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Application Of A Novel Lytic Jerseyvirus Phage Lpsent1 For The Biological Control Of The Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Enteritidis In Foods, Rashad R. Al-Hindi, Mona G. Alharbi, Ibrahim Alotibi, Sheren A. Azhari, Khloud M. Algothmi, Ahmed Esmael 2023 King Abdulaziz University

Application Of A Novel Lytic Jerseyvirus Phage Lpsent1 For The Biological Control Of The Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Enteritidis In Foods, Rashad R. Al-Hindi, Mona G. Alharbi, Ibrahim Alotibi, Sheren A. Azhari, Khloud M. Algothmi, Ahmed Esmael

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Non-typhoidal Salmonella is the tremendously predominant source of acquired foodborne infection in humans, causing salmonellosis which is a global threat to the healthcare system. This threat is even worse when it is combined with the incidence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains. Bacteriophage therapy has been proposed as a promising potential candidate to control a diversity of foodborne infective bacteria. The objective of this study designed to isolate and characterize lytic phages infecting zoonotic multi-drug resistant and strong biofilm producer Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis EG.SmE1 and then apply the isolated phage/s as a biocontrol agent against infections in ready-to-eat food articles including …


The Sars-Cov-2 Utr’S Intrudes Host Rbp’S And Modulates Cellular Splicing, Anjali Singh, Kush Kumar Pandey, Shubham Kumar Agrawal, Rupesh K. Srivastava, Sankar Bhattacharyya, Bhupendra Verma 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Sars-Cov-2 Utr’S Intrudes Host Rbp’S And Modulates Cellular Splicing, Anjali Singh, Kush Kumar Pandey, Shubham Kumar Agrawal, Rupesh K. Srivastava, Sankar Bhattacharyya, Bhupendra Verma

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that causes a potentially fatal respiratory disease known as coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and is responsible for the ongoing pandemic with increasing mortality. Understanding the host-virus interaction involved in SARS-CoV-2 pathophysiology will enhance our understanding of the mechanistic basis of COVID-19 infection. The characterization of post-transcriptional gene regulatory networks, particularly pre-mRNA splicing, and the identification and characterization of host proteins interacting with the 5' and 3'UTRs of SARS-CoV-2 will improve our understanding of posttranscriptional gene regulation during SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that either SARS-CoV-2 infection or exogenous overexpression of the 5' and 3’UTRs of the …


Molecular Characterization Of The Antiviral Properties Of The Small Herc Family Of Proteins, Ermela Paparisto 2023 The University of Western Ontario

Molecular Characterization Of The Antiviral Properties Of The Small Herc Family Of Proteins, Ermela Paparisto

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Although viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, they have their own evolutionary trajectory, their genomes are in a constant battle to overcome the defenses of the host. This thesis investigates the role of the small HERC family of proteins in the battle against two deadly viruses: Human Immunodeficiency Virus -1 (HIV) and Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV). Although their discovery occurred decades ago, little knowledge is available about the small HERC family, their functions, and modes of interactions with other cellular proteins. In the first chapter, the structural evolution of the small HERC family and related functional changes that have occurred over time …


Rna Virus-Mediated Changes In Organismal Oxygen Consumption Rate In Young And Old Drosophila Melanogaster Males, Eli Hagedorn, Dean Bunnell, Beate Henschel, Daniel Smith Jr, Stephanie Dickinson, Andrew Brown, Maria De Luca, Ashley Turner, Stanislava Chtarbanova 2023 University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa

Rna Virus-Mediated Changes In Organismal Oxygen Consumption Rate In Young And Old Drosophila Melanogaster Males, Eli Hagedorn, Dean Bunnell, Beate Henschel, Daniel Smith Jr, Stephanie Dickinson, Andrew Brown, Maria De Luca, Ashley Turner, Stanislava Chtarbanova

Research, Publications & Creative Work

Aging is accompanied by increased susceptibility to infections including with viral pathogens resulting in higher morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Significant changes in host metabolism can take place following virus infection. Efficient immune responses are energetically costly, and viruses divert host molecular resources to promote their own replication. Virus-induced metabolic reprogramming could impact infection outcomes, however, how this is affected by aging and impacts organismal survival remains poorly understood. RNA virus infection of Drosophila melanogaster with Flock House virus (FHV) is an effective model to study antiviral responses with age, where older flies die faster than younger flies due …


Fresh Produce As A Potential Vector And Reservoir For Human Bacterial Pathogens: Revealing The Ambiguity Of Interaction And Transmission, Ahmed Esmael, Rashad R. Al-Hindi, Raed S. Albiheyri, Mona G. Alharbi, Amani A. R. Filimban, Mazen S. Alseghayer, Abdulaziz M. Almaneea, Meshari Ahmed Alhadlaq, Jumaa Ayubu, Addisu D. Teklemariam 2023 Benha University, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Fresh Produce As A Potential Vector And Reservoir For Human Bacterial Pathogens: Revealing The Ambiguity Of Interaction And Transmission, Ahmed Esmael, Rashad R. Al-Hindi, Raed S. Albiheyri, Mona G. Alharbi, Amani A. R. Filimban, Mazen S. Alseghayer, Abdulaziz M. Almaneea, Meshari Ahmed Alhadlaq, Jumaa Ayubu, Addisu D. Teklemariam

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

The consumer demand for fresh produce (vegetables and fruits) has considerably increased since the 1980s for more nutritious foods and healthier life practices, particularly in developed countries. Currently, several foodborne outbreaks have been linked to fresh produce. The global rise in fresh produce associated with human infections may be due to the use of wastewater or any contaminated water for the cultivation of fruits and vegetables, the firm attachment of the foodborne pathogens on the plant surface, and the internalization of these agents deep inside the tissue of the plant, poor disinfection practices and human consumption of raw fresh produce. …


Identifying Non-Traditional Slippery Sequences Associated With Translational Frameshifts, Aaron J. Gin, Kari Lynn Clase 2023 Purdue University

Identifying Non-Traditional Slippery Sequences Associated With Translational Frameshifts, Aaron J. Gin, Kari Lynn Clase

Graduate Industrial Research Symposium

Genetic frameshifts are a mutation in which
a nucleotide skip leads to a shift in the
reading frame. In viruses, these frameshifts
can be programmed using a slippery
sequence to bypass the stop codon
associated with the initial protein. This
allows for variable control of protein
expression. In bacteriophages, translational
frameshifts have been identified but only a
few have been proven experimentally. Using
experimental data and comparative
genomics, non-traditional slippery
sequences can be identified as assisting in
controlling the protein coding throughout
viruses. Novel slippery sequences can aid in
the understanding of protein expression in
biological environments and further the …


Isolation And Characterization Of A Novel Lytic Phage, Vb_Pseup-Sa22, And Its Efficacy Against Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Addisu D. Teklemariam, Rashad R. Al-Hindi, Mona G. Alharbi, Ibrahim Alotibi, Sheren A. Azhari, Ishtiaq Qadri, Turki Alamri, Ahmed Esmael, Steve Harakeh 2023 King Abdulaziz University

Isolation And Characterization Of A Novel Lytic Phage, Vb_Pseup-Sa22, And Its Efficacy Against Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Addisu D. Teklemariam, Rashad R. Al-Hindi, Mona G. Alharbi, Ibrahim Alotibi, Sheren A. Azhari, Ishtiaq Qadri, Turki Alamri, Ahmed Esmael, Steve Harakeh

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) poses a serious public health threat in multiple clinical settings. In this study, we detail the isolation of a lytic bacteriophage, vB_PseuPSA22, from wastewater using a clinical strain of CRPA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis identified that the phage had a podovirus morphology, which agreed with the results of whole genome sequencing. BLASTn search allowed us to classify vB_PseuP-SA22 into the genus Bruynoghevirus. The genome of vB_PseuP-SA22 consisted of 45,458 bp of double-stranded DNA, with a GC content of 52.5%. Of all the open reading frames (ORFs), only 26 (44.8%) were predicted to encode certain …


Comparison Of Two Diagnostic Assays For The Detection Of Serum Neutralizing Antibody To Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Justin Brown, Korakrit Poonsuk, Ting-Yu Cheng, Chris Rademacher, Erin Kalkwarf, Liying Tian, Lauren A. McKeen, Chong Wang, Luis Gimenez-Lirola, Gimenez-Lirola Baum, Locke A. Karriker 2023 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Two Diagnostic Assays For The Detection Of Serum Neutralizing Antibody To Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Justin Brown, Korakrit Poonsuk, Ting-Yu Cheng, Chris Rademacher, Erin Kalkwarf, Liying Tian, Lauren A. Mckeen, Chong Wang, Luis Gimenez-Lirola, Gimenez-Lirola Baum, Locke A. Karriker

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Lactogenic immunity is important for the protection of piglets against many pathogens including porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. Circulating neutralizing antibodies levels in sow sera may help determine if a detectable immune response could confer protection to piglets. Neutralizing antibodies can be detected through various diagnostic assays. This study evaluated the diagnostic characteristics of two neutralizing antibody assays for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus neutralizing antibodies in serum of challenged gilts. Four treatment groups, control, non-vaccinated, vaccinated prior to challenge, and vaccinated following challenge, were comprised of 20 gilts. Serum sample were collected from each gilt prior to and following challenge with …


Was Kaposi’S Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Introduced Into China Via The Ancient Silk Road? An Evolutionary Perspective, Zhenqiu Liu, Qiwen Fang, Jialu Zuo, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood, Na He, Tiejun Zhang 2023 Fudan University

Was Kaposi’S Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Introduced Into China Via The Ancient Silk Road? An Evolutionary Perspective, Zhenqiu Liu, Qiwen Fang, Jialu Zuo, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood, Na He, Tiejun Zhang

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has become widely dispersed worldwide since it was first reported in 1994, but the seroprevalence of KSHV varies geographically. KSHV is relatively ubiquitous in Mediterranean areas and the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. The origin of KSHV has long been puzzling. In the present study, we collected and analysed 154 KSHV ORF-K1 sequences obtained from samples originating from Xinjiang, Italy, Greece, Iran and southern Siberia using Bayesian evolutionary analysis in BEAST to test the hypothesis that KSHV was introduced into Xinjiang via the ancient Silk Road. According to the phylogenetic analysis, 72 sequences were subtype A …


The Immune Modulation On Innate Immunity, From Pathogen Recognition To Fungal Clearance., Ko-Wei Liu 2023 Dartmouth College

The Immune Modulation On Innate Immunity, From Pathogen Recognition To Fungal Clearance., Ko-Wei Liu

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

The human lung is not sterile but a complex environment with various microorganisms. Besides commensals in the lung, hundreds to thousands of individual microbiomes enter the lung every day but without causing the symptom. Host innate immunity plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis of the lung environment and as the first defense line against pathogens. Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) is a saprophytic filamentous fungus that can cause human disease in immune compromised patients. However, with functional innate immunity, immune cells can quickly recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from A. fumigatus through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The activation of …


Displaying And Delivering Viral Membrane Antigens Via Ww Domain–Activated Extracellular Vesicles, Sengjin Choi, Zhiping Yang, Qiyu Wang, Zhi Qiao, Maoyun Sun, Joshua Wiggins, Shi-Hua Xiang, Quan Lu 2023 Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

Displaying And Delivering Viral Membrane Antigens Via Ww Domain–Activated Extracellular Vesicles, Sengjin Choi, Zhiping Yang, Qiyu Wang, Zhi Qiao, Maoyun Sun, Joshua Wiggins, Shi-Hua Xiang, Quan Lu

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Membrane proteins expressed on the surface of enveloped viruses are conformational antigens readily recognized by B cells of the immune system. An effective vaccine would require the synthesis and delivery of these native conformational antigens in lipid membranes that preserve specific epitope structures. We have created an extracellular vesicle–based technology that allows viral membrane antigens to be selectively recruited onto the surface of WW domain–activated extracellular vesicles (WAEVs). Budding of WAEVs requires secretory carrier-associated membrane protein 3, which through its proline-proline-alanine-tyrosine motif interacts with WW domains to recruit fused viral membrane antigens onto WAEVs. Immunization with influenza and HIV viral …


Displaying And Delivering Viral Membrane Antigens Via Ww Domain–Activated Extracellular Vesicles, Sengjin Choi, Zhiping Yang, Qiyu Wang, Zhi Qiao, Maoyun Sun, Joshua Wiggins, Shi-Hua Xiang, Quan Lu 2023 Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

Displaying And Delivering Viral Membrane Antigens Via Ww Domain–Activated Extracellular Vesicles, Sengjin Choi, Zhiping Yang, Qiyu Wang, Zhi Qiao, Maoyun Sun, Joshua Wiggins, Shi-Hua Xiang, Quan Lu

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Membrane proteins expressed on the surface of enveloped viruses are conformational antigens readily recognized by B cells of the immune system. An effective vaccine would require the synthesis and delivery of these native conformational antigens in lipid membranes that preserve specific epitope structures. We have created an extracellular vesicle–based technology that allows viral membrane antigens to be selectively recruited onto the surface of WW domain–activated extracellular vesicles (WAEVs). Budding of WAEVs requires secretory carrier-associated membrane protein 3, which through its proline-proline-alanine-tyrosine motif interacts with WW domains to recruit fused viral membrane antigens onto WAEVs. Immunization with influenza and HIV viral …


Proposing An Rna Interference (Rnai)-Based Treatment For Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Hiv) By Analyzing The Post-Transcriptional Gene Targeting Of Sars-Cov-2, Hepatitis C Virus, And A549 Lung Cancer Cells, Arjun Jagdeesh 2023 Virginia Commonwealth University

Proposing An Rna Interference (Rnai)-Based Treatment For Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Hiv) By Analyzing The Post-Transcriptional Gene Targeting Of Sars-Cov-2, Hepatitis C Virus, And A549 Lung Cancer Cells, Arjun Jagdeesh

Undergraduate Research Posters

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that infects CD4+ T cell lymphocytes in humans, leading to the development of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) if left untreated. While current treatment methods, including antiretroviral combination treatments, effectively limit HIV replication, HIV can evade these treatments due to its high mutation rate. Long-term antiretroviral treatment can also be toxic to patients, meaning patients would benefit from a new mechanism of HIV treatment. RNA interference (RNAi) is an antiviral pathway found in mammals, plants, and insects that involves a small-interfering RNA that is incorporated into a protein complex called the RNA-induced Silencing Complex …


Characterization Of The Function And Regulation Of The Hmpv Phosphoprotein, Rachel Thompson 2023 University of Kentucky

Characterization Of The Function And Regulation Of The Hmpv Phosphoprotein, Rachel Thompson

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a non-segmented, negative strand RNA virus (NNSV) that frequently causes respiratory tract infections in infants, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. Despite the initial identification of HMPV in 2001, there are currently no FDA approved antivirals or vaccines available. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of HMPV replication is critical for the identification of novel therapeutic targets. A key feature in the replication cycle of HMPV and other NNSVs is the formation of membrane-less, liquid-like replication and transcription centers in the cytosol termed inclusion bodies (IBs). Recent work on NNSV IBs suggests they display characteristics of biomolecular condensates formed …


Early-Phase Drive To The Precursor Pool: Chloroviruses Dive Into The Deep End Of Nucleotide Metabolism, David Dunigan, Irina Agarkova, Ahmed Esmael, Sophie Alvarez, James L. Van Etten 2023 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Early-Phase Drive To The Precursor Pool: Chloroviruses Dive Into The Deep End Of Nucleotide Metabolism, David Dunigan, Irina Agarkova, Ahmed Esmael, Sophie Alvarez, James L. Van Etten

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Viruses face many challenges on their road to successful replication, and they meet those challenges by reprogramming the intracellular environment. Two major issues challenging Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1, genus Chlorovirus, family Phycodnaviridae) at the level of DNA replication are (i) the host cell has a DNA G+C content of 66%, while the virus is 40%; and (ii) the initial quantity of DNA in the haploid host cell is approximately 50 fg, yet the virus will make approximately 350 fg of DNA within hours of infection to produce approximately 1000 virions per cell. Thus, the quality and quantity of …


The Persistence And Stabilization Of Auxiliary Genes In The Human Skin Virome, Ema H. Graham, Wesley A. Tom, Alison C. Neujahr, Michael Adamowicz, Jennifer Clarke, Joshua R. Herr, Samodha C. Fernando 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Persistence And Stabilization Of Auxiliary Genes In The Human Skin Virome, Ema H. Graham, Wesley A. Tom, Alison C. Neujahr, Michael Adamowicz, Jennifer Clarke, Joshua R. Herr, Samodha C. Fernando

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Background The human skin contains a diverse microbiome that provides protective functions against environmental pathogens. Studies have demonstrated that bacteriophages modulate bacterial community composition and facilitate the transfer of host-specific genes, potentially influencing host cellular functions. However, little is known about the human skin virome and its role in human health. Especially, how viral-host relationships influence skin microbiome structure and function is poorly understood.

Results Population dynamics and genetic diversity of bacteriophage communities in viral metagenomic data collected from three anatomical skin locations from 60 subjects at five different time points revealed that cutaneous bacteriophage populations are mainly composed of …


Dengue Virus Modulation Of Genome Instability In Vero E6 Cells, Erica Nicole Lamkin 2023 University of Vermont

Dengue Virus Modulation Of Genome Instability In Vero E6 Cells, Erica Nicole Lamkin

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Dengue virus (DENV) is the fastest-spreading arthropod-borne virus in the world. Dengue is characterized as a major global public health challenge in tropical and subtropical nations by the World Health Organization. The number of dengue cases globally has increased 8-fold in the past two decades, with 100 to 400 million cases occurring annually. While most patients with dengue fever are asymptomatic, dengue infection carries the possibility of severe and potentially fatal febrile illness. Approximately 1 in 4 individuals infected with dengue virus develop symptomatic dengue infection, often presenting as mild to moderate, nonspecific, acute febrile illness. A smaller subset of …


A Monovalent Mt10-Cvb3 Vaccine Prevents Cvb4-Accelerated Type 1 Diabetes In Nod Mice, Mahima T. Rasquinha, Ninaad Lasrado, Meghna Sur, Kiruthiga Mone, Haowen Qiu, Jean-Jack Riethoven, Raymond A. Sobel, Jay Reddy 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A Monovalent Mt10-Cvb3 Vaccine Prevents Cvb4-Accelerated Type 1 Diabetes In Nod Mice, Mahima T. Rasquinha, Ninaad Lasrado, Meghna Sur, Kiruthiga Mone, Haowen Qiu, Jean-Jack Riethoven, Raymond A. Sobel, Jay Reddy

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Enteroviruses, which include Coxsackieviruses, are a common cause of virus infections in humans, and multiple serotypes of the group B Coxsackievirus (CVB) can induce similar diseases. No vaccines are currently available to prevent CVB infections because developing serotype-specific vaccines is not practical. Thus, developing a vaccine that induces protective immune responses for multiple serotypes is desired. In that direction, we created a live-attenuated CVB3 vaccine virus, designated mutant (Mt)10, that offers protection against myocarditis and pancreatitis induced by CVB3 and CVB4 in disease-susceptible A/J mice. Here, we report that the Mt10 vaccine protected against CVB4-triggered type 1 diabetes (T1D) in …


Surveillance Of Antimicrobial Resistance In Veterinary Medicine In The United States: Current E, Juliana M. Ruzante, Beth Harris, Paul Plummer, Raissa R. Raineri, John Dustin Loy, Megan Jacob, Orhan Sahin, Amanda J. Kreuder 2022 Center for Environmental Health Risk and Sustainability

Surveillance Of Antimicrobial Resistance In Veterinary Medicine In The United States: Current E, Juliana M. Ruzante, Beth Harris, Paul Plummer, Raissa R. Raineri, John Dustin Loy, Megan Jacob, Orhan Sahin, Amanda J. Kreuder

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem facing human, animal, plant, and environmental health by threatening our ability to effectively treat bacterial infections with antimicrobials. In the United States, robust surveillance efforts exist to collect, analyze, and disseminate AMR data in human health care settings. These tools enable the development of effective infection control methods, the detection of trends, and provide the evidence needed to guide stewardship efforts to reduce the potential for emergence and further spread of AMR. However, in veterinary medicine, there are currently no known equivalent tools. This paper reviews efforts to reduce the potential for emergence …


Research Article A New Informatics Framework For Evaluating The Codon Usage Metrics, Evolutionary Models And Phylogeographic Reconstruction Of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (Tylcv) In Different Regions Of Asian Countries, Mamathashree Mn, Kuralyanapalya Putta Honnappa Suresh, Sharanagouda S Patil, Uma Bharathi Indrabalan, Mallikarjun S Beelagi, Sushma Pradeep, Krishnamoorthy Paramanandham, Siju Susan Jacob, Chandrashekar Srinivasa, Shiva Prasad Kollur, Raghu Ram Achar, Ashwini Prasad, Shashanka K Prasad, Chandan Shivamallu 2022 ICARNational Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics (NIVEDI), Bengaluru560064, Yelahanka, India

Research Article A New Informatics Framework For Evaluating The Codon Usage Metrics, Evolutionary Models And Phylogeographic Reconstruction Of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (Tylcv) In Different Regions Of Asian Countries, Mamathashree Mn, Kuralyanapalya Putta Honnappa Suresh, Sharanagouda S Patil, Uma Bharathi Indrabalan, Mallikarjun S Beelagi, Sushma Pradeep, Krishnamoorthy Paramanandham, Siju Susan Jacob, Chandrashekar Srinivasa, Shiva Prasad Kollur, Raghu Ram Achar, Ashwini Prasad, Shashanka K Prasad, Chandan Shivamallu

International Journal of Health and Allied Sciences

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a major devastating viral disease, majorly affecting the tomato production globally. The disease is majorly transmitted by the Whitefly. The Begomovirus (TYLCV) having a six major protein coding genes, among them the C1/AC1 is evidently associated with viral replication. Owing to immense role of C1/AC1 gene, the present study is an initial effort to elucidate the factors shaping the codon usage bias and evolutionary pattern of TYLCV-C1/AC1 gene in five major Asian countries. Based on publically available nucleotide sequence data the Codon usage pattern, Evolutionary and Phylogeographic reconstruction was carried out. The study …


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