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Human Blood Cell Isolation: The Critical First Step In Our Laboratory’S Immunobiology Experimental Protocals, Victor Rivero 2024 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Human Blood Cell Isolation: The Critical First Step In Our Laboratory’S Immunobiology Experimental Protocals, Victor Rivero

UNO Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

HUMAN BLOOD CELL ISOLATION: THE CRITICAL FIRST STEP IN OUR LABORATORY’S IMMUNOBIOLOGY EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCALS

Victor Rivero1 Paul W. Denton1, vrivero@unomaha.edu

1Department of Biology, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE

The Denton Immunobiology Laboratory focuses on enhancing human natural killer (NK) cell killing capabilities, particularly in the context of combating cancer. NK cells are immune cells that have the ability to kill diseased cells via two mechanisms: direct killing, and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). We recently published our novel approach to testing both methods of killing by using NK cells derived from the same human donor. Our testing approach allows …


Biological Insights From Plasma Proteomics Of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With Immunotherapy, Jair Bar, Raya Leibowitz, Niels Reinmuth, Astrid Ammendola, Eyal Jacob, Mor Moskovitz, Adva Levy-Barda, Michal Lotem, Rivka Katsenelson, Abed Agbarya, Mahmoud Abu-Amna, Maya Gottfried, Tatiana Harkovsky, Ido Wolf, Ella Tepper, Gil Loewenthal, Ben Yellin, Yehuda Brody, Nili Dahan, Maya Yanko, Coren Lahav, Michal Harel, Shani Raveh Shoval, Yehonatan Elon, Itamar Sela, Adam Dicker, Yuval Shaked 2024 Thomas Jefferson University

Biological Insights From Plasma Proteomics Of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With Immunotherapy, Jair Bar, Raya Leibowitz, Niels Reinmuth, Astrid Ammendola, Eyal Jacob, Mor Moskovitz, Adva Levy-Barda, Michal Lotem, Rivka Katsenelson, Abed Agbarya, Mahmoud Abu-Amna, Maya Gottfried, Tatiana Harkovsky, Ido Wolf, Ella Tepper, Gil Loewenthal, Ben Yellin, Yehuda Brody, Nili Dahan, Maya Yanko, Coren Lahav, Michal Harel, Shani Raveh Shoval, Yehonatan Elon, Itamar Sela, Adam Dicker, Yuval Shaked

Department of Radiation Oncology Faculty Papers

INTRODUCTION: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have made a paradigm shift in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, clinical response varies widely and robust predictive biomarkers for patient stratification are lacking. Here, we characterize early on-treatment proteomic changes in blood plasma to gain a better understanding of treatment response and resistance.

METHODS: Pre-treatment (T0) and on-treatment (T1) plasma samples were collected from 225 NSCLC patients receiving PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-based regimens. Plasma was profiled using aptamer-based technology to quantify approximately 7000 plasma proteins per sample. Proteins displaying significant fold changes (T1:T0) were analyzed further to identify associations with clinical outcomes using …


Immunotherapy Resistance In Solid Tumors: Mechanisms And Potential Solutions, Daniel Lefler, Steven Manobianco, Babar Bashir 2024 Thomas Jefferson University

Immunotherapy Resistance In Solid Tumors: Mechanisms And Potential Solutions, Daniel Lefler, Steven Manobianco, Babar Bashir

Kimmel Cancer Center Faculty Papers

While the emergence of immunotherapies has fundamentally altered the management of solid tumors, cancers exploit many complex biological mechanisms that result in resistance to these agents. These encompass a broad range of cellular activities - from modification of traditional paradigms of immunity via antigen presentation and immunoregulation to metabolic modifications and manipulation of the tumor microenvironment. Intervening on these intricate processes may provide clinical benefit in patients with solid tumors by overcoming resistance to immunotherapies, which is why it has become an area of tremendous research interest with practice-changing implications. This review details the major ways cancers avoid both natural …


Treatment Response Of Gingival Squamous-Cell Carcinoma To Palliative Intent Immunotherapy, Natalia Trehan, Angelina Debbas, Mykaihla Sternick, Jennifer Johnson, James Gates 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Treatment Response Of Gingival Squamous-Cell Carcinoma To Palliative Intent Immunotherapy, Natalia Trehan, Angelina Debbas, Mykaihla Sternick, Jennifer Johnson, James Gates

Department of Medical Oncology Faculty Papers

The use of PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor medications has become a common practice in the treatment of recurrent and metastatic head and neck squamous-cell carcinomas. Success in this setting has led to the investigation of their efficacy in locally advanced cases as a part of first-line therapy. In this report, we detail the treatment response to palliative intent immunotherapy of three geriatric patients with mandibular gingival squamous-cell carcinoma who decided against surgical intervention. Patient #1 was treated with pembrolizumab, a PD-1 inhibitor, and displayed complete clinical and radiologic response of the gingival mass after three months of treatment, which is …


Advancements In Dendritic Cell Vaccination: Enhancing Efficacy And Optimizing Combinatorial Strategies For The Treatment Of Glioblastoma, Robert Subtirelu, Eric Teichner, Arjun Ashok, Chitra Parikh, Sahithi Talasila, Irina-Mihaela Matache, Ahab Alnemri, Victoria Anderson, Osmaan Shahid, Sricharvi Mannam, Andrew Lee, Thomas Werner, Mona-Elisabeth Revheim, Abass Alavi 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Advancements In Dendritic Cell Vaccination: Enhancing Efficacy And Optimizing Combinatorial Strategies For The Treatment Of Glioblastoma, Robert Subtirelu, Eric Teichner, Arjun Ashok, Chitra Parikh, Sahithi Talasila, Irina-Mihaela Matache, Ahab Alnemri, Victoria Anderson, Osmaan Shahid, Sricharvi Mannam, Andrew Lee, Thomas Werner, Mona-Elisabeth Revheim, Abass Alavi

Student Papers, Posters & Projects

Glioblastomas (GBM) are highly invasive, malignant primary brain tumors. The overall prognosis is poor, and management of GBMs remains a formidable challenge, necessitating novel therapeutic strategies such as dendritic cell vaccinations (DCVs). While many early clinical trials demonstrate an induction of an antitumoral immune response, outcomes are mixed and dependent on numerous factors that vary between trials. Optimization of DCVs is essential; the selection of GBM-specific antigens and the utilization of 18F-fludeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) may add significant value and ultimately improve outcomes for patients undergoing treatment for glioblastoma. This review provides an overview of the mechanism of …


Development Of Targeted Drug Delivery System To Improve Immunotherapy In Pancreatic Cancer, Poornima Devi Shaji, Ana Martinez Bulnes, Nirnoy Dan, Subhash C. Chauhan, Sheema Khan, Murali M. Yallapu 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Development Of Targeted Drug Delivery System To Improve Immunotherapy In Pancreatic Cancer, Poornima Devi Shaji, Ana Martinez Bulnes, Nirnoy Dan, Subhash C. Chauhan, Sheema Khan, Murali M. Yallapu

Research Colloquium

Introduction: About 95% of tumor arises from epithelial cell lining ducts known to be pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, with less than 5-7% survival rate. Unfortunately, little progress has been seen in the outcomes of patients with PDAC as tumor develops high desmoplasia and chemo-resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, such as gemcitabine (Gem). Immunotherapy has shown promising results in other cancers but limited response in pancreatic cancer due to desmoplasia and fibrotic tumor microenvironment. A recently identified mucin, MUC13 is aberrantly expressed in pancreatic tumors but not in normal pancreas. Due to its high membrane expression, MUC13 may serve as an excellent target …


Immunepotent Crp Enhances Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cytotoxicity Through A Caspase Independent But Ros Dependent Mechanism In Triple Negative-Breast Cancer Cells, Ana L. Rivera, A. C. Martínez-Torres, C. Rodríguez-Padilla 2023 Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon

Immunepotent Crp Enhances Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cytotoxicity Through A Caspase Independent But Ros Dependent Mechanism In Triple Negative-Breast Cancer Cells, Ana L. Rivera, A. C. Martínez-Torres, C. Rodríguez-Padilla

Research Symposium

Background: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Cyclophosphamide (CYP) remains a mainstay in cancer therapy mainly in the triple negative breast cancer subtype (TNBC) in spite of harmful adverse effects and cell death-resistances. To face this, combination of chemotherapies and immunotherapies has been proposed. IMMUNEPOTENT CRP (ICRP) is an immunotherapy that has cytotoxic effects in several cancer cells without affecting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and CD3+ cells, beside improving clinical parameters of chemotherapy-treated patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by ICRP in combination with …


Antibody Mediated Targeted Drug Delivery System To Improve Immunotherapy In Pancreatic Cancer, Poornima Devi Shaji, Meena Jaggi, Murali M. Yallapu, Subhash C. Chauhan, Sheema Khan 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Antibody Mediated Targeted Drug Delivery System To Improve Immunotherapy In Pancreatic Cancer, Poornima Devi Shaji, Meena Jaggi, Murali M. Yallapu, Subhash C. Chauhan, Sheema Khan

Research Symposium

About 95% of tumor arises from epithelial cell lining ducts known to be pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, with less than 5-7% survival rate. Unfortunately, little progress has been seen in the outcomes of patients with PDAC as tumor develops high desmoplasia and chemo-resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, such as gemcitabine (Gem). Immunotherapy has shown promising results in cancers, except pancreatic cancer due to their characteristic fibrotic tumor microenvironment. The therapies are unable to penetrate to the fibrotic tumors leading to insufficient availability of the therapeutic drugs at the tumor site. A recently identified mucin, MUC13 is aberrantly expressed in pancreatic tumors but …


Biosafety And Biohazard Considerations Of Hsv-1-Based Oncolytic Viral Immunotherapy., Elizabeth Robilotti, Nathalie C Zeitouni, Marlana Orloff 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Biosafety And Biohazard Considerations Of Hsv-1-Based Oncolytic Viral Immunotherapy., Elizabeth Robilotti, Nathalie C Zeitouni, Marlana Orloff

Department of Medical Oncology Faculty Papers

Oncolytic viral immunotherapies are agents which can directly kill tumor cells and activate an immune response. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) range from native/unmodified viruses to genetically modified, attenuated viruses with the capacity to preferentially replicate in and kill tumors, leaving normal tissue unharmed. Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is the only OV approved for patient use in the United States; however, during the last 20 years, there have been a substantial number of clinical trials using OV immunotherapies across a broad range of cancers. Like T-VEC, many OV immunotherapies in clinical development are based on the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), with …


The Role Of Lkb1 Spliceoforms In Itreg-Th17 Plasticity And Their Interactions With Pkcθ And Sirt1 Downstream Of Il-6 Signaling, Deeksha Mohan 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Role Of Lkb1 Spliceoforms In Itreg-Th17 Plasticity And Their Interactions With Pkcθ And Sirt1 Downstream Of Il-6 Signaling, Deeksha Mohan

Doctoral Dissertations

Following activation, CD4 T cells undergo metabolic and transcriptional changes as they respond to external cues and differentiate into T helper (Th) cells. T cells exhibit plasticity between Th phenotypes in highly inflammatory environments, such as colitis, in which high levels of IL-6 promote plasticity between regulatory T (Treg) cells and Th17 cells. Protein Kinase C theta (PKCθ) is a T cell-specific serine/threonine kinase that promotes Th17 differentiation while negatively regulating Treg differentiation. Liver kinase B1 (LKB1), also a serine/threonine kinase and encoded by Stk11, is necessary for Treg survival and function. Stk11 can be alternatively spliced to produce a …


Investigating The Role Of Il-10 Producing Nkt Cells In Prevention Of Graft Versus Host Disease, Drew Boagni 2023 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Investigating The Role Of Il-10 Producing Nkt Cells In Prevention Of Graft Versus Host Disease, Drew Boagni

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

The standard curative treatment for hematologic malignancies is allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT), in which the patient’s immune system is replaced with that of a healthy donor. This can lead to cure through the graft versus leukemia (GVL) effect but can also cause graft versus host disease (GVHD), which is characterized by systemic inflammation and organ damage mediated by dysregulated donor T cells. Preclinical studies have shown invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT) cells can prevent GVHD while preserving GVL. iNKT cells are unconventional T cells which recognize glycolipid antigens presented in the context of CD1d. Upon activation, they secrete …


Nivolumab And Ipilimumab In Combination With Radiotherapy In Patients With High-Risk Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma Of The Head And Neck., Jennifer Johnson, Ioannis A. Vathiotis, Larry Harshyne, Ayesha Ali, Voichita Bar-Ad, Rita S. Axelrod, Emily Lorber, Joseph Curry, David Cognetti, Adam J. Luginbuhl, Madalina Tuluc, Scott W Keith, M.G. Mahoney, Athanassios Argiris 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Nivolumab And Ipilimumab In Combination With Radiotherapy In Patients With High-Risk Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma Of The Head And Neck., Jennifer Johnson, Ioannis A. Vathiotis, Larry Harshyne, Ayesha Ali, Voichita Bar-Ad, Rita S. Axelrod, Emily Lorber, Joseph Curry, David Cognetti, Adam J. Luginbuhl, Madalina Tuluc, Scott W Keith, M.G. Mahoney, Athanassios Argiris

Department of Medical Oncology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: The combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab has been approved for the treatment of multiple solid tumors. This was a phase I study investigating definitive radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with nivolumab and ipilimumab for the treatment of locally advanced (LA) squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN).

METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed, stage IVA-IVB SCCHN eligible for cisplatin-based chemotherapy received nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks for a total of 17 doses) and ipilimumab (1 mg/kg every 6 weeks for a total of 6 doses) starting 2 weeks prior to radiotherapy. The primary endpoint was safety of definitive RIT. Secondary …


Preclinical Evaluation Of Anti-Cd38 Therapy In Mature T-Cell Neoplasms, Colleen Isabelle, William Johnson, Kathleen McConnell, Ashley Vogel, Jonathan Brammer, Amy Boles, Robyn Keller, Paola Sindaco, Liam Nisenfeld, Guldeep Uppal, Neda Nikbakht, Bruno Calabretta, Patrizia Porazzi, Jerald Gong, Nitin Chakravarti, Pierluigi Porcu, Anjali Mishra 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Preclinical Evaluation Of Anti-Cd38 Therapy In Mature T-Cell Neoplasms, Colleen Isabelle, William Johnson, Kathleen Mcconnell, Ashley Vogel, Jonathan Brammer, Amy Boles, Robyn Keller, Paola Sindaco, Liam Nisenfeld, Guldeep Uppal, Neda Nikbakht, Bruno Calabretta, Patrizia Porazzi, Jerald Gong, Nitin Chakravarti, Pierluigi Porcu, Anjali Mishra

Kimmel Cancer Center Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Tumor Biology And Immune Infiltration Define Primary Liver Cancer Subsets Linked To Overall Survival After Immunotherapy, Anuradha Budhu, Erica C Pehrsson, Aiwu He, Lipika Goyal, Robin Kate Kelley, Hien Dang, Changqing Xie, Cecilia Monge, Mayank Tandon, Lichun Ma, Mahler Revsine, Laura Kuhlman, Karen Zhang, Islam Baiev, Ryan Lamm, Keyur Patel, David E Kleiner, Stephen M Hewitt, Bao Tran, Jyoti Shetty, Xiaolin Wu, Yongmei Zhao, Tsai-Wei Shen, Sulbha Choudhari, Yuliya Kriga, Kris Ylaya, Andrew C Warner, Elijah F Edmondson, Marshonna Forgues, Tim F Greten, Xin Wei Wang 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Tumor Biology And Immune Infiltration Define Primary Liver Cancer Subsets Linked To Overall Survival After Immunotherapy, Anuradha Budhu, Erica C Pehrsson, Aiwu He, Lipika Goyal, Robin Kate Kelley, Hien Dang, Changqing Xie, Cecilia Monge, Mayank Tandon, Lichun Ma, Mahler Revsine, Laura Kuhlman, Karen Zhang, Islam Baiev, Ryan Lamm, Keyur Patel, David E Kleiner, Stephen M Hewitt, Bao Tran, Jyoti Shetty, Xiaolin Wu, Yongmei Zhao, Tsai-Wei Shen, Sulbha Choudhari, Yuliya Kriga, Kris Ylaya, Andrew C Warner, Elijah F Edmondson, Marshonna Forgues, Tim F Greten, Xin Wei Wang

Kimmel Cancer Center Faculty Papers

Primary liver cancer is a rising cause of cancer deaths in the US. Although immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors induces a potent response in a subset of patients, response rates vary among individuals. Predicting which patients will respond to immune checkpoint inhibitors is of great interest in the field. In a retrospective arm of the National Cancer Institute Cancers of the Liver: Accelerating Research of Immunotherapy by a Transdisciplinary Network (NCI-CLARITY) study, we use archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples to profile the transcriptome and genomic alterations among 86 hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma patients prior to and following immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment. …


Development Of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Knock Out Protocol For Drug Substance Assay Development, Julia C. Hanna 2023 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Development Of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Knock Out Protocol For Drug Substance Assay Development, Julia C. Hanna

Master's Theses

Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS) is a rare X-linked primary immunodeficiency affecting approximately 1 in 100,000 live XY births in North America and is caused by a mutation to the WAS gene which is expressed across hematopoietic lineages. The WAS protein (WASp) plays a role in regulating actin polymerization. On a cellular level, there are a variety of effects of a lack of WASp or expression of a dysfunctional WASp protein for patients including issues with migration, adhesion, chemotactic response, phagocytosis, activation, and proliferation across different cell types in addition to reduced platelet size and output. This can lead to several systematic …


Novel Natural Compounds Derived From Tcm In The Treatment Of Food Induced Anaphylaxis, Ibrahim Musa 2023 New York Medical College

Novel Natural Compounds Derived From Tcm In The Treatment Of Food Induced Anaphylaxis, Ibrahim Musa

NYMC Student Theses and Dissertations

Food allergy is a highly prevalent disease affecting about 30 million people in the U.S. It is managed primarily by food avoidance due to lack of promising treatment options. ASHMI (anti-asthma herbal intervention) which consists of three components, Sophorae flavescentis, Ganoderma lucidum, Glycyrrhiza uralensis has been shown to inhibit allergic lung inflammation in antigen sensitized and challenged mice. In this study we isolate and identify the active compound in Sophorae flavescentis, characterized the mechanism of IgE inhibitory effect, biomarkers and potential to prevent food anaphylaxis.

To separate and identify the compounds we used column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, mass …


Modeling The Immune Response To Immunotherapy And Triple Negative Breast Cancer In Mice, Dayton J. Syme, Angelica Davenport, Yun Lu, Anna G. Sorace, Nicholas G. Cogan 2023 Florida State University

Modeling The Immune Response To Immunotherapy And Triple Negative Breast Cancer In Mice, Dayton J. Syme, Angelica Davenport, Yun Lu, Anna G. Sorace, Nicholas G. Cogan

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Impact Of Early Relapse Within 24 Months After First-Line Systemic Therapy (Pod24) On Outcomes In Patients With Marginal Zone Lymphoma: A Us Multisite Study, Narendranath Epperla, Rina Li Welkie, Pallawi Torka, Geoffrey Shouse, Reem Karmali, Lauren Shea, Andrea Anampa-Guzmán, Timothy S Oh, Heather Reaves, Montreh Tavakkoli, Kathryn Lindsey, Irl Brian Greenwell, Emily Hansinger, Colin Thomas, Sayan Mullick Chowdhury, Kaitlin Annunzio, Beth Christian, Stefan K Barta, Praveen Ramakrishnan Geethakumari, Nancy L Bartlett, Alex F Herrera, Natalie S Grover, Adam J Olszewski 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Impact Of Early Relapse Within 24 Months After First-Line Systemic Therapy (Pod24) On Outcomes In Patients With Marginal Zone Lymphoma: A Us Multisite Study, Narendranath Epperla, Rina Li Welkie, Pallawi Torka, Geoffrey Shouse, Reem Karmali, Lauren Shea, Andrea Anampa-Guzmán, Timothy S Oh, Heather Reaves, Montreh Tavakkoli, Kathryn Lindsey, Irl Brian Greenwell, Emily Hansinger, Colin Thomas, Sayan Mullick Chowdhury, Kaitlin Annunzio, Beth Christian, Stefan K Barta, Praveen Ramakrishnan Geethakumari, Nancy L Bartlett, Alex F Herrera, Natalie S Grover, Adam J Olszewski

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

Progression of disease within 24 months (POD24) from diagnosis in marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) was shown to portend poor outcomes in prior studies. However, many patients with MZL do not require immediate therapy, and the time from diagnosis-to-treatment interval can be highly variable with no universal criteria to initiate systemic therapy. Hence, we sought to evaluate the prognostic relevance of early relapse or progression within 24 months from systemic therapy initiation in a large US cohort. The primary objective was to evaluate the overall survival (OS) in the two groups. The secondary objective included the evaluation of factors predictive of …


Oncolytic Virus Immunotherapy: Development And Potential For Cancer Treatment, Olivia Guinness 2023 University of Connecticut

Oncolytic Virus Immunotherapy: Development And Potential For Cancer Treatment, Olivia Guinness

Honors Scholar Theses

The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2023, 1,958,310 new cancer cases and 609,820 cancer deaths will occur in the United States [16]. A promising therapeutic option that has been supported by recent clinical trials is the use of oncolytic viruses to treat malignant tumors. The mechanism of action of existing treatments, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery, differs from that of oncolytic virus therapy because oncolytic viruses are able to affect cancer cells with specificity, minimizing side effects. When infecting a normal, non-cancerous cell, oncolytic viruses do not replicate, leaving healthy cells unaffected. In tumor cells, oncolytic viruses will …


Kir-Based Inhibitory Cars Overcome Car-Nk Cell Trogocytosis-Mediated Fratricide And Tumor Escape, YE NMN LI 2023 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Houston Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Kir-Based Inhibitory Cars Overcome Car-Nk Cell Trogocytosis-Mediated Fratricide And Tumor Escape, Ye Nmn Li

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Trogocytosis is an active process that transfers surface material from targeted to effector cells. Using multiple in vivo tumor models and clinical data, we report that chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) activation in natural killer (NK) cells promoted the transfer of the CAR-cognate-antigen from tumor to NK cells, resulting in (1) lower tumor antigen density, thus impairing the ability of CAR-NK cells to engage with their targets, (2) induced self-recognition and continuous CAR-mediated engagement, resulting in fratricide of trogocytic antigen expressing NK cells (NKTROG+) and NK cell hyporesponsiveness. This phenomenon could be offset by a dual-CAR system incorporating both …


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