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Small Molecule Synthetic Carbohydrate Receptors, Marcelo F. Bravo Carranco 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Small Molecule Synthetic Carbohydrate Receptors, Marcelo F. Bravo Carranco

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Carbohydrate – receptor interactions are often involved in the attachment of viruses to host cells, and this docking is a necessary step in the virus life cycle that precedes infection and, ultimately, replication. Despite the conserved structures of the glycans involved in docking, they are still considered “undruggable”, meaning these glycans are beyond the scope of conventional pharmacological strategies. Recent advances in the development of synthetic carbohydrate receptors (SCRs) – small molecules that bind carbohydrates – could bring carbohydrate-receptor interactions within the purview of druggable targets. Here we discuss the role of carbohydrate-receptor interactions in viral infection, the evolution of SCRs, and recent ...


Phylogenetic Analysis Of Sars-Cov-2 In The Boston Area Highlights The Role Of Recurrent Importation And Superspreading Events [Preprint], Jacob Lemieux, Katherine J. Siddle, Jeremy Luban, Glen R. Gallagher, Lawrence C. Madoff, Sandra Smole, Virginia M. Pierce, Eric Rosenberg, Pardis C. Sabeti, Daniel J. Park, Bronwyn L. MacInnis 2020 Broad Institute

Phylogenetic Analysis Of Sars-Cov-2 In The Boston Area Highlights The Role Of Recurrent Importation And Superspreading Events [Preprint], Jacob Lemieux, Katherine J. Siddle, Jeremy Luban, Glen R. Gallagher, Lawrence C. Madoff, Sandra Smole, Virginia M. Pierce, Eric Rosenberg, Pardis C. Sabeti, Daniel J. Park, Bronwyn L. Macinnis

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

SARS-CoV-2 has caused a severe, ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 in Massachusetts with 111,070 confirmed cases and 8,433 deaths as of August 1, 2020. To investigate the introduction, spread, and epidemiology of COVID-19 in the Boston area, we sequenced and analyzed 772 complete SARS-CoV-2 genomes from the region, including nearly all confirmed cases within the first week of the epidemic and hundreds of cases from major outbreaks at a conference, a nursing facility, and among homeless shelter guests and staff. The data reveal over 80 introductions into the Boston area, predominantly from elsewhere in the United States and Europe ...


Epstein-Barr Virus Genomes Reveal Population Structure And Type 1 Association With Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma, Yasin Kaymaz, Cliff I. Oduor, Ozkan Aydemir, Micah A. Luftig, Juliana A. Otieno, John Michael. Ong'echa, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Ann M. Moormann 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Epstein-Barr Virus Genomes Reveal Population Structure And Type 1 Association With Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma, Yasin Kaymaz, Cliff I. Oduor, Ozkan Aydemir, Micah A. Luftig, Juliana A. Otieno, John Michael. Ong'echa, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Ann M. Moormann

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL), the most prevalent pediatric cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, is distinguished by its inclusion of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In order to better understand the impact of EBV variation in eBL tumorigenesis, we improved viral DNA enrichment methods and generated a total of 98 new EBV genomes from both eBL cases (n = 58) and healthy controls (n = 40) residing in the same geographic region in Kenya. Using our unbiased methods, we found that EBV type 1 was significantly more prevalent in eBL patients (74.5%) than in healthy children (47.5%) (odds ratio = 3.24, 95% confidence interval ...


Covid-19: In The Absence Of Vaccination – ‘Mask-The-Nation’, Roy D. Sleator, Steven Darby, Alan Giltinan, Niall Smith 2020 Department of Biological Sciences, Cork Institute of Technology

Covid-19: In The Absence Of Vaccination – ‘Mask-The-Nation’, Roy D. Sleator, Steven Darby, Alan Giltinan, Niall Smith

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

“In the absence of a vaccine, or effective antiviral, one of our only remaining strategies for controlling COVID-19 is to physically block the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the community”


Host-Dependent Differences In Replication Strategy Of The Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus Strain Ssv9 (A.K.A., Ssvk1): Infection Profiles In Hosts Of The Family Sulfolobaceae, Ruben M. Ceballos, Coyne Gareth Drummond, Carson Len Stacy, Elizabeth Padillo-Crespo, Kenneth M. Stedman 2020 The University of Arkansas

Host-Dependent Differences In Replication Strategy Of The Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus Strain Ssv9 (A.K.A., Ssvk1): Infection Profiles In Hosts Of The Family Sulfolobaceae, Ruben M. Ceballos, Coyne Gareth Drummond, Carson Len Stacy, Elizabeth Padillo-Crespo, Kenneth M. Stedman

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

The Sulfolobus Spindle-shaped Virus (SSV) system has become a model for studying thermophilic virus biology, including archaeal host-virus interactions and biogeography. Several factors make the SSV system amenable to studying archaeal genetic mechanisms (e.g., CRISPRs) as well as virus-host interactions in high temperature acidic environments. Previously, we reported that SSVs exhibited differential infectivity on allopatric vs. sympatric hosts. We also noticed a wide host range for virus strain SSV9 (a.k.a., SSVK1). For decades, SSVs have been described as “non-lytic” double-stranded DNA viruses that infect species of the genus Sulfolobus and release virions via budding rather than host ...


The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities And Threats (Swot) Analysis Of The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Of Covid-19, Michael Oluyemi Babalola Ph.D 2020 Infectious Diseases Epidemiology, Molecular Virology and Special Pathogens Research, Department of Microbiology, Adekunle Ajasin University, PMB 001, Akungba Akoko, Ondo state, Nigeria.

The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities And Threats (Swot) Analysis Of The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Of Covid-19, Michael Oluyemi Babalola Ph.D

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is the etiologic agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), a highly contagious, emergent, acute, viral pneumonia that emanated sporadically in Wuhan, China in December 2019. COVID-19 became pandemic in February 2020 leading to 4,942,687 confirmed cases, over 321,987 deaths and grounded several economies around the world as of May 2020. Although global researchers, epidemiologists and medical professionals rose steadily to contain the disease, indepth knowledge and concerted efforts are still evolving on the virus. This research sought to elucidate the biological Strengths, the Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats to SARS-CoV-2, with a view to understanding and ...


Epstein Barr Virus-Immortalizedblymphocytes Exacerbate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Xenograft Mice, Pascal Polepole, Alison Bartenslager, Yutong Liu, Thomas M. Petro, Samodha C. Fernando, Luwen Zhang 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Epstein Barr Virus-Immortalizedblymphocytes Exacerbate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Xenograft Mice, Pascal Polepole, Alison Bartenslager, Yutong Liu, Thomas M. Petro, Samodha C. Fernando, Luwen Zhang

Virology Papers

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a causative agent for infectious mononucleosis (IM) that is associated with MS pathogenesis. However, the exact mechanism by which EBV, specifically in IM, increases the risk for MS remains unknown. EBV immortalizes primary B lymphocytes in vitro and causes excessive B lymphocyte proliferation in IM in vivo. In asymptomatic carriers, EBV-infected B lymphocytes still proliferate to certain degrees, the process of which is tightly controlled by the host immune systems. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mimics key features of MS in humans and ...


Coronavirus Infographic, Angela Messmer-Blust 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Coronavirus Infographic, Angela Messmer-Blust

RTI Children's Resources

To help give children a better understanding of the coronavirus that is causing the COVID-19 disease and the disruption in our daily lives, the RNA Therapeutics Institute (RTI) at UMass Medical created this infographic just for kids. We hope parents and teachers can use it to help explain this complex situation, while also teaching the wonders of science.


Abcs Of Covid-19 Coloring Page, Angela Messmer-Blust 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Abcs Of Covid-19 Coloring Page, Angela Messmer-Blust

RTI Children's Resources

To help give children a better understanding of the coronavirus that is causing the COVID-19 disease and the disruption in our daily lives, the RNA Therapeutics Institute (RTI) at UMass Medical created this coloring page just for kids. We hope parents and teachers can use it to help explain this complex situation, while also teaching the wonders of science.


Seroprevalence, Biochemical Investigation And Risk Factor Assessment For Hbv & Hcv Infection In Hospital Based Patients Of Islamabad, Pakistan, Narmeen Adnan Rana, Bushra Munir, Nazeer Hussain, Nazia Imtiaz, Muhammad Asif Gondal Dr., Fahed Parvaiz Dr. 2020 COMSATS University Islamabad

Seroprevalence, Biochemical Investigation And Risk Factor Assessment For Hbv & Hcv Infection In Hospital Based Patients Of Islamabad, Pakistan, Narmeen Adnan Rana, Bushra Munir, Nazeer Hussain, Nazia Imtiaz, Muhammad Asif Gondal Dr., Fahed Parvaiz Dr.

Journal of Bioresource Management

Viral hepatitis poses a serious threat to mankind. Hepatitis B and C Virus are blood borne pathogens that affect millions of individually globally. This study was conducted on a hospital-based population in Islamabad, Pakistan over a period of 4 months, utilizing ELISA as the diagnostic technique which suggested a higher seroprevalence rate for both HBV and HCV i.e. 2.07% and 8.24% respectively. A correlational analysis of the biochemical parameters of these individuals with HBV and HCV infection was carried out and the results indicated a positive correlation of HBV with Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), HCV with Total Bilirubin ...


Cognitive Recovery In The Post-Infectious Cns, Charise Joy Garber 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Cognitive Recovery In The Post-Infectious Cns, Charise Joy Garber

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Neuroinflammation plays a pivotal role in a variety of diseases of the CNS associated with cognitive impairment, including Alzheimerճ Disease, Parkinsonճ Disease with dementia, Multiple Sclerosis, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, and West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive disease (WNND). Despite strong evidence that infiltration of peripheral immune cells and activation of resident microglia and astrocytes occurs in these various diseases, very little is known about how this altered immune environment may influence normal cognitive function. Given that communication between the nervous and immune system is essential for normal cognitive function, the central motivation of my thesis work is to understand the mechanisms by ...


Gp41-Targeted Antibodies Restore Infectivity Of A Fusion-Deficient Hiv-1 Envelope Glycoprotein, Vinita R. Joshi, Ruchi M. Newman, Melissa L. Pack, Karen A. Power, James B. Munro, Ken Okawa, Navid Madani, Joseph G. Sodroski, Aaron G. Schmidt, Todd M. Allen 2020 Harvard Medical School

Gp41-Targeted Antibodies Restore Infectivity Of A Fusion-Deficient Hiv-1 Envelope Glycoprotein, Vinita R. Joshi, Ruchi M. Newman, Melissa L. Pack, Karen A. Power, James B. Munro, Ken Okawa, Navid Madani, Joseph G. Sodroski, Aaron G. Schmidt, Todd M. Allen

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) mediates viral entry via conformational changes associated with binding the cell surface receptor (CD4) and coreceptor (CCR5/CXCR4), resulting in subsequent fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. While the gp120 Env surface subunit has been extensively studied for its role in viral entry and evasion of the host immune response, the gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein and its role in natural infection are less well characterized. Here, we identified a primary HIV-1 Env variant that consistently supports >300% increased viral infectivity in the presence of autologous or heterologous HIV-positive plasma. However, in the absence of HIV-positive ...


Pandemic Forum Syllabus, Lynda Coon 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Pandemic Forum Syllabus, Lynda Coon

Pandemic Course

This forum tackles the recent global outbreak of the COVID-19 Coronavirus. University of Arkansas faculty, doctors from Washington Regional Medical Center and Arkansas state leaders confront the virus from a variety of angles —medical sciences, supply chain, public health, social media, mathematics, economics, history, religion, art, and environmental studies. In so doing, the forum’s instructors situate COVID-19 within a broader narrative of the history of pandemics as well as the multivalent factors contributing to virulent flu eruptions across an international stage.


Characterization Of A Plasmid-Based Dna Vaccine For Simian Immunodeficiency Virus, Priya Sanipara 2020 University of Mississippi Main Campus

Characterization Of A Plasmid-Based Dna Vaccine For Simian Immunodeficiency Virus, Priya Sanipara

Honors Theses

Described as one of the world’s worst pandemics, HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infects millions of people each year and is the cause for AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). Despite the development of vaccines for numerous infectious diseases such as polio, small pox, and influenza, a vaccine for HIV remains elusive due to the virus’s high mutation rate and ability to evade the immune system. HIV causes depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes, resulting in a weakened immune system. However, the development of a plasmid-based DNA vaccine approach may help revolutionize vaccine development for HIV due to its ability to confer cellular ...


Lysogeny And Use Of Mycobacteriophage Pita2, Eleanor Behling, Neocles B. Leontis, Jill Zeilstra-Ryalls 2020 Bowling Green State University

Lysogeny And Use Of Mycobacteriophage Pita2, Eleanor Behling, Neocles B. Leontis, Jill Zeilstra-Ryalls

Honors Projects

The CDC has classified antibiotic resistance as the biggest health challenge of our era; every year 2 million lives are impacted and even lost due to resistant bacteria. Bacteriophages provide an alternative route to fighting infections that does not further the development of antibiotic resistance among bacterial species. A bacteriophage replicates inside a bacterial cell and then causes that cell to lyse, an event that kills the bacterial host. However, some phage can integrate their genomes into the host chromosome without causing lysis. The HHMI SEA-PHAGES program has generated a collection of bacteriophage that infect Actinobacteria species. Over 13,000 ...


Investigation Of Rapid Diagnostic Tests For Characterization Of Mycobacterium Avium Complex (Mac) From Various Isolates And Identification Of Virulence Factors Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv) In Vitro, Claudia Antonika 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Investigation Of Rapid Diagnostic Tests For Characterization Of Mycobacterium Avium Complex (Mac) From Various Isolates And Identification Of Virulence Factors Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv) In Vitro, Claudia Antonika

UCARE Research Products

Chapter 1

Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) has become one of the major problems in public health and livestock. Members of MAC, such as M. avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) and M. avium subsp hominissuis (MAH), are responsible for many opportunistic infections and the loss of livestock. MAP is economically significant to the beef and dairy industries because it is the etiologic agent of Johnes’s disease, a chronic and fatal enteritis in ruminants. Tracing the infection sources of MAC could be difficult since it infects many types of hosts in the natural environment. Furthermore, there is less information known about MAP ...


A Review Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Sophie Silver 2020 Liberty University

A Review Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Sophie Silver

Senior Honors Theses

Human immunodeficiency virus, also referred to as HIV, is a devastating virus which has infected millions. Characterized as a retrovirus, HIV has an RNA genome, which is reverse transcribed into DNA upon entry into the host cell. HIV primarily affects CD4+ T cells and is diagnosed by the significant reduction of CD4+ T cells. While no cure has been discovered yet, antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been demonstrated as an effective treatment option. In the progression of HIV, additional HIV-associated diseases may arise, including HIV-associated psoriasis and sensory neuropathy. In addition to the use of ART, clinicians often prescribe opioids to ...


Identification Of Genome-Linked Bacillus Bacteriophage Proteins, Katherine Dyer 2020 University of Northern Iowa

Identification Of Genome-Linked Bacillus Bacteriophage Proteins, Katherine Dyer

Honors Program Theses

Small viruses that can infect bacteria, called bacteriophages, can be found in the soil. These viruses are being examined as a potential treatment against bacterial infections when antibiotics are not available or non-effective. Before viruses can be used as a medical treatment, they must be studied extensively. Previous attempts to sequence the terminal end of the genome of a bacteriophage QCM-11 (Quartz-Crystal-Microbalance-11: Q11) resulted in error. It is thought that a covalently bound protein may be attached to Q11’s DNA, blocking sequencing of the genome from the 5’ end. Proteins bound to the DNA of phages is not unheard ...


Zika Virus Induces Apoptosis In Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells, Madison Kraus, Philma Glora Muthuraj, Sathish Kumar Natarajan 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Zika Virus Induces Apoptosis In Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells, Madison Kraus, Philma Glora Muthuraj, Sathish Kumar Natarajan

UCARE Research Products

Zika virus is a single-stranded positive sense RNA virus that attracted international attention in 2015 when an epidemic broke out in Brazil. This vector borne virus is transmitted by mosquitos and is especially concerning for pregnant women because the virus can affect the development of the fetus. One known complication is the destruction of infected retinal epithelial cells. The transduction of light is interrupted due to cell death and results in blind spots. Previous research has demonstrated that palmitoleate can reduce the observed levels of apoptosis in ZIKAV infected JEG-3 cells. We have also seen the protection of retinal pigmented ...


Sars-Cov-2 Receptor Ace2 Is An Interferon-Stimulated Gene In Human Airway Epithelial Cells And Is Detected In Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues, Carly G. K. Ziegler, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Manuel Garber, Alex K. Shalek, Jose Ordovas-Montanes, HCA Lung Biological Network 2020 Harvard Medical School

Sars-Cov-2 Receptor Ace2 Is An Interferon-Stimulated Gene In Human Airway Epithelial Cells And Is Detected In Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues, Carly G. K. Ziegler, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Manuel Garber, Alex K. Shalek, Jose Ordovas-Montanes, Hca Lung Biological Network

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

There is pressing urgency to understand the pathogenesis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus clade 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the disease COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and in concert with host proteases, principally transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), promotes cellular entry. The cell subsets targeted by SARS-CoV-2 in host tissues and the factors that regulate ACE2 expression remain unknown. Here, we leverage human, non-human primate, and mouse single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) datasets across health and disease to uncover putative targets of SARS-CoV-2 among tissue-resident cell subsets. We identify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-expressing cells within lung ...


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