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Covid-19 In Cns And Pns: Basic And Clinical Focus On The Mechanisms Of Infection And New Tools For The Therapeutic Approach, Jorge Matias-Guiu, Jordi A. Matias-Guiu, Carmen Garrido, Genaro Pimienta, Patricio F. Reyes, Abdul Mannan Baig, Ulises Gomez-Pinedo 2022 Institute of Neurosciences

Covid-19 In Cns And Pns: Basic And Clinical Focus On The Mechanisms Of Infection And New Tools For The Therapeutic Approach, Jorge Matias-Guiu, Jordi A. Matias-Guiu, Carmen Garrido, Genaro Pimienta, Patricio F. Reyes, Abdul Mannan Baig, Ulises Gomez-Pinedo

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

No abstract provided.


Conventional Therapies Deplete Brain-Infiltrating Adaptive Immune Cells In A Mouse Model Of Group 3 Medulloblastoma Implicating Myeloid Cells As Favorable Immunotherapy Targets, Zahra Abbas, Courtney George, Mathew Ancliffe, Meegan Howlett, Anya C. Jones, Mani Kuchibhotla, Robert J. Wechsler-Reya, Nicholas G. Gottardo, Raelene Endersby 2022 Edith Cowan University

Conventional Therapies Deplete Brain-Infiltrating Adaptive Immune Cells In A Mouse Model Of Group 3 Medulloblastoma Implicating Myeloid Cells As Favorable Immunotherapy Targets, Zahra Abbas, Courtney George, Mathew Ancliffe, Meegan Howlett, Anya C. Jones, Mani Kuchibhotla, Robert J. Wechsler-Reya, Nicholas G. Gottardo, Raelene Endersby

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Medulloblastoma is the most common childhood brain cancer. Mainstay treatments of radiation and chemotherapy have not changed in decades and new treatment approaches are crucial for the improvement of clinical outcomes. To date, immunotherapies for medulloblastoma have been unsuccessful, and studies investigating the immune microenvironment of the disease and the impact of current therapies are limited. Preclinical models that recapitulate both the disease and immune environment are essential for understanding immune-tumor interactions and to aid the identification of new and effective immunotherapies. Using an immune-competent mouse model of aggressive Myc-driven medulloblastoma, we characterized the brain immune microenvironment and changes induced …


Salicylic Acid And N-Hydroxypipecolic Acid At The Fulcrum Of The Plant Immunity-Growth Equilibrium, Alyssa Shields, Vanessa Shivnauth, Christian Danve M. Castroverde 2022 Wilfrid Laurier University

Salicylic Acid And N-Hydroxypipecolic Acid At The Fulcrum Of The Plant Immunity-Growth Equilibrium, Alyssa Shields, Vanessa Shivnauth, Christian Danve M. Castroverde

Biology Faculty Publications

Salicylic acid (SA) and N-hydroxypipecolic acid (NHP) are two central plant immune signals involved in both resistance at local sites of pathogen infection (basal resistance) and at distal uninfected sites after primary infection (systemic acquired resistance). Major discoveries and advances have led to deeper understanding of their biosynthesis and signaling during plant defense responses. In addition to their well-defined roles in immunity, recent research is emerging on their direct mechanistic impacts on plant growth and development. In this review, we will first provide an overview of how SA and NHP regulate local and systemic immune responses in plants. We …


Residual Symptoms And The Quality Of Life In Individuals Recovered From Covid-19 Infection: A Survey From Pakistan, Mohammad Aadil Qamar, Russell Seth Martins, Rubaid Azhar Dhillon, Areeba Tharwani, Omar Irfan, Qosain Fatima Suriya, Wajiha Rizwan, Javaid Ahmed Khan, Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi 2022 Ziauddin University

Residual Symptoms And The Quality Of Life In Individuals Recovered From Covid-19 Infection: A Survey From Pakistan, Mohammad Aadil Qamar, Russell Seth Martins, Rubaid Azhar Dhillon, Areeba Tharwani, Omar Irfan, Qosain Fatima Suriya, Wajiha Rizwan, Javaid Ahmed Khan, Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi

Medical College Documents

Background: There remains scarcity of literature regarding the patient's health status post-COVID-19 infection. This study analyzes the prevalence of residual symptoms and quality of life (QoL) after COVID-19.
Methods: An anonymous online survey was administrated in Pakistan from November 2020 to April 2021 in COVID-19 survivors. The questionnaire used the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) to assess mental and physical QoL. Multivariate linear regression was used to explore factors associated with mental and physical QoL scores.
Results: A total of 331 COVID-19 survivors participated in our survey. Around 42.0% of the cohort reported within 1-3 months of diagnosis of …


Human Papillomavirus Associated Prevention: Knowledge, Attitudes, And Perceived Risks Among Men Who Have Sex With Men And Transgender Women In Pakistan: A Qualitative Study, Muslima Ejaz, Anna Mia Ekström, Alyan Ahmed, Aymen Haroon, Dania Ali, Tazeen Saeed Ali, Mariano Salazar 2022 Aga Khan University

Human Papillomavirus Associated Prevention: Knowledge, Attitudes, And Perceived Risks Among Men Who Have Sex With Men And Transgender Women In Pakistan: A Qualitative Study, Muslima Ejaz, Anna Mia Ekström, Alyan Ahmed, Aymen Haroon, Dania Ali, Tazeen Saeed Ali, Mariano Salazar

Community Health Sciences

Objectives: Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender individuals are at higher risk of genital warts and anal cancer due to sexually transmitted human papillomavirus infection. This study explores MSM and transgender women's perceptions of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV prevention strategies (screening and vaccination) in Pakistan.
Design: A qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGD) with self-identified MSM, male sex workers and transgender women were conducted between March 2019 to August 2019 in Karachi, Pakistan.
Methods: Participants were recruited from community-based organization (CBO) working for MSM and transgender women. A total of 38 men and 10 …


Vaccinia Virus Arrests And Shifts The Cell Cycle, Caroline K. Martin, Jerzy Samolej, Annabel T. Olson, Cosetta Bertoli, Matthew S. Wiebe, Robertus A. M. de Bruin, Jason Mercer 2022 University College London

Vaccinia Virus Arrests And Shifts The Cell Cycle, Caroline K. Martin, Jerzy Samolej, Annabel T. Olson, Cosetta Bertoli, Matthew S. Wiebe, Robertus A. M. De Bruin, Jason Mercer

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Modulation of the host cell cycle is a common strategy used by viruses to create a proreplicative environment. To facilitate viral genome replication, vaccinia virus (VACV) has been reported to alter cell cycle regulation and trigger the host cell DNA damage response. However, the cellular factors and viral effectors that mediate these changes remain unknown. Here, we set out to investigate the effect of VACV infection on cell proliferation and host cell cycle progression. Using a subset of VACV mutants, we characterise the stage of infection required for inhibition of cell proliferation and define the viral effectors required to dysregulate …


A Review Of Coronaviruses Associated With Kawasaki Disease: Possible Implications For Pathogenesis Of The Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome Associated With Covid-19, Fatima Farrukh Shahbaz, Russell Seth Martins, Abdullah Umair, Ronika Devi Ukrani, Kauser Jabeen, M Rizwan Sohail, Erum Khan 2022 Aga Khan University

A Review Of Coronaviruses Associated With Kawasaki Disease: Possible Implications For Pathogenesis Of The Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome Associated With Covid-19, Fatima Farrukh Shahbaz, Russell Seth Martins, Abdullah Umair, Ronika Devi Ukrani, Kauser Jabeen, M Rizwan Sohail, Erum Khan

Medical College Documents

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), representing a new entity in the spectrum of manifestations of COVID-19, bears symptomatic resemblance with Kawasaki Disease (KD). This review explores the possible associations between KD and the human coronaviruses and discusses the pathophysiological similarities between KD and MIS-C and proposes implications for the pathogenesis of MIS-C in COVID-19. Since 2005, when a case-control study demonstrated the association of a strain of human coronavirus with KD, several studies have provided evidence regarding the association of different strains of the human coronaviruses with KD. Thus, the emergence of the KD-like disease MIS-C in COVID-19 may …


Implementation Of A Drive-Through Covid-19 Mass Vaccination Site: Experiences From Louvax–Broadbent In Louisville, Kentucky, Ruth Carrico, Sarah Beth Hartlage, Valenchia Brown MSN, APRN, FNP-C, Sarah M. Bishop, Luanne Didelot, William Hayden, Beverly Williams Coleman, Sarah Tan, Delanor Manson, Kellie Kane, Dawn Balcom, Paul Kern 2022 Norton Infectious Diseases Institute

Implementation Of A Drive-Through Covid-19 Mass Vaccination Site: Experiences From Louvax–Broadbent In Louisville, Kentucky, Ruth Carrico, Sarah Beth Hartlage, Valenchia Brown Msn, Aprn, Fnp-C, Sarah M. Bishop, Luanne Didelot, William Hayden, Beverly Williams Coleman, Sarah Tan, Delanor Manson, Kellie Kane, Dawn Balcom, Paul Kern

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Response to the COVID-19 pandemic has required innovative approaches to vaccination, including methods to rapidly and safely immunize communities. A major challenge to such a response involved access to untapped healthcare worker resources. The Louisville, Kentucky, response involved the use of a large volunteer workforce to supplement local public health employees in planning and implementing a large-scale drive-through vaccination event. The objective of this manuscript was to outline processes involved in training a mass immunization workforce and implementating a large-scale COVID-19 community vaccination.

Approach: Competency-based and standardized training was provided for every volunteer before working their shift. Volunteers worked …


Manual Loop In Laparoscopic Appendectomy: A Retrospective Cohort Study And Literature Review, Priyanka Ramesh, Aniqa Saeed, Muniza Nusrat, Sehrish Batool, Hina Khan, Ghulam Murtaza 2022 Patel Hospital

Manual Loop In Laparoscopic Appendectomy: A Retrospective Cohort Study And Literature Review, Priyanka Ramesh, Aniqa Saeed, Muniza Nusrat, Sehrish Batool, Hina Khan, Ghulam Murtaza

Section of Urology

Objectives: To determine the incidence of complications [Surgical site infection (SSI), intra-abdominal abscess (IAA), stump leak] related to stump ligation with manual loop of sliding extracorporeal suture knot in laparoscopic appendectomy.
Methods: This cohort study was conducted on patients who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy from June 2014 to November 2020 performed by the same surgeon with almost similar technique. Stump was ligated with manual loops, applied by the surgeon or trainee or both (one by surgeon and other by trainee). SSI and IAA were classified according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria.
Results: Total 120 patients were included …


Selective Gsk3Β Inhibition Mediates An Nrf2-Independent Anti-Inflammatory Microglial Response, Mohamed H. Yousef 2022 The American University in Cairo AUC

Selective Gsk3Β Inhibition Mediates An Nrf2-Independent Anti-Inflammatory Microglial Response, Mohamed H. Yousef

Theses and Dissertations

Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3) is associated with the proinflammatory phenotype of microglia and has been shown to act in concert with Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). . GSK3 is also a suppressor of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), the principal regulator of redox homeostasis. Agreeing with the oxidative paradigm of aging, Nrf2 is often deregulated in parainflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we aimed to explore a multimodal disease-modifying utility of GSK3 inhibition, beyond neuronal proteopathologies, Furthermore, we aimed to underscore the difference in therapeutic value between the two GSK3 paralogs by isoform-selective chemical inhibition.

The …


Determining The Role Of Dendritic Cells During Response To Treatment With Paclitaxel/Anti-Tim-3, Alycia Gardner 2022 University of South Florida

Determining The Role Of Dendritic Cells During Response To Treatment With Paclitaxel/Anti-Tim-3, Alycia Gardner

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Intratumoral CD103+ dendritic cells (cDC1) are required for anti-tumor immune responses. In tumors that are poorly responsive to immunotherapeutic approaches targeting T cells, targeting cDC1 represents an alternative approach that may be useful in improving patient response rates. As such, it is critical to understand cDC1 function within tumors, and what may be preventing optimal function of cDC1. TIM-3 is a receptor that is highly expressed by cDC1 in murine and human mammary tumors, and TIM-3 blocking antibodies are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for a number of solid and hematological malignancies. In order to best design combinatorial therapeutic …


Effects Of Experimental Malaria Infection On Migration Of Yellow-Rumped Warblers (Setophaga Coronata), Rebecca J. Howe 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Effects Of Experimental Malaria Infection On Migration Of Yellow-Rumped Warblers (Setophaga Coronata), Rebecca J. Howe

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The potential of migratory animals to spread infectious diseases depends on how infection affects movement. If infection delays or slows the speed of travel, transmission to uninfected individuals may be reduced. Whether and how malaria (Plasmodium spp.) affects bird migration has received little experimental research. I captured 40 actively-migrating Yellow-rumped Warblers (Setophaga coronata) at a migration stopover site and held them in captivity. I inoculated 25 with P. cathemerium while 15 received sham inoculations. After 12 days the birds were released. Six P. cathemerium-inoculated birds (24%) developed P. cathemerium infections after inoculation. I radio-tagged all birds, …


Evaluation Of Bioactive Properties Of Lipophilic Fractions Of Edible And Non-Edible Parts Of Nasturtium Officinale (Watercress) In A Model Of Human Malignant Melanoma Cells, Sotiris Kyriakou, Venetia Tragkola, Heba Alghol, Ioannis Anestopoulos, Tom Amery, Kyle Stewart, Paul G. Winyard, Dimitrios T. Trafalis, Rodrigo Franco, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis 2022 The Cyprus Institute of Neurology & Genetics

Evaluation Of Bioactive Properties Of Lipophilic Fractions Of Edible And Non-Edible Parts Of Nasturtium Officinale (Watercress) In A Model Of Human Malignant Melanoma Cells, Sotiris Kyriakou, Venetia Tragkola, Heba Alghol, Ioannis Anestopoulos, Tom Amery, Kyle Stewart, Paul G. Winyard, Dimitrios T. Trafalis, Rodrigo Franco, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Watercress is an enriched source of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), among other phytochemicals, with an antioxidant capacity. The aim of this study was to (i) chemically characterize and (ii) biologically evaluate the profile of the main health-promoting compounds contained in edible (i.e., mixture of leaves and lateral buds) and non-edible (i.e., stems) parts of watercress in an in vitro model of malignant melanoma consisting of human malignant melanoma (A375), non-melanoma (A431) and keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. The extraction of the main constituents of watercress was performed by subjecting the freeze-dried edible and non-edible samples through different extraction protocols, whereas their concentration was …


The Emergence Of Covid-19 Associated Mucormycosis: A Review Of Cases From 18 Countries, Martin Hoenigl, Danila Seidel, Agostinho Carvalho, Shivaprakash M. Rudramurthy, Amir Arastehfar, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Nosheen Nasir, Alexandro Bonifaz, Javier Araiza, Nikolai Klimko 2022 Medical University of Graz

The Emergence Of Covid-19 Associated Mucormycosis: A Review Of Cases From 18 Countries, Martin Hoenigl, Danila Seidel, Agostinho Carvalho, Shivaprakash M. Rudramurthy, Amir Arastehfar, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Nosheen Nasir, Alexandro Bonifaz, Javier Araiza, Nikolai Klimko

Department of Medicine

Reports of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis have been increasing in frequency since early 2021, particularly among patients with uncontrolled diabetes. Patients with diabetes and hyperglycaemia often have an inflammatory state that could be potentiated by the activation of antiviral immunity to SARS-CoV2, which might favour secondary infections. In this Review, we analysed 80 published and unpublished cases of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. Uncontrolled diabetes, as well as systemic corticosteroid treatment, were present in most patients with COVID-19-associated mucormycosis, and rhino-orbital cerebral mucormycosis was the most frequent disease. Mortality was high at 49%, which was particularly due to patients with pulmonary or disseminated mucormycosis or …


Perceived Risk And Distress Related To Covid-19 In Healthcare Versus Non-Healthcare Workers Of Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Study, Adeel Abid, Hania Shahzad, Hyder Ali Khan, Suneel Piryani, Areeba Raza Khan, Fauziah Rabbani 2022 Aga Khan University

Perceived Risk And Distress Related To Covid-19 In Healthcare Versus Non-Healthcare Workers Of Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Study, Adeel Abid, Hania Shahzad, Hyder Ali Khan, Suneel Piryani, Areeba Raza Khan, Fauziah Rabbani

Medical College Documents

Background:
Healthcare workers (HCWs) have found themselves and their families more susceptible to contracting COVID-19. This puts them at a higher risk of psychological distress, which may compromise patient care. In this study, we aim to explore the risk perceptions and psychological distress between HCWs and non-healthcare workers (NHCWs) in Pakistan.
Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online self-administered questionnaire. Psychological distress was assessed through The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Comparisons were made between HCWs (front/backend, students/graduates) and NHCWs related to risk perceptions and stress levels related to COVID19. Following tests for normality (Shapiro–Wilk test), variables …


Serotype-Specific Effectiveness Against Pneumococcal Carriage And Serotype Replacement After Ten-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (Pcv10) Introduction In Pakistan, Muhammad Imran Nisar, Fyezah Jehan, Shahira Shahid, Sheraz Ahmed, Sadia Shakoor, Furqan Kabir, Aneeta Hotwani, Sahrish Muneer, Farah Khalid, Sajid Muhammad, Asad Ali, Najeeha Talat Iqbal 2022 Aga Khan University

Serotype-Specific Effectiveness Against Pneumococcal Carriage And Serotype Replacement After Ten-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (Pcv10) Introduction In Pakistan, Muhammad Imran Nisar, Fyezah Jehan, Shahira Shahid, Sheraz Ahmed, Sadia Shakoor, Furqan Kabir, Aneeta Hotwani, Sahrish Muneer, Farah Khalid, Sajid Muhammad, Asad Ali, Najeeha Talat Iqbal

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Objective: Pakistan was one of the first South-Asian countries to introduce the ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) at the national level, using a 3+0 schedule without catchup, in 2013.
Methods: From 2014-18, fifteen children Matiari, Sindh, and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected. The samples were cultured, and pneumococcus was further serotyped through multiplex PCR at the Aga Khan University Hospital as per the method described by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA.
Results: Pneumococcus was detected in 2370/3140 (75%) children. Vaccine type (VT) and non-vaccine type (NVT) serotypes were carried by 379 and 1990 children. There was a significant …


An Exploratory Study On The Microbiome Of Northern And Southern Populations Of Ixodes Scapularis Ticks Predicts Changes And Unique Bacterial Interactions, Deepak Kumar, Latoyia P. Downs, Abdulsalam Adegoke, Erika Machtinger, Kelly Oggenfuss, Richard S. Ostfeld, Monica Embers, Shahid Karim 2022 University of Southern Mississipippi

An Exploratory Study On The Microbiome Of Northern And Southern Populations Of Ixodes Scapularis Ticks Predicts Changes And Unique Bacterial Interactions, Deepak Kumar, Latoyia P. Downs, Abdulsalam Adegoke, Erika Machtinger, Kelly Oggenfuss, Richard S. Ostfeld, Monica Embers, Shahid Karim

Faculty Publications

The black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) is the primary vector of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease in North America. However, the prevalence of Lyme borreliosis is clustered around the Northern States of the United States of America. This study utilized a metagenomic sequencing approach to compare the microbial communities residing within Ix. scapularis populations from northern and southern geographic locations in the USA. Using a SparCC network construction model, we performed potential interactions between members of the microbial communities from Borrelia burgdorferi–infected tissues of unfed and blood-fed ticks. A significant difference in bacterial composition …


Harnessing Mycobacterium Bovis Bcg Trained Immunity To Control Human And Bovine Babesiosis, Reginaldo G. Bastos, Heba F. Alzan, Vignesh A. Rathinasamy, Brian M. Cooke, Odir A. Dellagostin, Raul G. Barletta, Carlos E. Suarez 2022 Washington State University

Harnessing Mycobacterium Bovis Bcg Trained Immunity To Control Human And Bovine Babesiosis, Reginaldo G. Bastos, Heba F. Alzan, Vignesh A. Rathinasamy, Brian M. Cooke, Odir A. Dellagostin, Raul G. Barletta, Carlos E. Suarez

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Babesiosis is a disease caused by tickborne hemoprotozoan apicomplexan parasites of the genus Babesia that negatively impacts public health and food security worldwide. Development of effective and sustainable vaccines against babesiosis is currently hindered in part by the absence of definitive host correlates of protection. Despite that, studies in Babesia microti and Babesia bovis, major causative agents of human and bovine babesiosis, respectively, suggest that early activation of innate immune responses is crucial for vertebrates to survive acute infection. Trained immunity (TI) is defined as the development of memory in vertebrate innate immune cells, allowing more efficient responses to subsequent …


Distribution Of Serotypes And Antibiotic Resistance Of Invasive Pseudomonas Aeruginosa In A Multi-Country Collection, Shamima Nasrin, Nicolas Hegerle, Shaichi Sen, Joseph Nkeze, Sunil Sen, Jasnehta Permala-Booth, Myeongjin Choi, James Sinclair, Milagritos D. Tapia, Sadia Shakoor 2022 University of Maryland School of Medicine

Distribution Of Serotypes And Antibiotic Resistance Of Invasive Pseudomonas Aeruginosa In A Multi-Country Collection, Shamima Nasrin, Nicolas Hegerle, Shaichi Sen, Joseph Nkeze, Sunil Sen, Jasnehta Permala-Booth, Myeongjin Choi, James Sinclair, Milagritos D. Tapia, Sadia Shakoor

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a wide range of acute and chronic infections and is frequently associated with healthcare-associated infections. Because of its ability to rapidly acquire resistance to antibiotics, P. aeruginosa infections are difficult to treat. Alternative strategies, such as a vaccine, are needed to prevent infections. We collected a total of 413 P. aeruginosa isolates from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients from 10 countries located on 4 continents during 2005-2017 and characterized these isolates to inform vaccine development efforts. We determined the diversity and distribution of O antigen and flagellin types and …


Comparison Of Percutaneous Vs Oral Infection Of Hamsters With The Hookworm Ancylostoma Ceylanicum: Parasite Development, Pathology And Primary Immune Response, Richard D. Bungiro, Lisa M. Harrison, Blaise Dondji, Michael Cappello 2022 Yale University

Comparison Of Percutaneous Vs Oral Infection Of Hamsters With The Hookworm Ancylostoma Ceylanicum: Parasite Development, Pathology And Primary Immune Response, Richard D. Bungiro, Lisa M. Harrison, Blaise Dondji, Michael Cappello

Biology Faculty Scholarship

Background

Hundreds of millions of people in poor countries continue to suffer from disease caused by bloodfeeding hookworms. While mice and rats are not reliably permissive hosts for any human hookworm species, adult Golden Syrian hamsters are fully permissive for the human and animal pathogen Ancylostoma ceylanicum. Similar to humans, hamsters may be infected with A. ceylanicum third-stage larvae orally or percutaneously. Oral infection typically leads to consistent worm yields in hamsters but may not accurately reflect the clinical and immunological manifestations of human infection resulting from skin penetration.

Methodology/Principal findings

In this study we compared host responses …


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