proteolytic cleavage site in position E66 in VP1 by changing its glutamic acid to the other 19 amino acids. We have developed a new protocol for creating SSV1 mutants through HiFi Assembly (NEB) to ...


Response Of Soil Viral And Microbial Functional Diversity To Long-Term Agricultural Management In Jackson, West Tennessee, Ning Duan 2021 Biosystem Engineering and Soil Science

Response Of Soil Viral And Microbial Functional Diversity To Long-Term Agricultural Management In Jackson, West Tennessee, Ning Duan

Doctoral Dissertations

Soil microbial communities are a critical component for ecosystem stability and function. Viruses, as an important biotic controller, have the potential to regulate the abundance and diversity of bacterial communities through infection. Soil is known to harbor abundant and diverse viral assemblages but their ecological role and influence on microbial processes has not been fully elucidated. Microbes can be influenced by viruses not only from infection but though biogeochemical feedbacks of the “microbial (bacterium–phage–DOC) loop” or “viral shunt”. However, we know relatively little about the microbial community and function under the regulation of viruses in soil and how ...


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