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Prevalence And Plasmid Profiles Of Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Obtained From Individuals With Asymptomatic Bacteriuria In Okada, Edo State, Nigeria, Osarumwense Precious Otote, Maureen Uchechukwu Okwu, Osazee Ekundayo Izevbuwa, Happy Ovuerhi Oferiofe 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Igbinedion University Okada, Edo State 302110, Nigeria

Prevalence And Plasmid Profiles Of Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Obtained From Individuals With Asymptomatic Bacteriuria In Okada, Edo State, Nigeria, Osarumwense Precious Otote, Maureen Uchechukwu Okwu, Osazee Ekundayo Izevbuwa, Happy Ovuerhi Oferiofe

Makara Journal of Science

Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is the presence of bacteria in apparently healthy individuals. Although, the prevalence varies widely with age, gender, and the presence or absence of genitourinary abnormalities, the detection of pathogenic bacteria in urine constitutes firm evidence of infection. The objectives of this study were to isolate members of the family Enterobacteriaceae from urine samples of research participants, and to determine the antibacterial susceptibility and plasmid profiles of the isolates. A total of 122 mid-stream urine samples consisting of 72 male and 50 female participants from selected primary and secondary schools were collected. The age of the participants used …


Evaluation Of Antibacterial Potential Of Artemisinin Extracts Of Artemisia Annua In Vivo And In Vitro, Arsalan Khan, Akhtar Ali, Imtiaz Ali Shah, Umm-E- Aimen, Waseem Ullah, Imtiaz Khan 2022 Veterinary Research and Disease Investigation Center, Dera Ismail Khan-29050-Pakistan

Evaluation Of Antibacterial Potential Of Artemisinin Extracts Of Artemisia Annua In Vivo And In Vitro, Arsalan Khan, Akhtar Ali, Imtiaz Ali Shah, Umm-E- Aimen, Waseem Ullah, Imtiaz Khan

Journal of Bioresource Management

To ensure universal health care, the World Health Organization recognized the significance of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) and recommended the use of natural herbs and plants bearing therapeutic potential and fewer adverse effects. Therefore, Artemisia annua herb was evaluated for its antibacterial potential and therapeutic efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus and Escherichia coli both in vitro and in vivo. Artemisinin was extracted from Artemisia annua by chemical treatment. Subsequently, the culture sensitivity tests were performed on MHA by disk diffusion method to determine the antibacterial potential of the Artemisinin extracts against the test bacteria (in vitro phase). …


Single-Cell Approach Reveals Intercellular Heterogeneity In Phage-Producing Capacities, Sherin Kannoly, Gabriella Oken, Jonathan Shadan, David Musheyev, Kevin Singh, Abhyudai Singh, John J. Dennehy 2022 CUNY Queens College

Single-Cell Approach Reveals Intercellular Heterogeneity In Phage-Producing Capacities, Sherin Kannoly, Gabriella Oken, Jonathan Shadan, David Musheyev, Kevin Singh, Abhyudai Singh, John J. Dennehy

Publications and Research

Bacteriophage burst size is the average number of phage virions released from infected bacterial cells, and its magnitude depends on the duration of an intracellular progeny accumulation phase. Burst size is often measured at the population level, not the single-cell level, and consequently, statistical moments are not commonly available. In this study, we estimated the bacteriophage lambda (ƛ) single-cell burst size mean and variance following different intracellular accumulation period durations by employing Escherichia coli lysogens bearing lysis-deficient ƛ prophages. Single lysogens can be isolated and chemically lysed at desired times following prophage induction to quantify progeny intracellular accumulation within individual …


Identification Of The Type Eleven Secretion System (T11ss) And Characterization Of T11ss-Dependent Effector Proteins, Alex S. Grossman 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Identification Of The Type Eleven Secretion System (T11ss) And Characterization Of T11ss-Dependent Effector Proteins, Alex S. Grossman

Doctoral Dissertations

Host-associated microbes live in dangerous environments as a result of host immune killing, nutrient provisioning, and physiological conditions. Bacteria have evolved a host of surface and secreted proteins to help interact with this host environment and overcome nutrient limitation. The studies included within this dissertation describe the identification of a novel bacterial secretion system which has evolved to transport these symbiosis mediating proteins. This system, termed the type eleven secretion system (T11SS), is present throughout the Gram negative phylum Proteobacteria, including many human pathogens such as Neisseria meningitidis, Acinetobacter baumanii, Haemophilus haemolyticus, and Proteus vulgaris. Furthermore, …


Functional Analysis Of Legionella Pneumophila Effector Protein, Shreya Neupane 2022 Western Kentucky University

Functional Analysis Of Legionella Pneumophila Effector Protein, Shreya Neupane

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative bacterium that causes Legionnaire’s disease (a severe form of pneumonia) in humans. L. pneumophila can cause infection by utilizing its Type IV secretion system, a protein secretion system that transports proteins from the bacterial cytosol into the infected macrophage. Effectors released from the Type Iv secretion system allow L. pneumophila to create a safe environment to survive, replicate and cause infection. One such effector, RavQ, inhibits cell proliferation of mammalian HEK 293T cells and localizes to the cell’s nucleus, leading us to hypothesize that RavQ interferes with cellular activity in the nucleus. To detect its …


Potential Use Of Proteolytic Bacteria Paenibacillus Dendritiformis (Bt7) Isolated From Batu Tannery Effluents For The Detergent Industry, Chandran Masi, Degafneh Tadesse, Abate Ayele 2022 Department of Biotechnology, College of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Addis Ababa Science and Technology University,

Potential Use Of Proteolytic Bacteria Paenibacillus Dendritiformis (Bt7) Isolated From Batu Tannery Effluents For The Detergent Industry, Chandran Masi, Degafneh Tadesse, Abate Ayele

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

This research was aimed at identifying a bacterium that can produce alkaline proteases. As a result, bacteria that produce proteases were isolated from Batu tannery effluents, tested for protease synthesis on skim milk agar plates, and validated with a protease assay. Microscopic and molecular phylogenetic analyses identified Paenibacillus dendritiformis (BT7) as the bacterial isolate with the highest alkaline protease production. The isolate's maximum enzyme production was obtained by 2% inoculum size, 40°C temperature, 9.0 pH, and a 48-hour incubation time with production media components such as glucose, casein, MgCl2, and 2% NaCl. The maximal enzyme activity was 270 U/mL under …


Occurrence Of Kanamycin-Resistant Bacteria Relative To Anthropogenic Pollution Along Richland Creek In Nashville, Tn​, Jolene Ho Mach, Annie Le, Brandon Torres Ramirez 2022 Belmont University

Occurrence Of Kanamycin-Resistant Bacteria Relative To Anthropogenic Pollution Along Richland Creek In Nashville, Tn​, Jolene Ho Mach, Annie Le, Brandon Torres Ramirez

Science University Research Symposium (SURS)

The overuse of antibiotics has caused an increase in antibiotic-resistant (AR) bacteria, which is a serious public health concern. Previous studies showed a significant correlation between anthropogenic pollution and AR bacteria. This project aims to identify AR bacteria in Richland Creek relative to local anthropogenic pollution. Water samples were collected at four locations along Richland Creek in Nashville, Tennessee. Bacteria resistant to the antibiotic kanamycin were isolated from the water samples, identified to genera using DNA barcoding, and compared among the sites. We expect to see a greater abundance and diversity of kanamycin-resistant bacteria closer to the end than near …


Comparison Of The Humoral Immune Response Following Both Bacterial Challenge And Rnai Of Major Factors On Proliferation Of Bartonella Quintana In The Human Louse, Jake Zina 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Comparison Of The Humoral Immune Response Following Both Bacterial Challenge And Rnai Of Major Factors On Proliferation Of Bartonella Quintana In The Human Louse, Jake Zina

Masters Theses

Human body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus, and head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, have been hematophagous ectoparasites of humans for thousands of years. Despite being ecotypes, only body lice are known to transmit bacterial diseases to humans, and it appears that lower humoral and cellular immune responses allow body lice to possess a higher vector competence. We previously observed that the transcription level of the defensin 1 gene was up-regulated only in head lice following oral challenge of Bartonella quintana, a causative agent of trench fever, and also that body lice excreted more viable B. quintana in their …


The Sos Response In Escherichia Coli K12: An Exploration Of Mutations In Lexa And Reca Using Fluorescence Microscopy, Steven Van Alstine 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Sos Response In Escherichia Coli K12: An Exploration Of Mutations In Lexa And Reca Using Fluorescence Microscopy, Steven Van Alstine

Doctoral Dissertations

Faithful replication of the genome is paramount for maintaining the fitness of an organism. Therefore, life has evolved inducible mechanisms to be able to repair damaged DNA and maintain evolutionary fitness. The SOS response is a highly conserved DNA damage inducible response that is tightly regulated. Multiple factors contribute to the ability of the cell to perform proper DNA repair and induction of the SOS response including the amount of RecA, mutations in RecA that affect competition for DNA, and other proteins that interact with the RecA filament. The complex relationship between RecA and LexA is the subject of this …


Principles Of Aaa+ Proteases, Samar Mahmoud 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Principles Of Aaa+ Proteases, Samar Mahmoud

Doctoral Dissertations

ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA+) proteases in bacteria help maintain protein homeostasis by degrading misfolded and regulatory proteins. While a handful of protein targets for these proteases have been identified in Caulobacter crescentus and other organisms, more research is needed to elucidate mechanisms that govern substrate specificity. In the second chapter of this thesis, I will elaborate on how AAA+ substrate specificity is less rigid than previous work has suggested and how limiting ATP or mutations can alter substrate preferences of the ClpXP protease. In the third chapter, I will highlight our efforts to use a quantitative proteomics …


Biomedical Applications Of Protein Films And Polymeric Nanomaterials, Sanjana Gopalakrishnan 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Biomedical Applications Of Protein Films And Polymeric Nanomaterials, Sanjana Gopalakrishnan

Doctoral Dissertations

Biomaterials are widely applied for the diagnosis and treatment of numerous diseases. In addition to fulfilling specific biological functions, biomaterials must also be non-toxic, biocompatible, and sterilizable to be regarded as safe-for-use. Polymers are excellent candidates for fabricating functional biomaterials due to their wide availability and varied properties and may be natural or synthetic. Polymer precursors are fabricated into coatings, foams, scaffolds, gels, composites, and nanomaterials for several biomedical applications. This dissertation focuses on two types of polymeric biomaterials – protein-based materials and synthetic polymeric nanoparticles. Proteins are biopolymers that naturally occur with a variety of structural and functional properties. …


Ridinilazole: A Novel, Narrow-Spectrum Antimicrobial Agent Targeting Clostridium (Clostridioides) Difficile, Deirdre A. Collins, Thomas V. Riley 2022 Edith Cowan University

Ridinilazole: A Novel, Narrow-Spectrum Antimicrobial Agent Targeting Clostridium (Clostridioides) Difficile, Deirdre A. Collins, Thomas V. Riley

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Clostridium (Clostridioides) difficile infection (CDI) remains an urgent threat to patients in health systems worldwide. Recurrent CDI occurs in up to 30% of cases due to sustained dysbiosis of the gut microbiota which normally protects against CDI. Associated costs of initial and recurrent episodes of CDI impose heavy financial burdens on health systems. Vancomycin and metronidazole have been the mainstay of therapy for CDI for many years; however, these agents continue to cause significant disruption to the gut microbiota and thus carry a high risk of recurrence for CDI patients. Treatment regimens are now turning towards novel narrow spectrum antimicrobial …


Esculin Hydrolysis Negative And Tcda-Only Producing Strains Of Clostridium (Clostridioides) Difficile From The Environment In Western Australia, Nirajmohan Shivaperumal, Daniel R. Knight, Korakrit Imwattana, Grace O. Androga, Barbara J. Chang, Thomas V. Riley 2022 Edith Cowan University

Esculin Hydrolysis Negative And Tcda-Only Producing Strains Of Clostridium (Clostridioides) Difficile From The Environment In Western Australia, Nirajmohan Shivaperumal, Daniel R. Knight, Korakrit Imwattana, Grace O. Androga, Barbara J. Chang, Thomas V. Riley

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Background and Aims: Clostridium (Clostridiodes) difficile clade 3 ribotype (RT) 023 strains that fail to produce black colonies on bioMérieux ChromID agar have been reported, as well as variant strains of C. difficile that produce only toxin A. We have recently isolated strains of C. difficile from the environment in Western Australia (WA) with similar characteristics. The objective of this study was to characterize these strains. It was hypothesized that a putative β-glucosidase gene was lacking in these strains of C. difficile, including RT 023, leading to white colonies. Methods and Results: A total of 17 environmental isolates of C. …


Towards More Complete Metagenomic Analyses Through Circularized Genomes And Conjugative Elements, Benjamin R. Joris 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Towards More Complete Metagenomic Analyses Through Circularized Genomes And Conjugative Elements, Benjamin R. Joris

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Advancements in sequencing technologies have revolutionized biological sciences and led to the emergence of a number of fields of research. One such field of research is metagenomics, which is the study of the genomic content of complex communities of bacteria. The goal of this thesis was to contribute computational methodology that can maximize the data generated in these studies and to apply these protocols human and environmental metagenomic samples.

Standard metagenomic analyses include a step for binning of assembled contigs, which has previously been shown to exclude mobile genetic elements, and I demonstrated that this phenomenon extends to all conjugative …


Exploring The Use Of Covellite As A Proxy For Corrosion Of Native Copper By Sulphur Reducing Bacteria, Manan K. Joshi 2022 Western University

Exploring The Use Of Covellite As A Proxy For Corrosion Of Native Copper By Sulphur Reducing Bacteria, Manan K. Joshi

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

We are analyzing the effect of sulphate reducing bacteria on native copper, and using that evidence to further support the initiative of having a deep geological repository to store nuclear material. Sulphate reducing bacteria are a concern for the deep geological repository as they cause the corrosion of regular copper. However native copper has gone billions of years without corrosion, which could either mean that it had not been exposed to sulphate reducing bacteria over the billions of years, or native copper is able to withstand corrosion despite the contact of sulphate reducing bacteria. We can find out by trying …


Novel Signal Sequences And Fusion Partners For Paratransgenesis In Asaia, Christina Grogan 2022 Duquesne University

Novel Signal Sequences And Fusion Partners For Paratransgenesis In Asaia, Christina Grogan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mosquitoes transmit many pathogens that cause human disease. One such disease, malaria, is caused by parasites in the genus Plasmodium, infecting over 200 million people and killing over 600,000 per year. Current strategies to control vector-transmitted diseases are increasingly undermined by mosquito and pathogen resistance. Research has turned to additional and novel methods of control, such as altering the microbiota of the vectors. In this method, called paratransgenesis, symbiotic bacteria are genetically modified to affect the mosquito’s phenotype by engineering them to deliver antiplasmodial molecules into the midgut to kill parasites. These molecules must be released by the …


Genomic Analysis And Characterization Of Surface Properties Of Naphthalene Degrading Acinetobacter Isolates, Gunn Emilie Berge 2022 University of South Alabama

Genomic Analysis And Characterization Of Surface Properties Of Naphthalene Degrading Acinetobacter Isolates, Gunn Emilie Berge

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Reproductive Ecology And Microbial Communities From Wood Duck Nest Boxes In Georgia And Florida, Jake Shurba 2022 Clemson University

Reproductive Ecology And Microbial Communities From Wood Duck Nest Boxes In Georgia And Florida, Jake Shurba

All Theses

Wood ducks (Aix sponsa) are an important game species throughout the Atlantic Flyway that was nearly extirpated by the early 20th century due to overhunting and the loss of habitat. Wood ducks are secondary cavity-nesters that utilize artificial nest boxes and natural cavities. It is reported that the use of nest boxes is likely what led to re-establishment of the species in North America. Where boxes are numerous, overuse of boxes by multiple hens throughout a nesting season can occur and result in a buildup of bacteria, parasites and other potentially detrimental pathogens that can impact egg …


The Effects Of Short Chain Fatty Acids On Clostridioides Difficile Growth, Sporulation, And Toxin Production, Michelle Baldassare 2022 Clemson University

The Effects Of Short Chain Fatty Acids On Clostridioides Difficile Growth, Sporulation, And Toxin Production, Michelle Baldassare

All Theses

Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are products of bacterial fermentation that help maintain important gut functions such as the intestinal barrier, signaling, and immune homeostasis. The main SCFAs acetate, propionate, and butyrate have demonstrated beneficial effects for the host, including importance in combatting infections caused by pathogens such as Clostridioides difficile. C. difficile infection (CDI) is a public health concern and causes 30,000 deaths each year mainly due to the overuse of antibiotics. Despite the potential role of SCFAs in mitigating C. difficile infection, their direct effect on C. difficile remains unclear. Through a set of in-vitro experiments, we …


Analyzing Staphylococcal Contamination On Surfaces And Bedside Areas Of A Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Of A Children's Hospital, Daniel See 2022 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Analyzing Staphylococcal Contamination On Surfaces And Bedside Areas Of A Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Of A Children's Hospital, Daniel See

Honors Theses

Staphylococci species are known to be a cause of Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). There is limited research about the surveillance and identification of staphylococci bacteria from NICUs. Surveillance of bacteria within the NICU helps to identify areas acting as reservoirs for bacteria so that new cleaning policies and techniques can be put in place to stop the spread of HAIs. The objective of this study was to swab sample sites in a local level IV hospital NICU and identify locations of staphylococci presence throughout the NICU. Forty-one swabs were selected from over 900 swabs collected …


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