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Characterization Of The Influences Of Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein O (Go) Expression On Gh/Gl Complexes Assembly And Its Polymorphisms On Cell-Free And Cell-To-Cell Spread, And Antibody Neutralization., Le Z. Day 2020 University of Montana

Characterization Of The Influences Of Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein O (Go) Expression On Gh/Gl Complexes Assembly And Its Polymorphisms On Cell-Free And Cell-To-Cell Spread, And Antibody Neutralization., Le Z. Day

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is widely spread throughout the world and immunocompromised individuals can suffer severe diseases from HCMV infection. Once the infection is established, HCMV can spread through the body and infect many major somatic cell types. The glycoproteins H and L (gH/gL) on HCMV envelope can be bound by either gO or the UL128-131 proteins to form complexes gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128-131 that are critical for viral entry and spread, and these two complexes are important targets of neutralizing antibodies. Strains of HCMV vary considerably in the levels of gH/gL/gO and gH/gL ...


Characterizing Protein-Ligand Binding Using Atomistic Simulation And Machine Learning: Application To Drug Resistance In Hiv-1 Protease, Troy W. Whitfield, Debra A. Ragland, Konstantin B. Zeldovich, Celia A. Schiffer 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Characterizing Protein-Ligand Binding Using Atomistic Simulation And Machine Learning: Application To Drug Resistance In Hiv-1 Protease, Troy W. Whitfield, Debra A. Ragland, Konstantin B. Zeldovich, Celia A. Schiffer

Schiffer Lab Publications

Over the past several decades, atomistic simulations of biomolecules, whether carried out using molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo techniques, have provided detailed insights into their function. Comparing the results of such simulations for a few closely related systems has guided our understanding of the mechanisms by which changes like ligand binding or mutation can alter function. The general problem of detecting and interpreting such mechanisms from simulations of many related systems, however, remains a challenge. This problem is addressed here by applying supervised and unsupervised machine learning techniques to a variety of thermodynamic observables extracted from molecular dynamics simulations of ...


Chloroviruses, James L. Van Etten, Irina V. Agarkova, David D. Dunigan 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Chloroviruses, James L. Van Etten, Irina V. Agarkova, David D. Dunigan

Virology Papers

Chloroviruses are large dsDNA, plaque-forming viruses that infect certain chlorella-like green algae; the algae are normally mutualistic endosymbionts of protists and metazoans and are often referred to as zoochlorellae. The viruses are ubiquitous in inland aqueous environments throughout the world and occasionally single types reach titers of thousands of plaque-forming units per ml of native water. The viruses are icosahedral in shape with a spike structure located at one of the vertices. They contain an internal membrane that is required for infectivity. The viral genomes are 290 to 370 kb in size, which encode up to 16 tRNAs and 330 ...


Impact Of Th1 Cd4 Tfh Skewing On Antibody Responses To An Hiv-1 Vaccine In Rhesus Macaques, Anil Verma, Keith A. Reimann, David H. Foehl, Smita S. Iyer 2019 University of California, Davis

Impact Of Th1 Cd4 Tfh Skewing On Antibody Responses To An Hiv-1 Vaccine In Rhesus Macaques, Anil Verma, Keith A. Reimann, David H. Foehl, Smita S. Iyer

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Generating durable humoral immunity through vaccination depends upon effective interaction of follicular helper T cells (Tfh) with germinal center (GC) B cells. Th1 polarization of Tfh cells is an important process shaping the success of Tfh-GC B cell interactions by influencing co-stimulatory and cytokine-dependent Tfh help to B cells. However, the question remains whether adjuvant-dependent modulation of Tfh cells enhances HIV-1 vaccine-induced anti-Envelope (Env) antibody responses. We investigated whether an HIV-1 vaccine platform designed to increase the number of Th1-polarized Tfh cells enhances the magnitude and quality of anti-Env antibodies. Utilizing a novel interferon-induced protein (IP)-10-adjuvanted HIV-1 DNA prime ...


Role Of Topoisomerase Ii Alpha In Dna Topology And T Cell Responses During Chronic Viral Infections, Stella Chinyere Ogbu 2019 East Tennessee State University

Role Of Topoisomerase Ii Alpha In Dna Topology And T Cell Responses During Chronic Viral Infections, Stella Chinyere Ogbu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The clearance of viruses is largely dependent upon the activation of T cells to generate a robust immune response. However, host responses are suppressed during chronic viral infections. In this thesis, we explored the role of Top2α in DNA topology in individuals with chronic HBV, HCV, and HIV infections. We found that Top2α protein expression and activity were low in T cells derived from chronically virus-infected individuals compared to healthy subjects. Using CD4+ T cells treated with Top2α inhibitor or poisoner as a model, we demonstrated that Top2α inhibition disrupts the DNA topology, suppresses DNA repair kinase (ATM), and telomere ...


Cyclophilin A Enhances Hiv-1 Reverse Transcription In Human Microglial Cells, Zachary Michael Ingram 2019 Missouri State University

Cyclophilin A Enhances Hiv-1 Reverse Transcription In Human Microglial Cells, Zachary Michael Ingram

MSU Graduate Theses

Parenchymal microglia represent a susceptible cell type to HIV infection and contribute to HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND). Currently, HIV host-protein interactions in microglia are understudied, but relevant to the design of antiviral drugs. HIV replication events rely on host and viral proteins to evade an immune response while improve replication success. Post-fusion the HIV capsid is released into the cytoplasm and begins trafficking towards the nucleus. During transit viral RNA is transcribed to DNA through reverse transcription (RT). In addition, the HIV capsid that protects the reverse transcription complex disassembles in a step termed uncoating. Once the pre-integration complex ...


Exploring Secondary Structure In Bacteriophage Programmed Frameshift Elements, Samuel Okabayashi, Sean McClory 2019 La Salle University

Exploring Secondary Structure In Bacteriophage Programmed Frameshift Elements, Samuel Okabayashi, Sean Mcclory

HON499 projects

Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria and reproduce using host bacterial components. Part of the bacteriophage reproduction is assembly of the tail complex, which requires two assembly chaperone (TAC) proteins. In many phages the TAC’s are produced from a single gene through a non-canonical process called programmed translational frameshifting (PTF). The SEA-PHAGES program has produced hundreds of TAC genes that are accessible through phagesdb, a database of sequenced and annotated phage genomes. The sequences for the TAC gene were gathered from phagesdb and analyzed using ClustalOmega; a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) tool which revealed several positions where total conservation ...


Cdr3alpha Drives Selection Of The Immunodominant Epstein Barr Virus (Ebv) Brlf1-Specific Cd8 T Cell Receptor Repertoire In Primary Infection, Larisa Kamga, Anna Gil, InYoung Song, Robin M. Brody, Dario Ghersi, Nuray Aslan, Lawrence J. Stern, Liisa K. Selin, Katherine Luzuriaga 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Cdr3alpha Drives Selection Of The Immunodominant Epstein Barr Virus (Ebv) Brlf1-Specific Cd8 T Cell Receptor Repertoire In Primary Infection, Larisa Kamga, Anna Gil, Inyoung Song, Robin M. Brody, Dario Ghersi, Nuray Aslan, Lawrence J. Stern, Liisa K. Selin, Katherine Luzuriaga

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is an essential component of the CD8 T-cell immune response. Here, we seek to investigate factors that drive selection of TCR repertoires specific to the HLA-A2-restricted immunodominant epitope BRLF1109-117 (YVLDHLIVV) over the course of primary Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection. Using single-cell paired TCRalphabeta sequencing of tetramer sorted CD8 T cells ex vivo, we show at the clonal level that recognition of the HLA-A2-restricted BRLF1 (YVL-BR, BRLF-1109) epitope is mainly driven by the TCRalpha chain. For the first time, we identify a CDR3alpha (complementarity determining region 3 alpha) motif, KDTDKL, resulting from an obligate ...


Utilizing Fiv (Feline Immunodeficiency Virus) To Develop A Novel Animal Model To Study Hiv (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), Ankita Suryakant Kambli 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Utilizing Fiv (Feline Immunodeficiency Virus) To Develop A Novel Animal Model To Study Hiv (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), Ankita Suryakant Kambli

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This project sought to perform the in vitro work needed to accomplish the long-term vision of harnessing the similarities between HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and FIV (Feline Immunodeficiency Virus) to develop an animal model whereby cats can be used to study HIV pathogenesis and therapeutics. We transfected CRFK (Crandell Rees Feline Kidney) fibroblasts with plasmids that could express human or feline CD4, CCR5, or both, and determined receptor surface expression through flow cytometry. We discovered that HIV envelope expressed on 293T can fuse with huCD4/huCCR5 on CRFK. These cat cell lines were also capable of supporting HIV infection. Additionally ...


Genome-Wide Variation In Potyviruses, Deepti Nigam, Katherine LaTourrette, Pedro F.N. Souza, Hernan Garcia Ruiz 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Genome-Wide Variation In Potyviruses, Deepti Nigam, Katherine Latourrette, Pedro F.N. Souza, Hernan Garcia Ruiz

Virology Papers

Potyviruses (family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus) are the result of an initial radiation event that occurred 6,600 years ago. The genus currently consists of 167 species that infect monocots or dicots, including domesticated and wild plants. Potyviruses are transmitted in a non-persistent way by more than 200 species of aphids. As indicated by their wide host range, worldwide distribution, and diversity of their vectors, potyviruses have an outstanding capacity to adapt to new hosts and environments. However, factors that confer adaptability are poorly understood. Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases introduce nucleotide substitutions that generate genetic diversity. We hypothesized that selection imposed ...


Macrophage-Associated Wound Healing Contributes To African Green Monkey Siv Pathogenesis Control, Fredrik Barrenas, Kevin Raehtz, Cuiling Xu, Lynn Law, Richard R. Green, Guido Silvestri, Steven E. Bosinger, Andrew Nishida, Qingsheng Li, Wuxun Lu, Jianshui Zhang, Matthew J. Thomas, Jean Chang, Elise Smith, Jeffrey M. Weiss, Reem A. Dawoud, George H. Richter, Anita Trichel, Dongzhu Ma, Xinxia Peng, Jan Komorowski, Cristian Apetrei, Ivona Pandrea, Michael Gale Jr. 2019 University of Washington & Uppsala University

Macrophage-Associated Wound Healing Contributes To African Green Monkey Siv Pathogenesis Control, Fredrik Barrenas, Kevin Raehtz, Cuiling Xu, Lynn Law, Richard R. Green, Guido Silvestri, Steven E. Bosinger, Andrew Nishida, Qingsheng Li, Wuxun Lu, Jianshui Zhang, Matthew J. Thomas, Jean Chang, Elise Smith, Jeffrey M. Weiss, Reem A. Dawoud, George H. Richter, Anita Trichel, Dongzhu Ma, Xinxia Peng, Jan Komorowski, Cristian Apetrei, Ivona Pandrea, Michael Gale Jr.

Virology Papers

Natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) avoid AIDS despite lifelong infection. Here, we examined how this outcome is achieved by comparing a natural SIV host, African green monkey (AGM) to an AIDS susceptible species, rhesus macaque (RM). To asses gene expression profiles from acutely SIV infected AGMs and RMs, we developed a systems biology approach termed Conserved Gene Signature Analysis (CGSA), which compared RNA sequencing data from rectal AGM and RM tissues to various other species. We found that AGMs rapidly activate, and then maintain, evolutionarily conserved regenerative wound healing mechanisms in mucosal tissue. The wound healing protein fibronectin ...


#15 - Discovery And Characterization Of A Novel Bacteriophage Xianyue, Alexis O'Neal, Amanda J. Laidlaw, Jessica A. Toller, Callie C. Mauersberg, Luka Kulasinac 2019 University of North Georgia

#15 - Discovery And Characterization Of A Novel Bacteriophage Xianyue, Alexis O'Neal, Amanda J. Laidlaw, Jessica A. Toller, Callie C. Mauersberg, Luka Kulasinac

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Viral particles, known as bacteriophage (phage), are among the most abundant on the planet with an estimated instance of 1031 unique species believed to be in existence. The phage XianYue was isolated for this research and studied for its physical characteristics as well as genomic properties, such as protein function. This phage was found through enriched isolation of a sample collected in Hart County, Georgia then isolated and collected at a high volume in solution through the process of titering using Mycobacterium smegmatis MC2155 (Smeg). Smeg was used because of its nonpathogenic nature as well as its ability to ...


Cellular And Viral Determinants Of Hsv-1 Entry And Transport, Farhana Musarrat 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Cellular And Viral Determinants Of Hsv-1 Entry And Transport, Farhana Musarrat

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Previously, it was shown that the deletion of 38 amino acids from the N terminal end of glycoprotein K (gK) prevents the Herpes Simplex virus Type-1 (HSV-1McKrae ∆gK31-68) from entering into the axons of neurons. Herein, we showed for the first time that this modification in gK disrupts the ability of the virus to carry out a fusion of the viral envelope with the cellular plasma membrane and forces the virus to enter via endocytosis in epithelial cells and neuronal cell bodies. We showed that HSV-1 McKrae infection triggers cellular calcium signaling, Akt activation, and flipping of Akt to the ...


An Uncultivated Virus Infecting A Symbiotic Nanoarchaeota In The Hot Springs Of Yellowstone National Park, Jacob H. Munson-McGee, Colleen Rooney, Mark J. Young 2019 Montana State University - Bozeman

An Uncultivated Virus Infecting A Symbiotic Nanoarchaeota In The Hot Springs Of Yellowstone National Park, Jacob H. Munson-Mcgee, Colleen Rooney, Mark J. Young

Computer Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

The Nanoarchaeota are small cells with reduced genomes that are found attached to and dependent on a second archaeal cell for their growth and replication. Initially found in marine hydrothermal environments and subsequently in terrestrial geothermal hot springs, the Nanoarchaeota species that have been described are obligate ectobionts, each with a different host species. However, no viruses have been described that infect the Nanoarchaeota. Here we identify a virus infecting Nanoarchaeota using a combination of viral metagenomic and bioinformatic approaches. This virus, tentatively named Nanoarchaeota Virus 1 (NAV1), consists of a 35.6kb circular DNA genome encoding for 52 proteins ...


Identifiying High Risk Areas Of Zika Virus Infection By Meteorological Factors In Columbia, Lung-Chang Chien, Francisco Sy, Adriana Perez 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Identifiying High Risk Areas Of Zika Virus Infection By Meteorological Factors In Columbia, Lung-Chang Chien, Francisco Sy, Adriana Perez

Environmental & Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Background Several Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks have occurred since October 2015. Because there is no effective treatment for ZIKV infection, developing an effective surveillance and warning system is currently a high priority to prevent ZIKV infection. Despite Aedes mosquitos having been known to spread ZIKV, the calculation approach is diverse, and only applied to local areas. This study used meteorological measurements to monitor ZIKV infection due to the high correlation between climate change and Aedes mosquitos and the convenience to obtain meteorological data from weather monitoring stations. Methods This study applied the Bayesian structured additive regression modeling approach to include ...


A Dynamic Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment For Norovirus In Potable Reuse System, Erfaneh Amoueyan, Sajjad Ahmad, Joseph N.S. Eisenberg, Daniel Gerrity 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

A Dynamic Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment For Norovirus In Potable Reuse System, Erfaneh Amoueyan, Sajjad Ahmad, Joseph N.S. Eisenberg, Daniel Gerrity

Civil & Environmental Engineering and Construction Faculty Publications

This study describes the results of a dynamic quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) for norovirus (NoV) that was used to evaluate the relative significance of foodborne, person-to-person, and person-to-sewage-to-person transmission pathways. This last pathway was incorporated into simulated potable reuse systems to evaluate the adequacy of typical treatment trains, operational conditions, and regulatory frameworks. The results confirm that secondary and foodborne transmission dominate the overall risk calculation and that waterborne NoV likely contributes no appreciable public health risk, at least in the scenarios modeled in this study. De facto reuse with an environmental buffer storage time of at least 30 ...


Dose Effects Of Recombinant Adenovirus Immunization In Rodents, Eric A. Weaver 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Dose Effects Of Recombinant Adenovirus Immunization In Rodents, Eric A. Weaver

Virology Papers

Recombinant adenovirus type 5 (rAd) has been used as a vaccine platform against many infectious diseases and has been shown to be an effective vaccine vector. The dose of the vaccine varies significantly from study to study, making it very diffcult to compare immune responses and vaccine effcacy. This study determined the immune correlates induced by serial dilutions of rAd vaccines delivered intramuscularly (IM) and intranasally (IN) to mice and rats. When immunized IM, mice had substantially higher antibody responses at the higher vaccine doses, whereas, the IN immunized mice showed a lower response to the higher rAd vaccine doses ...


Common Nodes Of Virus-Host Interaction Revealed Through An Integrated Network Analysis, Korbinian Bosl, Richard K. Kandasamy 2019 Norwegian University of Science and Technology

Common Nodes Of Virus-Host Interaction Revealed Through An Integrated Network Analysis, Korbinian Bosl, Richard K. Kandasamy

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Viruses are one of the major causes of acute and chronic infectious diseases and thus a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Several studies have shown how viruses have evolved to hijack basic cellular pathways and evade innate immune response by modulating key host factors and signaling pathways. A collective view of these multiple studies could advance our understanding of virus-host interactions and provide new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of viral diseases. Here, we performed an integrative meta-analysis to elucidate the 17 different host-virus interactomes. Network and bioinformatics analyses showed how viruses with small genomes efficiently achieve ...


Principles For Enhancing Virus Capsid Capacity And Stability From A Thermophilic Virus Capsid Structure, Nicholas P. Stone, Gabriel Demo, Emily Agnello, Brian A. Kelch 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Principles For Enhancing Virus Capsid Capacity And Stability From A Thermophilic Virus Capsid Structure, Nicholas P. Stone, Gabriel Demo, Emily Agnello, Brian A. Kelch

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The capsids of double-stranded DNA viruses protect the viral genome from the harsh extracellular environment, while maintaining stability against the high internal pressure of packaged DNA. To elucidate how capsids maintain stability in an extreme environment, we use cryoelectron microscopy to determine the capsid structure of thermostable phage P74-26 to 2.8-A resolution. We find P74-26 capsids exhibit an overall architecture very similar to those of other tailed bacteriophages, allowing us to directly compare structures to derive the structural basis for enhanced stability. Our structure reveals lasso-like interactions that appear to function like catch bonds. This architecture allows the capsid ...


The Vaccinia Virus (Vacv) B1 And Cellular Vrk2 Kinases Promote Vacv Replication Factory Formation Through Phosphorylation-Dependent Inhibition Of Vacv B12, Amber B. Rico, Zhigang Wang, Annabel T. Olson, Alexandria C. Linville, Brianna L. Bullard, Eric A. Weaver, Clinton Jones, Matthew S. Wiebea 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Vaccinia Virus (Vacv) B1 And Cellular Vrk2 Kinases Promote Vacv Replication Factory Formation Through Phosphorylation-Dependent Inhibition Of Vacv B12, Amber B. Rico, Zhigang Wang, Annabel T. Olson, Alexandria C. Linville, Brianna L. Bullard, Eric A. Weaver, Clinton Jones, Matthew S. Wiebea

Virology Papers

Comparative examination of viral and host protein homologs reveals novel mechanisms governing downstream signaling effectors of both cellular and viral origin. The vaccinia virus B1 protein kinase is involved in promoting multiple facets of the virus life cycle and is a homolog of three conserved cellular enzymes called vaccinia virus-related kinases (VRKs). Recent evidence indicates that B1 and VRK2 mediate a common pathway that is largely uncharacterized but appears independent of previous VRK substrates. Interestingly, separate studies described a novel role for B1 in inhibiting vaccinia virus protein B12, which otherwise impedes an early event in the viral lifecycle. Herein ...


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