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A Draft Of The Genome Of The Gulf Coast Tick, Amblyomma Maculatum, Jose M.C. Ribeiro, Natalia J. Bayona-Vásquez, Khemraj Budachetri, Deepak Kumar, Julia Catherine Frederick, Faizan Tahir, Brant C. Faircloth, Travis C. Glenn, Shahid Karim 2023 NIAID NIH Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research

A Draft Of The Genome Of The Gulf Coast Tick, Amblyomma Maculatum, Jose M.C. Ribeiro, Natalia J. Bayona-Vásquez, Khemraj Budachetri, Deepak Kumar, Julia Catherine Frederick, Faizan Tahir, Brant C. Faircloth, Travis C. Glenn, Shahid Karim

Faculty Publications

The Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum, inhabits the Southeastern states of the USA bordering the Gulf of Mexico, Mexico, and other Central and South American countries. More recently, its U.S. range has extended West to Arizona and Northeast to New York state and Connecticut. It is a vector of Rickettsia parkeri and Hepatozoon americanum. This tick species has become a model to study tick/Rickettsia interactions. To increase our knowledge of the basic biology of A. maculatum we report here a draft genome of this tick and an extensive functional classification of its proteome. The DNA from a single …


Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis For Forest Goers In Southeast Asia: An Open-Label, Individually Randomised Controlled Trial, Rupam Tripura, Lorenz von Seidlin, Siv Sovannaroth, Thomas J. Peto, James J. Callery, Meas Sokha, Mom Ean, Chhouen Heng, Franca Conradis-Jansen, Wanassanan Madmanee, Pimnara Peerawaranun, Naomi Waithira, Panarasri Khonputsa, Monnaphat Jongdeepaisal, Kulchada Pongsoipetch, Paphapisa Chotthanawathit, Ung Soviet, Christopher Pell, Jureeporn Duanguppama, Huy Rekol, Joel Tarning, Mallika Imwong, Mavuto Mukaka, Nicholas J. White, Arjen M. Dondorp, Richard J. Maude 2023 Mahidol University

Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis For Forest Goers In Southeast Asia: An Open-Label, Individually Randomised Controlled Trial, Rupam Tripura, Lorenz Von Seidlin, Siv Sovannaroth, Thomas J. Peto, James J. Callery, Meas Sokha, Mom Ean, Chhouen Heng, Franca Conradis-Jansen, Wanassanan Madmanee, Pimnara Peerawaranun, Naomi Waithira, Panarasri Khonputsa, Monnaphat Jongdeepaisal, Kulchada Pongsoipetch, Paphapisa Chotthanawathit, Ung Soviet, Christopher Pell, Jureeporn Duanguppama, Huy Rekol, Joel Tarning, Mallika Imwong, Mavuto Mukaka, Nicholas J. White, Arjen M. Dondorp, Richard J. Maude

H. W. Manter Laboratory Library Materials

Summary

Background

Malaria in the eastern Greater Mekong subregion has declined to historic lows. Countries in the Greater Mekong subregion are accelerating malaria elimination in the context of increasing antimalarial drug resistance. Infections are now increasingly concentrated in remote, forested foci. No intervention has yet shown satisfactory efficacy against forest-acquired malaria. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of malaria chemoprophylaxis among forest goers in Cambodia.

Methods

We conducted an open-label, individually randomized controlled trial in Cambodia, which recruited participants aged 16–65 years staying overnight in forests. Participants were randomly allocated 1:1 to antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, a 3-day …


Let Emerging Plant Diseases Be Predictable, Valeria Trivellone 2022 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Let Emerging Plant Diseases Be Predictable, Valeria Trivellone

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

A prevalent concept for colonization and evolution among plant pathogens and their hosts stems from a post-Darwinian paradigm rooted in the formalized assumption of “specialized parasitism.” Seminal studies on rust fungi of socioeconomic importance integrated such an evolutionary perspective driven by the assumption of strict coevolution among pathogens and their plant hosts. Following this fundamentally unfalsifiable assumption, theories regarding host-switching for parasites were dismissed. If colonization occurred, this process would depend upon the origin of specific and novel mutations that allow infections of previously unexploited hosts or host groups, the acquisition of a broader host range. After a specific mutation …


An Emerging Infectious Disease Surveillance Platform For The 21st Century, Eloy Ortiz, Alicia Juarrero 2022 VectorAnalytica, Miami, Florida, USA

An Emerging Infectious Disease Surveillance Platform For The 21st Century, Eloy Ortiz, Alicia Juarrero

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

Current vector surveillance programs are insufficient for coping with the emerging infectious disease crisis. In particular, current practices do not deploy sufficient information technology (IT) tools to generate actionable insights that can inform interventions and contain and mitigate the spread of vector-borne diseases. VectorAnalytica has developed a highly configurable and adaptable IT platform that imports, harmonizes, and integrates a range of data sources. The state-of-the-art backend development allows users to fully appreciate and understand the complexity of infectious disease dynamics without having to resort to additional statistical and GIS software packages. The platform yields actionable insights into outbreak patterns of …


Taking Action: Turning Evolutionary Theory Into Preventive Policies, Orsolya Molnár, Marina Knickel, Christine Marizzi 2022 Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research, Vienna

Taking Action: Turning Evolutionary Theory Into Preventive Policies, Orsolya Molnár, Marina Knickel, Christine Marizzi

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

The emerging infectious disease (EID) crisis has been challenging global health security for decades, dealing substantial damage to all socioeconomic landscapes. Control measures have failed to prevent or even mitigate damages from an accelerating wave of EIDs, leading to the emergence and devastation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. In the wake of the pandemic, we must critically review our public health policies and approaches. Current health security measures are based on the evolutionary theorem of host-parasite coevolution, which falsely deems EIDs as rare and unpredictable. The DAMA protocol (Document, Assess, Monitor, Act) is nested in a novel evolutionary framework that …


The Stockholm Paradigm Explains The Dynamics Of Darwin’S Entangled Bank, Including Emerging Infectious Disease, Salvatore J. Agosta 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Stockholm Paradigm Explains The Dynamics Of Darwin’S Entangled Bank, Including Emerging Infectious Disease, Salvatore J. Agosta

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

Pathogens and their hosts are embedded within the larger biosphere, what Darwin called the “entangled bank.” Emerging infectious disease occurs when a parasite “switches” to a new host. Understanding the dynamics of emerging disease requires understanding the dynamics of host-switching, which requires a more general understanding of how the biosphere and its constituent members cope when conditions change. The Stockholm paradigm is an integrative evolutionary framework that describes how living systems cope with change by oscillating between exploiting and exploring the geographical and functional dimensions of their environments. It combines organismal capacity, ecological opportunity, and the repeated external perturbations to …


Anthelmintic Resistance In Sheep Across Ireland And The Uk: A Literature Review Of The In Vivo Versus In Vitro Methods, Megan Tumulty 2022 Technological University of the Shannon

Anthelmintic Resistance In Sheep Across Ireland And The Uk: A Literature Review Of The In Vivo Versus In Vitro Methods, Megan Tumulty

SURE_J: Science Undergraduate Research Journal

Background: The animal welfare and production consequences of gastrointestinal nematode infections, namely Nematodirus battus, on sheep are compelling. The control of gastrointestinal infections has been heavily reliant on the administration of anthelmintics since their introduction into mainstream use in 1960. However, their frequent and often excessive use has resulted in anthelmintic resistance being reported extensively in several gastrointestinal nematode species. The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance as well as the increase in the number of cases of multiple-drug resistance in nematode populations now poses substantial hindrance on the viability of sheep production systems. However, despite the threat N. battus poses …


Knowing The Biosphere: Documentation, Specimens, Archives, And Names Reveal Environmental Change And Emerging Pathogens, Eric P. Hoberg, Valeria Trivellone, Joseph A. Cook, Jonathan L. Dunnum, Walter A. Boeger, Daniel R. Brooks, Salvatore J. Agosta, Jocelyn P. Colella 2022 University of Wisconsin–Madison

Knowing The Biosphere: Documentation, Specimens, Archives, And Names Reveal Environmental Change And Emerging Pathogens, Eric P. Hoberg, Valeria Trivellone, Joseph A. Cook, Jonathan L. Dunnum, Walter A. Boeger, Daniel R. Brooks, Salvatore J. Agosta, Jocelyn P. Colella

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

One Health programs and trajectories are now the apparent standard for exploring the occurrence and distribution of emerging pathogens and disease. By definition, One Health has been characterized as a broadly inclusive, collaborative, and transdisciplinary approach with connectivity across local to global scales, which integrates the medical and veterinary community to recognize health outcomes emerging at the environmental nexus for people, animals, plants, and their shared landscapes. One Health has been an incomplete model, conceptually and operationally, focused on reactive and response-based foundations, to limit the impact of emerging pathogens and emerging infectious diseases and, as such, lacks a powerful …


The Evolutionary Dynamics Of Infectious Diseases On An Unstable Planet: Insights From Modeling The Stockholm Paradigm, Angie T.C. Souza, Sabrina B.L. Araujo, Walter A. Boeger 2022 Universidade Federal do Paraná

The Evolutionary Dynamics Of Infectious Diseases On An Unstable Planet: Insights From Modeling The Stockholm Paradigm, Angie T.C. Souza, Sabrina B.L. Araujo, Walter A. Boeger

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are, besides a question of food safety and public health, an ecological and evolutionary issue. The recognition of this condition combined with the accumulation of evidence that pathogens are not specialists in their original hosts evidences the need for understanding how the dynamics of interaction between pathogens and hosts occurs. The Stockholm Paradigm (SP) provides the theoretical fundaments to understand the dynamics of diseases and design proactive measures to avoid the emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases. In this review, we revisit the models that evaluate several aspects of the proposed dynamics of the SP, including …


A Field Synopsis, Systematic Review, And Meta-Analyses Of Cophylogenetic Studies: What Is Affecting Congruence Between Phylogenies?, Valeria Trivellone, Bernd Panassiti 2022 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

A Field Synopsis, Systematic Review, And Meta-Analyses Of Cophylogenetic Studies: What Is Affecting Congruence Between Phylogenies?, Valeria Trivellone, Bernd Panassiti

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

We conducted a field synopsis and systematic meta-analysis of studies that carried out cophylogenetic analyses using algorithms and available software. We evaluated the influence of three factors—namely, cophylogenetic method, association, and ecosystem type—on the outcome of the analyses, that is, the degree of congruence between phylogenies of interacting species.

The published papers were identified using 4 different databases and 13 keywords; we included all studies for which statistical approaches to compare phylogenies (cophylogenetic analyses) of interacting lineages were used. After the initial screening, 296 studies were selected to extract response variable (outcome of the cophylogenetic analyses, i.e., congruent, incongruent, or …


The Stockholm Paradigm: Lessons For The Emerging Infectious Disease Crisis, Daniel R. Brooks, Walter A. Boeger, Eric P. Hoberg 2022 Centre for Ecological Research, Budapest

The Stockholm Paradigm: Lessons For The Emerging Infectious Disease Crisis, Daniel R. Brooks, Walter A. Boeger, Eric P. Hoberg

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

The emerging infectious disease (EID) crisis represents an immediate existential threat to modern humanity. Current policies aimed at coping with the EID crisis are ineffective and unsustainably expensive. They have failed because they are based on a scientific paradigm that produced the parasite paradox. The Stockholm paradigm (SP) resolves the paradox by integrating four elements of evolutionary biology: ecological fitting, sloppy fitness space, coevolution, and responses to environmental perturbations. It explains why and how the EID crisis occurs and is expanding and what happens after an EID emerges that sets the stage for future EIDs. The SP provides a number …


The Dama Protocol, An Introduction: Finding Pathogens Before They Find Us, Eric P. Hoberg, Walter A. Boeger, Orsolya Molnár, Gábor Földvári, Scott Gardner, Alicia Juarrero, Vitaliy A. Kharchenko, Eloy Ortiz, Valeria Trivellone, Daniel R. Brooks 2022 University of New Mexico

The Dama Protocol, An Introduction: Finding Pathogens Before They Find Us, Eric P. Hoberg, Walter A. Boeger, Orsolya Molnár, Gábor Földvári, Scott Gardner, Alicia Juarrero, Vitaliy A. Kharchenko, Eloy Ortiz, Valeria Trivellone, Daniel R. Brooks

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

Globally, humanity is coming to recognize the magnitude of the interactive crisis for emerging infectious disease (EID). Strategies for coping with EID have been largely in the form of reactive measures for crisis response. The DAMA protocol (Document, Assess, Monitor, Act), the operational policy extension of the Stockholm paradigm, constitutes a preventive/proactive dimension to those efforts. DAMA is aimed at focusing and extending human and material resources devoted to coping with the accelerating wave of EID. DAMA is integrative, combining efforts to strategically document the distribution of complex pathogen and host assemblages in the biosphere in the context of dynamic …


The 3p Framework: A Comprehensive Approach To Coping With The Emerging Infectious Disease Crisis, Orsolya Molnár, Eric Hoberg, Valeria Trivellone, Gábor Földvári, Daniel R. Brooks 2022 Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research, Vienna

The 3p Framework: A Comprehensive Approach To Coping With The Emerging Infectious Disease Crisis, Orsolya Molnár, Eric Hoberg, Valeria Trivellone, Gábor Földvári, Daniel R. Brooks

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

The COVID-19 pandemic is the latest example of the profound socioeconomic impact of the emerging infectious disease (EID) crisis. Current health security measures are based on a failed evolutionary paradigm that presumes EID is rare and cannot be predicted because emergence requires the prior evolution of novel genetic capacities for colonizing a new host. Consequently, crisis response through preparation for previously emerged diseases and palliation following outbreaks have been the only health security options, which have become unsustainably expensive and unsuccessful. The Stockholm paradigm (SP) is an alternative evolutionary framework that suggests host changes are the result of changing conditions …


Exploring The Relationships Between South Texas Northern Bobwhite Populations And Cecal Worms Via System Dynamics, Nicole J. Traub, Benjamin L. Turner, Leonard A. Brennan, Alan M. Fedynich 2022 Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute, Texas A&M University–Kingsville, Kingsville, TX

Exploring The Relationships Between South Texas Northern Bobwhite Populations And Cecal Worms Via System Dynamics, Nicole J. Traub, Benjamin L. Turner, Leonard A. Brennan, Alan M. Fedynich

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Community ecology historically focused on plants and free-living organisms; however, problems such as defining habitat boundaries and obtaining adequate sample sizes arise when evaluating such communities. The unique nature of host-helminth systems allows parasite community ecologists to avoid these problems when testing ecological hypotheses. Unlike free-living communities that have artificially constructed boundaries, parasite communities have well-defined unambiguous boundaries within host individuals. Due to the inherently complex and dynamic nature of ecological systems, traditional experimental methods often require expensive, long-term trials beyond investigators’ time and resource budgets. Conversely, a system dynamics approach facilitates learning about such systems via simulation of ecosystem …


Anticipating Infection: How Parasitism Risk Changes Animal Physiology, Patricia C. Lopes 2022 Chapman University

Anticipating Infection: How Parasitism Risk Changes Animal Physiology, Patricia C. Lopes

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

  1. Uninfected animals can attempt to prevent parasitism in many ways. Behavioural avoidance of parasitized conspecifics, for instance, is documented in several species.
  2. Interactions with parasitized conspecifics can also, however, lead to physiological changes in uninfected animals, an effect that is much less well studied, and consequently, less well understood. The way in which exposure to parasitism risk changes the physiology of uninfected animals and the impacts of those changes on animal fitness remain a significant gap in knowledge.
  3. Determining how the disease environment experienced by animals impacts their physiology, survival and reproduction has major implications for our knowledge of how …


A Checklist Of Parasites Of Peromyscus Maniculatus In North America, John Ubelaker, Gábor R. Rácz 2022 Southern Methodist University

A Checklist Of Parasites Of Peromyscus Maniculatus In North America, John Ubelaker, Gábor R. Rácz

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

This document represents a summary of parasites, in the broadest sense of the term, reported from Peromyscus maniculatus from throughout its range in North America. The document provides data from work ranging from paleontological findings to relatively current reports of parasites and parasitism from P. maniculatus and covers viruses, bacteria sensu lato, protists, helminths, and ectoparasites.


Infection And Transmission Determinants Of Flea-Borne Rickettsioses, Hanna J. Laukaitis 2022 University of South Alabama

Infection And Transmission Determinants Of Flea-Borne Rickettsioses, Hanna J. Laukaitis

Theses and Dissertations

The genus Rickettsia is comprised of Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that are spread by hematophagous arthropods. Elucidating the factors conferring rickettsial virulence has perplexed investigators for decades, complicated by the lack of efficient genetic tools necessary to uncover rickettsial- and vector-specific factors contributing to persistence. The advent of transposon mutagenesis has enabled the field to make vast developments in uncovering novel rickettsial mechanisms utilized in various host backgrounds. Thus, the aim of this study was to generate Rickettsia felis transposon mutants and characterize novel phenotypes associated with genetic disruption in an arthropod background. Distribution of rickettsiae is reliant on the …


Weaving An Interdisciplinary Microbiome Career Using Threads From Different Ecosystems, Sarah Hosler 2022 University of Maine

Weaving An Interdisciplinary Microbiome Career Using Threads From Different Ecosystems, Sarah Hosler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Animals have trillions of microorganisms living in or on many body sites, these communities of microorganisms are called microbiomes. Microbiomes are typically host-specific, and a lot of information about the host can be determined from investigating them. Microbiome research has many real-world applications, and this thesis utilizes the One Health perspective, which acknowledges the connection of humans, animals, and environments, and emphasizes the need for collaborative, interdisciplinary research. The first interdisciplinary project is an investigation into the bacteria in wild and cultured Atlantic deep-sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus larvae. Adults in hatcheries can be induced to spawn, but the last two …


Mitochondrial Dna Diversity, Parasite And Pathogen Occurrence, And A Potential Disease Vector In Managed And Unmanaged Honey Bee, Apis Mellifera L. Populations, Dylan Cleary 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Mitochondrial Dna Diversity, Parasite And Pathogen Occurrence, And A Potential Disease Vector In Managed And Unmanaged Honey Bee, Apis Mellifera L. Populations, Dylan Cleary

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The western honey bee, Apis mellifera L., is a globally important pollinator plagued by several harmful stressors impacting colony health and survival. At least eight A. mellifera subspecies were imported and continue to be the genetic ancestors of U.S. honey bee populations today. Successive genetic bottle-neck events have led to reduced genetic diversity in U.S. honey bees. First, the subset of subspecies imported into the U.S. represents only a third of A. mellifera subspecies. Next, the parasitic varroa mite reduced managed and feral populations. Third, ongoing breeding practices have selected for traits from a single genetic lineage and bred from …


The Influences Of Disperser Behavior, Host Availability, And Environmental Conditions On The Distribution Of Oak Mistletoe [Phoradendron Leucarpum (Raf.) Reveal & M. C. Johnst.] In Eastern Virginia And North Carolina, Nicholas Pearce Flanders 2022 Old Dominion University

The Influences Of Disperser Behavior, Host Availability, And Environmental Conditions On The Distribution Of Oak Mistletoe [Phoradendron Leucarpum (Raf.) Reveal & M. C. Johnst.] In Eastern Virginia And North Carolina, Nicholas Pearce Flanders

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Mistletoes are shrubs that typically parasitize the branches of host trees and rely on avian frugivores for seed dispersal. Because mistletoes are restricted to a narrow range of suitable recruitment sites and avian frugivores are more visible than other guilds of seed dispersers, mistletoe-frugivore systems afford opportunities for assessing the roles of dispersal limitation and local environment in determining plant distribution. These mechanisms have been proposed as determinants of the observed association of oak mistletoe [Phoradendron leucarpum (Raf.) Reveal & M. C. Johnst.] with forested wetlands in eastern Virginia and North Carolina, USA. I tested the alternative hypothesis that …


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