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A Review On Trichomonas Vaginalis And The Impact Of Some Demographic Variables On The Prevalence In Iraq, Wesam Jasim Hansh 2024 General Directorate of Education in Thi-Qar Province / Iraq

A Review On Trichomonas Vaginalis And The Impact Of Some Demographic Variables On The Prevalence In Iraq, Wesam Jasim Hansh

Maaen Journal for Medical Sciences

Trichomoniasis is a parasitic disease that infects the genitourinary system in humans and is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis. This disease has a high classification among non-viral sexually transmitted diseases in the world comprising Iraq. The Data in the present review about prevalence of T. vaginalis in Iraq were collected using databases such as (Iraqi Academic scientific Journals, Google scholar, Medline and pubMed) based on the recent studies. The current review exhibited that the highest infection rate by this parasite in females was 75.22%, 62% in Maysan and Tikrit provinces respectively, and the lowest infection rate was 1.6% and 1.66% …


Microbial Interactions Among Gardnerella, Prevotella And Fannyhessea Prior To Incident Bacterial Vaginosis: Protocol For A Prospective, Observational Study, Christina A. Muzny, Jacob H. Elnaggar, Lúcia G.V. Sousa, Ângela Lima, Kristal J. Aaron, Isaac C. Eastlund, Keonte J. Graves, Chaoling Dong, Olivia T. Van Gerwen, Meng Luo, Ashutosh Tamhane, Dustin Long, Nuno Cerca, Christopher M. Taylor 2024 UAB Division of Infectious Disease

Microbial Interactions Among Gardnerella, Prevotella And Fannyhessea Prior To Incident Bacterial Vaginosis: Protocol For A Prospective, Observational Study, Christina A. Muzny, Jacob H. Elnaggar, Lúcia G.V. Sousa, Ângela Lima, Kristal J. Aaron, Isaac C. Eastlund, Keonte J. Graves, Chaoling Dong, Olivia T. Van Gerwen, Meng Luo, Ashutosh Tamhane, Dustin Long, Nuno Cerca, Christopher M. Taylor

School of Graduate Studies Faculty Publications

Introduction The aetiology of bacterial vaginosis (BV), a biofilm-associated vaginal infection, remains unknown. Epidemiologic data suggest that it is sexually transmitted. BV is characterised by loss of lactic acid-producing lactobacilli and an increase in facultative and strict anaerobic bacteria. Gardnerella spp are present in 95%–100% of cases; Gardnerella vaginalis has been found to be more virulent than other BV-associated bacteria (BVAB) in vitro. However, G. vaginalis is found in women with normal vaginal microbiota and colonisation is not sufficient for BV development. We hypothesise that Gardnerella spp initiate BV biofilm formation, but incident BV (iBV) requires incorporation of other key …


Autophagy And Cell Wall Integrity Pathways Coordinately Regulate The Development And Pathogenicity Through Moatg4 Phosphorylation In Magnaporthe Oryzae, Pusheng Guo, Yurong Wang, Jiayun Xu, Zhixiang Yang, Ziqi Zhang, Jinyi Qian, Jiexiong Hu, Ziyi Yin, Leiyun Yang, Muxing Liu, Xinyu Liu, Gang Li, Haifeng Zhang, Ryan Rumsey, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang 2024 Nanjing Agricultural University

Autophagy And Cell Wall Integrity Pathways Coordinately Regulate The Development And Pathogenicity Through Moatg4 Phosphorylation In Magnaporthe Oryzae, Pusheng Guo, Yurong Wang, Jiayun Xu, Zhixiang Yang, Ziqi Zhang, Jinyi Qian, Jiexiong Hu, Ziyi Yin, Leiyun Yang, Muxing Liu, Xinyu Liu, Gang Li, Haifeng Zhang, Ryan Rumsey, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Autophagy and Cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling are critical stress-responsive processes during fungal infection of host plants. In the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, autophagy-related (ATG) proteins phosphorylate CWI kinases to regulate virulence; however, how autophagy interplays with CWI signaling to coordinate such regulation remains unknown. Here, we have identified the phosphorylation of ATG protein MoAtg4 as an important process in the coordination between autophagy and CWI in M. oryzae. The ATG kinase MoAtg1 phosphorylates MoAtg4 to inhibit the deconjugation and recycling of the key ATG protein MoAtg8. At the same time, MoMkk1, a core kinase of CWI, also phosphorylates …


Targeted Repression Of Topa By Crispri Reveals A Critical Function For Balanced Dna Topoisomerase I Activity In The Chlamydia Trachomatis Developmental Cycle, Li Shen, Leiqiong Gao, Abigail R. Swoboda, Scot P. Ouellette 2024 LSU Health Sciences Center - New Orleans

Targeted Repression Of Topa By Crispri Reveals A Critical Function For Balanced Dna Topoisomerase I Activity In The Chlamydia Trachomatis Developmental Cycle, Li Shen, Leiqiong Gao, Abigail R. Swoboda, Scot P. Ouellette

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is responsible for the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection. Changes in DNA topology in this pathogen have been linked to its pathogenicity-associated developmental cycle. Here, evidence is provided that the balanced activity of DNA topoisomerases contributes to controlling Chlamydia developmental processes. Utilizing catalytically inactivated Cas12 (dCas12)-based clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats interference (CRISPRi) technology, we demonstrate targeted knockdown of chromosomal topA transcription in C. trachomatis without detected toxicity of dCas12. Repression of topA impaired the developmental cycle of C. trachomatis mostly through disruption of its differentiation from a replicative form …


Interplay Between Acetylation And Ubiquitination Of Imitation Switch Chromatin Remodeler Isw1 Confers Multidrug Resistance In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Yang Meng, Yue Ni, Zhuoran Li, Tianhang Jiang, Tianshu Sun, Yanjian Li, Xindi Gao, Hailong Li, Chenhao Suo, Chao Li, Sheng Yang, Tian Lan, Guojian Liao, Tongbao Liu, Ping Wang, Chen Ding 2024 Northeastern University

Interplay Between Acetylation And Ubiquitination Of Imitation Switch Chromatin Remodeler Isw1 Confers Multidrug Resistance In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Yang Meng, Yue Ni, Zhuoran Li, Tianhang Jiang, Tianshu Sun, Yanjian Li, Xindi Gao, Hailong Li, Chenhao Suo, Chao Li, Sheng Yang, Tian Lan, Guojian Liao, Tongbao Liu, Ping Wang, Chen Ding

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Cryptococcus neoformans poses a threat to human health, but anticryptococcal therapy is hampered by the emergence of drug resistance, whose underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Herein, we discovered that Isw1, an imitation switch chromatin remodeling ATPase, functions as a master modulator of genes responsible for in vivo and in vitro multidrug resistance in C. neoformans. Cells with the disrupted ISW1 gene exhibited profound resistance to multiple antifungal drugs. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that Isw1 is both acetylated and ubiquitinated, suggesting that an interplay between these two modification events exists to govern Isw1 function. Mutagenesis studies of acetylation and ubiquitination sites …


Distribution And Prevalence Of Antibodies To Trichinella Spp. And Toxoplasma Gondii In Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) In The United States, Christopher A. Cleveland, Ellen Haynes, Katherine C. Callaghan, Alinde Fojtik, Sarah Coker, Emily Doub, Vienna R. Brown, Ania A. Majewska, Michael J. Yabsley 2024 University of Georgia

Distribution And Prevalence Of Antibodies To Trichinella Spp. And Toxoplasma Gondii In Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) In The United States, Christopher A. Cleveland, Ellen Haynes, Katherine C. Callaghan, Alinde Fojtik, Sarah Coker, Emily Doub, Vienna R. Brown, Ania A. Majewska, Michael J. Yabsley

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are a reservoir for over 100 viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens that are transmissible to humans, livestock, domestic animals, and wildlife in North America. Numerous historical local surveys and results from a nation-wide survey (2006–2010) indicated that wild pigs in the United States act as reservoirs for Trichinella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii, two zoonotic pathogens of importance for human and animal health. Since that time, wild pig populations have expanded and increased in density in many areas. Population expansion of wild pigs creates opportunities for the introduction of pathogens to new areas …


Reducing Tick Populations Through Prescribed Burning, Andrea Salazar, Herman Griese, Victoria Pickens, Cassandra Olds 2024 Kansas State University

Reducing Tick Populations Through Prescribed Burning, Andrea Salazar, Herman Griese, Victoria Pickens, Cassandra Olds

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Objective:Explore the effect of prescribed fire on tick population dynamics in the Kansas Flint Hills.

Study Description:Ticks were collected from spring (April), summer (August), or fall (September) burned pastures as well as control, unburned areas. Burning had been carried out for four consecutive years prior to this study. Tick populations were sampled every other week from March to August using material dragging and dry ice bait sampling methods. Tick species, sex, and life stage were identified morphologically and the total numbers for each burn treatment were calculated.

The Bottom Line:Consecutive burning of grazing pasture could be considered …


Genital Tract Infections, The Vaginal Microbiome And Gestational Age At Birth Among Pregnant Women In South Africa: A Cohort Study Protocol, Ranjana M.S. Gigi, Mandisa M. Mdingi, Hyunsul Jung, Shantelle Claassen-Weitz, Lukas Bütikofer, Jeffrey D. Klausner, Christina A. Muzny, Christopher M. Taylor, Janneke H.H.M. Van De Wijgert, Remco P.H. Peters, Nicola Low 2023 Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine

Genital Tract Infections, The Vaginal Microbiome And Gestational Age At Birth Among Pregnant Women In South Africa: A Cohort Study Protocol, Ranjana M.S. Gigi, Mandisa M. Mdingi, Hyunsul Jung, Shantelle Claassen-Weitz, Lukas Bütikofer, Jeffrey D. Klausner, Christina A. Muzny, Christopher M. Taylor, Janneke H.H.M. Van De Wijgert, Remco P.H. Peters, Nicola Low

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Introduction Preterm birth complications are the most common cause of death in children under 5 years. The presence of multiple microorganisms and genital tract inflammation could be the common mechanism driving early onset of labour. South Africa has high levels of preterm birth, genital tract infections and HIV infection among pregnant women. We plan to investigate associations between the presence of multiple lower genital tract microorganisms in pregnancy and gestational age at birth. Methods and analysis This cohort study enrols around 600 pregnant women at one public healthcare facility in East London, South Africa. Eligible women are ≥18 years and …


Association Of Chlamydia Trachomatis Burden With The Vaginal Microbiota, Bacterial Vaginosis, And Metronidazole Treatment, Caleb M. Ardizzone, Christopher M. Taylor, Evelyn Toh, Rebecca A. Lillis, Jacob H. Elnaggar, John W. Lammons, Patricia Dehon Mott, Emily L. Duffy, Li Shen, Alison J. Quayle 2023 LSU Health Sciences Center - New Orleans

Association Of Chlamydia Trachomatis Burden With The Vaginal Microbiota, Bacterial Vaginosis, And Metronidazole Treatment, Caleb M. Ardizzone, Christopher M. Taylor, Evelyn Toh, Rebecca A. Lillis, Jacob H. Elnaggar, John W. Lammons, Patricia Dehon Mott, Emily L. Duffy, Li Shen, Alison J. Quayle

School of Graduate Studies Faculty Publications

Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiota, is a common coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), and BV-associated bacteria (BVAB) and their products have been implicated in aiding Ct evade natural immunity. Here, we determined if a non-optimal vaginal microbiota was associated with a higher genital Ct burden and if metronidazole, a standard treatment for BV, would reduce Ct burden or aid in natural clearance of Ct infection. Cervicovaginal samples were collected from women at enrollment and, if testing positive for Ct infection, at a follow-up visit approximately one week later. Cervical Ct burden was assessed by inclusion forming …


Resolution Of The Tetrabothrius Jagerskioeldi Cryptic Species Complex Among Holarctic Alcidae (Charadriiformes): Cestodes Among Fraterculinae—Exploring Marine Diversity, Host Range, And Dynamic Oceanography In The Greater North Pacific, Eric P. Hoberg, Kaylen Marie Soudachanh, Svetlana K. Bondarenko 2023 University of New Mexico

Resolution Of The Tetrabothrius Jagerskioeldi Cryptic Species Complex Among Holarctic Alcidae (Charadriiformes): Cestodes Among Fraterculinae—Exploring Marine Diversity, Host Range, And Dynamic Oceanography In The Greater North Pacific, Eric P. Hoberg, Kaylen Marie Soudachanh, Svetlana K. Bondarenko

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

In the biosphere, limits for diversity among species, communities, and biomes are revealed through intensive and extensive field-based inventory and assembly of voucher specimens and associated informatics examined in a phylogenetic, historical, ecological, and biogeographic arena. Archival resources for specimens and information contribute to a cumulative view of faunal structure and assembly under a comparative umbrella. Ultimately, species definitions, and inclusive partitions among populations and lineages, are fundamental in articulating hypotheses that examine interactions about evolution, the nature of organisms, and the condition of environments across space and time. We conclude our proposals establishing species limits for tapeworms of the …


Characterization Of The Effects Of The Pyrazolopyrimidine Inhibitor Grassofermata (Nav-2729) In The Eukaryotic Pathogen Trypanosoma Brucei, Kristina Marie Parman 2023 Clemson University

Characterization Of The Effects Of The Pyrazolopyrimidine Inhibitor Grassofermata (Nav-2729) In The Eukaryotic Pathogen Trypanosoma Brucei, Kristina Marie Parman

All Dissertations

The protozoan pathogen, Trypanosoma brucei, is the causative agent of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. T. brucei cycles between tsetse fly and mammalian hosts, and it is adapted to survive in diverse host tissues. Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) plays a key role in immune evasion in the mammalian host. The VSG membrane anchor requires two myristates, 14-carbon saturated fatty acids (FAs) that are scarce in the host. T. brucei can synthesize FAs de novo, but also readily takes up exogenous FAs, despite lacking homologs to fatty acid uptake proteins found in other …


Human-Bat Interactions In A Disease Emergence Hotspot: Implications For Human Health And Bat Conservation, Reilly Tempest Jackson 2023 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

Human-Bat Interactions In A Disease Emergence Hotspot: Implications For Human Health And Bat Conservation, Reilly Tempest Jackson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bats are an ecologically important taxon that can host zoonotic pathogens. Globally, many bat species are synanthropic and live closely with humans, often roosting in man-made structures. The spatial overlap between humans and bats creates opportunities for human-bat contact, which can lead to human exposure to bat-borne pathogens and conflicts that cause bat mortality. Despite this risk, little is known about the drivers and characteristics of these human-bat interactions in buildings and work is needed to understand this aspect of the wildlife-urban interface. In Chapter I, I present a literature review that identifies the geographic and taxonomic trends in reported …


Behavioral Interactions Between Spotted-Wing Drosophila (Drosophila Suzukii) And It's Parasitoid The Samba Wasp (Ganaspis Brasiliensis), Dominic Crowley 2023 University of Maine - Main

Behavioral Interactions Between Spotted-Wing Drosophila (Drosophila Suzukii) And It's Parasitoid The Samba Wasp (Ganaspis Brasiliensis), Dominic Crowley

Honors College

Past research has found that female Drosophila generally decrease their reproductive output in response to exposure to predators, including parasitoid wasps. However, no studies on behavioral changes induced by the endoparasitic wasp Ganaspis brasiliensis have been documented in the literature. G. brasiliensis has been identified as a biocontrol agent candidate against D. suzukii, with field trials currently underway across the contiguous United States. In this thesis, two experiments were performed: a behavioral observation assay measuring reproductive behaviors and an oviposition assay, a measure of reproductive activity. Female D. suzukii exposed to G. brasiliensis were observed to have depressed oviposition, producing …


Exploration Of The Implementation Of An Integrated Electronic Laboratory Information Management System On Quality Diagnostics Service Indicators At A County Level Public Hospital In Western Kenya., Kelly Allen 2023 SIT Graduate Institute/SIT Study Abroad

Exploration Of The Implementation Of An Integrated Electronic Laboratory Information Management System On Quality Diagnostics Service Indicators At A County Level Public Hospital In Western Kenya., Kelly Allen

Capstone Collection

Underinvestment in pathology and laboratory capacity caused by low visibility in research and in prioritization by public health leaders results in limited effective healthcare coverage and an estimated 1.1 million premature deaths annually in Low-and-Middle-Income Countries. Kenya’s public health laboratories provide a median 41% of the Essential Diagnostic List to their patients and in Kisumu County, as much as 44.2% of the population has little to no access to essential diagnostics. The government of Kisumu implemented the county Health Laboratory Strategic Plan 2018-2022 to address this public health challenge. Little information exists on the effectiveness of these initiatives and the …


A Mathematical Model Of Acanthocephalan Parasite Infection In Gull-Billed Terns, Charlotte Moser 2023 Illinois State University

A Mathematical Model Of Acanthocephalan Parasite Infection In Gull-Billed Terns, Charlotte Moser

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


D-Shaped Nematode Eggs In The Feces Of Rangifer Tarandus: A Story In Pictures, Olga A. Loginova 2023 A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

D-Shaped Nematode Eggs In The Feces Of Rangifer Tarandus: A Story In Pictures, Olga A. Loginova

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

D-shaped nematode eggs in the feces of Rangifer tarandus are expected to be oxyurid nematodes (Nemata: Oxyurida) of the genus Skrjabinema. The species S. tarandi is considered species-specific for this host. There is no consensus regarding the cross-infection of reindeer and sheep with S. ovis and S. tarandi. The drawings proposed by descriptors complicate differential diagnostics. Micrographs of S. tarandi eggs obtained via light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy as well as photographs of S. ovis eggs and drawings made on their basis are proposed to confidently distinguish between representatives of these two species, taking into account morphometric data. Thus, …


Concepts In Animal Parasitology: Master Bibliography, Sue Ann Gardner 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Concepts In Animal Parasitology: Master Bibliography, Sue Ann Gardner

Concepts in Animal Parasitology Textbook

Master bibliography for the open educational resource/open access textbook Concepts in Animal Parasitology, Scott L. Gardner and Sue Ann Gardner, editors, published by Zea Books, Lincoln, Nebraska, United States, 2024. This includes the references from literature cited and suggested supplemental reading.


Methionine Biosynthesis Enzyme Momet2 Is Required For Rice Blast Fungus Pathogenicity By Promoting Virulence Gene Expression Via Reducing 5mc Modification, Huimin Li, Pengcheng Mo, Jun Zhang, Zhuoer Xie, Xinyu Liu, Han Chen, Leiyun Yang, Muxing Liu, Haifeng Zhang, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang 2023 Nanjing Agricultural University

Methionine Biosynthesis Enzyme Momet2 Is Required For Rice Blast Fungus Pathogenicity By Promoting Virulence Gene Expression Via Reducing 5mc Modification, Huimin Li, Pengcheng Mo, Jun Zhang, Zhuoer Xie, Xinyu Liu, Han Chen, Leiyun Yang, Muxing Liu, Haifeng Zhang, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

The emergence of fungicide resistance severely threatens crop production by limiting the availability and application of established fungicides. Therefore, it is urgent to identify new fungicidal targets for controlling plant diseases. Here, we characterized the function of a conserved homoserine O-acetyltransferase (HOA) from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae that could serve as the candidate antifungal target. Deletion of the MoMET2 and MoCYS2 genes encoding HOAs perturbed the biosynthesis of methionine and S-adenyl methionine, a methyl group donor for epigenetic modifications, and severely attenuated the development and virulence of M. oryzae. The ΔMomet2 mutant is significantly increased in 5-methylcytosine (5mC) …


An Evolutionary Pathway For Coping With Emerging Infectious Disease, Scott Lyell Gardner, Daniel R. Brooks, Walter A. Boeger, Eric P. Hoberg 2023 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

An Evolutionary Pathway For Coping With Emerging Infectious Disease, Scott Lyell Gardner, Daniel R. Brooks, Walter A. Boeger, Eric P. Hoberg

Zea E-Books Collection

Emerging infectious disease (EID) represents an existential threat to humanity. EIDs are increasing in frequency and impact because of climate change and other human activities. We are losing the battle against EIDs because of improper assessment of the risk of EID. This stems from adherence to a failed paradigm of pathogen-host associations that suggests EIDs ought to be both unpredictable and rare. That, in turn, leads to policies suggesting that crisis response is the best we can do. Real-time and phylogenetic assessments show EIDs to be neither rare nor unpredictable—this is the parasite paradox that shows the failures of the …


Parasites Versus Predation: The Role Of Chronic And Acute Parasite Exposure In Infection Risk And Anti-Predator Behavior, Delaney Farrell 2023 Nova Southeastern University

Parasites Versus Predation: The Role Of Chronic And Acute Parasite Exposure In Infection Risk And Anti-Predator Behavior, Delaney Farrell

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Parasites with complex, multi-host lifecycles often engage in host behavior manipulation to increase transmission between successive hosts. In intermediate fish hosts, previous research has measured increased frequency of conspicuous behaviors, decreased swimming performance, and reduced antipredator behavior, which would collectively increase the fish’s risk of predation. In ecosystems where this type of parasite increased trophic transmission (PITT) occurs, parasites can play a substantial role in food webs. In this study, I investigate how chronic versus acute exposure to the trematode Euhaplorchis sp. A. affects the antipredator behavior of the Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis. Using a fully crossed design, I …


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