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Project Alien, Rebecca McCallin, Madelyn Hoying, Alex Evans, Matthew Nestler, Karli Rae Sutton, Garett Craig, Lucia Secaia Del Cid, Alexander Guy, Rachel Fernandez, Amanda Trusiak, Paige Aley, Ingabire Gakwerere, Nina Dorfner, Maria Mosbacher, Mary Flavin, Selvin Hernandez, Audrey Steen, Benjamin Kazimer 2021 Duquesne University

Project Alien, Rebecca Mccallin, Madelyn Hoying, Alex Evans, Matthew Nestler, Karli Rae Sutton, Garett Craig, Lucia Secaia Del Cid, Alexander Guy, Rachel Fernandez, Amanda Trusiak, Paige Aley, Ingabire Gakwerere, Nina Dorfner, Maria Mosbacher, Mary Flavin, Selvin Hernandez, Audrey Steen, Benjamin Kazimer

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Project ALIEN is a comprehensive plan to send humans to Mars to look for life on the Martian surface while exploring the viability and adaptability of terrestrial microbes in Martian atmospheric conditions. ALIEN will use a ballistic capture trajectory to get to Mars and stay in aerostationary orbit for a 30-day surface mission, during which two surface crewmembers will perform a variety of experiments to achieve the mission’s goals of Martian microbial discovery within brines of the Gale Crater and terrestrial microbe adaptability and viability to Martian conditions. Experimentation is based on the presumption that Martian microbes are metabolically ...


Purification Of Pcbp2 And Its Effect On The Formation Of Dna I-Motifs And Secondary Structures, Nathan Redden 2021 University of Mississippi

Purification Of Pcbp2 And Its Effect On The Formation Of Dna I-Motifs And Secondary Structures, Nathan Redden

Honors Theses

Several secondary, non-B forms of DNA are associated with the promoter regions of many oncogenes, including the intensely studied c-MYC gene that codes for a transcription factor. Two such secondary structures, G-quadruplexes, and i-motifs, have become topics of interest due to their prevalence within oncogenic promoters, as well as their potential accessibility for drug targeting. B-form DNA can adopt alternative structures under certain conditions. These alternative structures are favored when there is an asymmetric distribution of guanosine and cytosine on complimentary DNA strands. The strand rich in guanosine is able to form a quadruple stranded DNA complex termed a G-quadruplex ...


Partial Expression Of The Vbss Gene In Rhizobium Leguminosarum Atcc 14479 And In-Silico Analysis Of The Vbs Gene Cluster In Various Microorganisms, Afreen Siddiqui 2021 East Tennessee State University

Partial Expression Of The Vbss Gene In Rhizobium Leguminosarum Atcc 14479 And In-Silico Analysis Of The Vbs Gene Cluster In Various Microorganisms, Afreen Siddiqui

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Iron is extremely important for many organisms. Despite its abundancy, it exists in insoluble forms that makes its usability difficult. Some organisms secrete siderophores, low molecular weight compounds, that can chelate iron and convert it into usable forms for cells. One such organism, Rhizobium leguminosarum, is a nitrogen fixing symbiont proteobacteria that infects leguminous plants. The genome of Rhizobium leguminosarum ATCC 14479, which infects the red clover, Trifoli pratense, has previously been completely sequenced in our lab. Our lab has identified several genes in this strain involved in the biosynthesis of a siderophore, vicibactin. The protein product of one of ...


B12: The T Cell Co-Receptor Cd5 Alters Mouse Behavior And Gut Microbiome Composition, Kyle Reaveley 2021 Brigham Young University

B12: The T Cell Co-Receptor Cd5 Alters Mouse Behavior And Gut Microbiome Composition, Kyle Reaveley

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Effectiveness Of Pathogen-Specific Passive Antibodies To Mitigate Infectious Diseases In Apis Mellifera, Tanner Nordseth 2021 University of South Dakota

Effectiveness Of Pathogen-Specific Passive Antibodies To Mitigate Infectious Diseases In Apis Mellifera, Tanner Nordseth

Honors Thesis

Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are widely recognized as a vital part of the global ecosystem and the world's food supply due to their pivotal role in the pollination of both natural and agricultural flora. Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) is an emerging phenomenon characterized by a colony's worker bees deserting the hive and leaving the queen behind. This usually results in colony failure. CCD is a multifactorial issue, with many environmental stressors and pathogens playing a role. Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) has been identified as a leading cause in this phenomenon. Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) is another lethal pathogen that ...


Transcriptional Response Of Blood Leukocytes From Turkeys Challenged With Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium Uk1, Melissa S. Monson, Bradley L. Bearson, Matthew J. Sylte, Torey Looft, Susan J. Lamont, Shawn M. D. Bearson 2021 Iowa State University

Transcriptional Response Of Blood Leukocytes From Turkeys Challenged With Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium Uk1, Melissa S. Monson, Bradley L. Bearson, Matthew J. Sylte, Torey Looft, Susan J. Lamont, Shawn M. D. Bearson

Animal Science Publications

Non-typhoidal Salmonella is one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne disease and consumption of contaminated poultry products, including turkey, is one source of exposure. Minimizing Salmonella colonization of commercial turkeys could decrease the incidence of Salmonella-associated human foodborne illness. Understanding host responses to these bacteria is critical in developing strategies to minimize colonization and reduce food safety risk. In this study, we evaluated bacterial load and blood leukocyte transcriptomic responses of 3-week-old turkeys challenged with the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) UK1 strain. Turkeys (n = 8/dose) were inoculated by oral gavage with 108 or 1010 ...


Mining Selected Metagenomes/Metatranscriptomes For Biosynthetic Gene Clusters And Antimicrobial Resistance Genes, Ahmed Yamany 2021 American University in Cairo

Mining Selected Metagenomes/Metatranscriptomes For Biosynthetic Gene Clusters And Antimicrobial Resistance Genes, Ahmed Yamany

Theses and Dissertations

Antimicrobial resistance is one of the serious global challenges in the current century. The fact that resistance genes transfer between bacteria, coupled with the fact that the world is connected through complex dynamics. Studying microbial behavior and understanding the different factors coffering microbial resistance to a broad spectrum of the available drug classes, parallel with a comprehensive analysis of the natural microbial products as the primary source of the novel antibiotics, might shed some light on solutions for this problem. Microbial environments harbor a wide range of secondary metabolites (SM) with different functional groups. SMs are not directly involved in ...


Mfd Affects Global Transcription And The Physiology Of Stressed Bacillus Subtilis Cells, Holly Anne Martin, Anitha Sundararajan, Tatiana S. Ermi, Robert Heron, Jason Gonzales, Kaiden Lee, Diana Anguiano-Mendez, Faye Schilkey, Mario Pedraza-Reyes, Eduardo A. Robleto 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Mfd Affects Global Transcription And The Physiology Of Stressed Bacillus Subtilis Cells, Holly Anne Martin, Anitha Sundararajan, Tatiana S. Ermi, Robert Heron, Jason Gonzales, Kaiden Lee, Diana Anguiano-Mendez, Faye Schilkey, Mario Pedraza-Reyes, Eduardo A. Robleto

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

© Copyright © 2021 Martin, Sundararajan, Ermi, Heron, Gonzales, Lee, Anguiano-Mendez, Schilkey, Pedraza-Reyes and Robleto. For several decades, Mfd has been studied as the bacterial transcription-coupled repair factor. However, recent observations indicate that this factor influences cell functions beyond DNA repair. Our lab recently described a role for Mfd in disulfide stress that was independent of its function in nucleotide excision repair and base excision repair. Because reports showed that Mfd influenced transcription of single genes, we investigated the global differences in transcription in wild-type and mfd mutant growth-limited cells in the presence and absence of diamide. Surprisingly, we found 1,997 ...


Exploring The Impact Of Ketodeoxynonulosonic Acid In Host-Pathogen Interactions Using Uptake And Surface Display By Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae, Sudeshna Saha, Sanjay Ram, Ajit Varki 2021 University of California - San Diego

Exploring The Impact Of Ketodeoxynonulosonic Acid In Host-Pathogen Interactions Using Uptake And Surface Display By Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae, Sudeshna Saha, Sanjay Ram, Ajit Varki

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Surface expression of the common vertebrate sialic acid (Sia) N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) by commensal and pathogenic microbes appears structurally to represent "molecular mimicry" of host sialoglycans, facilitating multiple mechanisms of host immune evasion. In contrast, ketodeoxynonulosonic acid (Kdn) is a more ancestral Sia also present in prokaryotic glycoconjugates that are structurally quite distinct from vertebrate sialoglycans. We detected human antibodies against Kdn-terminated glycans, and sialoglycan microarray studies found these anti-Kdn antibodies to be directed against Kdn-sialoglycans structurally similar to those on human cell surface Neu5Ac-sialoglycans. Anti-Kdn-glycan antibodies appear during infancy in a pattern similar to those generated following incorporation of ...


Microaerophilic Oxidation Of Fe(Ii) Coupled With Simultaneous Carbon Fixation And As(Iii) Oxidation And Sequestration In Karstic Paddy Soil, Hui Tong, Chunju Zheng, Bing Li, Elizabeth D. Swanner, Chengshuai Liu, Manjia Chen, Yafei Xia, Yuhui Liu, Zengping Ning, Fangbai Li, Xinbin Feng 2021 Guangdong Academy of Sciences

Microaerophilic Oxidation Of Fe(Ii) Coupled With Simultaneous Carbon Fixation And As(Iii) Oxidation And Sequestration In Karstic Paddy Soil, Hui Tong, Chunju Zheng, Bing Li, Elizabeth D. Swanner, Chengshuai Liu, Manjia Chen, Yafei Xia, Yuhui Liu, Zengping Ning, Fangbai Li, Xinbin Feng

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are often chemolithoautotrophs, and the Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides they form could immobilize arsenic (As). If such microbes are active in karstic paddy soils, their activity would help increase soil organic carbon and mitigate As contamination. We therefore used gel-stabilized gradient systems to cultivate microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria from karstic paddy soil to investigate their capacity for Fe(II) oxidation, carbon fixation, and As sequestration. Stable isotope probing (SIP) demonstrated the assimilation of inorganic carbon at a maximum rate of 8.02 mmol C m-2 d-1. Sequencing revealed that Bradyrhizobium, Cupriavidus, Hyphomicrobium, Kaistobacter, Mesorhizobium ...


Comparing Capabilities Of Shewanella Oneidensis Mr-1 And The Microbial Community Of Iron Caves To Reduce Fe(Iii), Aaron Douglas Pham 2021 University of Akron

Comparing Capabilities Of Shewanella Oneidensis Mr-1 And The Microbial Community Of Iron Caves To Reduce Fe(Iii), Aaron Douglas Pham

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Caves are generally formed by the erosion and/or dissolution of rock and its subsequent removal by water. Iron ore caves (IOCs) form despite being hosted by relatively insoluble and weathering-resistant rock. Due to the discovery of a microbial community behind the walls of these caves, it was hypothesized that these bacteria could be responsible for speleogenesis. Iron ore exists in an oxidized (Fe(III)) state, but reduced (Fe(II)) form is soluble. It was further reasoned that the bacteria might be able to reduce Fe(III) through direct metabolic activity, which uses iron as an electron acceptor. Here we ...


Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi

Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis is the most important cause of lameness in broilers. This is important to poultry production, as it poses animal welfare issues, and causes a significant loss in revenue. The remediation of this disease requires the study of its etiology with fitting models and evaluating preventatives. The research reported herein covers genomic virulence analysis of BCO isolates, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli retrieved from lame birds. We found that S. aureus isolates were closest to chicken strains in Europe but may have been in the Arkansas area for a decade. Phylogenomics suggest our S. aureus is ...


Host-Pathogen Genetic Interactions Underlie Tuberculosis Susceptibility In Genetically Diverse Mice [Preprint], Clare M. Smith, Richard E. Baker, Megan K. Proulx, Bibhuti B. Mishra, Jarukit E. Long, Michael C. Kiritsy, Michelle Bellerose, Andrew J. Olive, Kenan C. Murphy, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Frederick Boehm, Charlotte Reames, Christopher M. Sassetti 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Host-Pathogen Genetic Interactions Underlie Tuberculosis Susceptibility In Genetically Diverse Mice [Preprint], Clare M. Smith, Richard E. Baker, Megan K. Proulx, Bibhuti B. Mishra, Jarukit E. Long, Michael C. Kiritsy, Michelle Bellerose, Andrew J. Olive, Kenan C. Murphy, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Frederick Boehm, Charlotte Reames, Christopher M. Sassetti

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The outcome of an encounter with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) depends on the pathogen’s ability to adapt to the heterogeneous immune response of the host. Understanding this interplay has proven difficult, largely because experimentally tractable small animal models do not recapitulate the heterogenous disease observed in natural infections. We leveraged the genetically diverse Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse panel in conjunction with a library of Mtb mutants to associate bacterial genetic requirements with host genetics and immunity. We report that CC strains vary dramatically in their susceptibility to infection and represent reproducible models of qualitatively distinct immune states. Global analysis of ...


The Role Of The Msaabcr Operon In Implant-Associated Chronic Osteomyelitis In Staphylococcus Aureus Usa300 Lac, Gyan S. Sahukhal, Michelle Tucci, Hamed Benghuzzi, Gerri Wilson, Mohamed O. Elasri 2020 University of Southern Mississippi

The Role Of The Msaabcr Operon In Implant-Associated Chronic Osteomyelitis In Staphylococcus Aureus Usa300 Lac, Gyan S. Sahukhal, Michelle Tucci, Hamed Benghuzzi, Gerri Wilson, Mohamed O. Elasri

Faculty Publications

The msaABCR operon regulates several staphylococcal phenotypes such as biofilm formation, capsule production, protease production, pigmentation, antibiotic resistance, and persister cells formation. The msaABCR operon is required for maintaining the cell wall integrity via affecting peptidoglycan cross-linking. The msaABCR operon also plays a role in oxidative stress defense mechanism, which is required to facilitate persistent and recurrent staphylococcal infections. Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent cause of chronic implant-associated osteomyelitis (OM). The CA-MRSA USA300 strains are predominant in the United States and cause severe infections, including bone and joint infections.


Exploring The Niche Of Rickettsia Montanensis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) Infection Of The American Dog Tick (Acari: Ixodidae), Using Multiple Species Distribution Model Approaches, Catherine A. Lippi, Holly Gaff, Alexis L. White, Heidi K. St. John, Allen L. Richards, Sadie J. Ryan 2020 Old Dominion University

Exploring The Niche Of Rickettsia Montanensis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) Infection Of The American Dog Tick (Acari: Ixodidae), Using Multiple Species Distribution Model Approaches, Catherine A. Lippi, Holly Gaff, Alexis L. White, Heidi K. St. John, Allen L. Richards, Sadie J. Ryan

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (Acari: Ixodidae), is a vector for several human diseasecausing pathogens such as tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and the understudied spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) infection caused by Rickettsia montanensis. It is important for public health planning and intervention to understand the distribution of this tick and pathogen encounter risk. Risk is often described in terms of vector distribution, but greatest risk may be concentrated where more vectors are positive for a given pathogen. When assessing species distributions, the choice of modeling framework and spatial layers used to make predictions are important. We ...


Molecular Detection Of Host-Specific Fecal Bacteria In Three Major Watersheds Of Piedmont Georgia, Muhammad Amar 2020 Georgia College

Molecular Detection Of Host-Specific Fecal Bacteria In Three Major Watersheds Of Piedmont Georgia, Muhammad Amar

Biology Theses

Abstract

Fecal pollution is a major concern in creeks and rivers. The aim of this study was to enumerate fecal coliform bacteria and identify the source of contamination using Microbial Source Tracking at three different creeks (Mountain Oak, Long Cane, and Ulcohatchee) in the Piedmont region of Georgia. Data collected in this research will be used to formulate watershed rehabilitation plans to decrease the transfer of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) into these creeks. Samples were collected at several sites along the creeks (4 sites at Mountain Oak, 10 sites at Long Cane, and 5 sites at Ulcohatchee). The site locations ...


Increasing Antibiotic Resistance In Shigella Bacteria In The United States, William J. Pharr 2020 Georgia College and State University

Increasing Antibiotic Resistance In Shigella Bacteria In The United States, William J. Pharr

The Corinthian

Shigella bacteria cause half a million infections, 6,000 hospitalizations, and 70 deaths annually in the United States. These bacteria are of particular concern due to their high survivability, low infectious dose, and high adaptability. Cases of shigellosis from Shigella sonnei are becoming a more prevalent issue in the U.S. as the bacteria continues to develop higher resistance to today’s strongest antibiotics. Much of this resistance is connected to the exchange of genes between strains of Shigella due to insertion sequences (IS), intercontinental travel, and men who have sex with men (MSM). As a result of increased resistance ...


Investigating Microbial And Host Factors That Modulate Severity Of Clostridioides Difficile Associated Disease, Armando Lerma 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Investigating Microbial And Host Factors That Modulate Severity Of Clostridioides Difficile Associated Disease, Armando Lerma

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Clostridioides difficile is recognized as one of the most important pathogens in hospital and community healthcare settings. The clinical outcome of infection of toxigenic C. difficile infection (CDI) ranges from asymptomatic colonization to fulminant pseudomembranous colitis and death. In recent studies, it has been suggested that a high proportion of nosocomial CDI cases are transmitted from asymptomatic carriers which might be acting as infection reservoirs. Understanding what causes the different responses to infection could lead to the development of novel prevention and treatment strategies. Although several explanations have been proposed to explain variations in susceptibility, understanding of the exact mechanisms ...


Expanding Magnetic Organelle Biogenesis In The Domain Bacteria, Wei Lin, Wensi Zhang, Greig A. Paterson, Qiyun Zhu, Xiang Zhao, Rob Knight, Dennis A. Bazylinski, Andrew P. Roberts, Yongxin Pan 2020 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Expanding Magnetic Organelle Biogenesis In The Domain Bacteria, Wei Lin, Wensi Zhang, Greig A. Paterson, Qiyun Zhu, Xiang Zhao, Rob Knight, Dennis A. Bazylinski, Andrew P. Roberts, Yongxin Pan

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: The discovery of membrane-enclosed, metabolically functional organelles in Bacteria has transformed our understanding of the subcellular complexity of prokaryotic cells. Biomineralization of magnetic nanoparticles within magnetosomes by magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) is a fascinating example of prokaryotic organelles. Magnetosomes, as nano-sized magnetic sensors in MTB, facilitate cell navigation along the local geomagnetic field, a behaviour referred to as magnetotaxis or microbial magnetoreception. Recent discovery of novel MTB outside the traditionally recognized taxonomic lineages suggests that MTB diversity across the domain Bacteria are considerably underestimated, which limits understanding of the taxonomic distribution and evolutionary origin of magnetosome organelle biogenesis. Results: Here ...


Single-Cell Profiling Of Tuberculosis Lung Granulomas Reveals Functional Lymphocyte Signatures Of Bacterial Control [Preprint], Hannah P. Gideon, Samuel M. Behar, Alex Shalek 2020 University of Pittsburgh

Single-Cell Profiling Of Tuberculosis Lung Granulomas Reveals Functional Lymphocyte Signatures Of Bacterial Control [Preprint], Hannah P. Gideon, Samuel M. Behar, Alex Shalek

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

In humans and nonhuman primates, Mycobacterium tuberculosis lung infection yields a complex multicellular structure—the tuberculosis granuloma. All granulomas are not equivalent, however, even within the same host: in some, local immune activity promotes bacterial clearance, while in others, it allows persistence or outgrowth. Here, we used single-cell RNA-sequencing to define holistically cellular responses associated with control in cynomolgus macaques. Granulomas that facilitated bacterial killing contained significantly higher proportions of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing hybrid Type1-Type17 immune responses or stem-like features and CD8-enriched T cells with specific cytotoxic functions; failure to control correlated with mast cell, plasma ...


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