Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Immunology and Infectious Disease Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 5546

Full-Text Articles in Immunology and Infectious Disease

A Review On Trichomonas Vaginalis And The Impact Of Some Demographic Variables On The Prevalence In Iraq, Wesam Jasim Hansh Mar 2024

A Review On Trichomonas Vaginalis And The Impact Of Some Demographic Variables On The Prevalence In Iraq, Wesam Jasim Hansh

Maaen Journal for Medical Sciences

Trichomoniasis is a parasitic disease that infects the genitourinary system in humans and is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis. This disease has a high classification among non-viral sexually transmitted diseases in the world comprising Iraq. The Data in the present review about prevalence of T. vaginalis in Iraq were collected using databases such as (Iraqi Academic scientific Journals, Google scholar, Medline and pubMed) based on the recent studies. The current review exhibited that the highest infection rate by this parasite in females was 75.22%, 62% in Maysan and Tikrit provinces respectively, and the lowest infection rate was 1.6% and 1.66% …


Vitro Bacteriophage Treatment For A Staphylococcus Aureus And Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Co-Culture, Alexis Perry Mar 2024

Vitro Bacteriophage Treatment For A Staphylococcus Aureus And Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Co-Culture, Alexis Perry

Arkansas Women in STEM Conference

Recent studies show that up 27-36% of all infections are polymicrobial, involving more than one bacteria species. In all categories, polymicrobial infections are often more virulent and harmful to the patient. Since different types of bacteria can communicate with each other through quorum-sensing when in the presence of each other, they can display different genomic characteristics. Further research into polymicrobial infections needs to be done because these changing characteristics can prevent treatment from working, such as antibiotics or bacteriophage therapy. This experiment focused on the co-culture between the two bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, which can be found co-existing …


Human Blood Cell Isolation: The Critical First Step In Our Laboratory’S Immunobiology Experimental Protocals, Victor Rivero Mar 2024

Human Blood Cell Isolation: The Critical First Step In Our Laboratory’S Immunobiology Experimental Protocals, Victor Rivero

UNO Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

HUMAN BLOOD CELL ISOLATION: THE CRITICAL FIRST STEP IN OUR LABORATORY’S IMMUNOBIOLOGY EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCALS

Victor Rivero1 Paul W. Denton1, vrivero@unomaha.edu

1Department of Biology, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE

The Denton Immunobiology Laboratory focuses on enhancing human natural killer (NK) cell killing capabilities, particularly in the context of combating cancer. NK cells are immune cells that have the ability to kill diseased cells via two mechanisms: direct killing, and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). We recently published our novel approach to testing both methods of killing by using NK cells derived from the same human donor. Our testing approach allows …


Alteration Of The Interferon Alpha Signaling Pathway Significantly Affects Alzheimer's Disease Pathology In App/Ps1 Mouse Model., Ranjit Kumar Das, Nirakar Sahoo, Chun Xu, Hansapani Rodrigo, Michael Paul Murphy, Upal Roy, Deepa Roy Mar 2024

Alteration Of The Interferon Alpha Signaling Pathway Significantly Affects Alzheimer's Disease Pathology In App/Ps1 Mouse Model., Ranjit Kumar Das, Nirakar Sahoo, Chun Xu, Hansapani Rodrigo, Michael Paul Murphy, Upal Roy, Deepa Roy

Research Symposium

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive impairment, memory loss, and disturbances in behavior. The exact cause of the disease is unknown but there is evidence of molecular pathways alteration within the brain. Many molecular mechanisms have been studied for the progression of AD. Nonetheless, the contribution of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3 (IFIT3) genes have not been well established in AD pathology. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of STAT1 and IFIT3 in the BALB/C and APP/PS1 mouse models. We analyzed the STAT1 …


Biological Insights From Plasma Proteomics Of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With Immunotherapy, Jair Bar, Raya Leibowitz, Niels Reinmuth, Astrid Ammendola, Eyal Jacob, Mor Moskovitz, Adva Levy-Barda, Michal Lotem, Rivka Katsenelson, Abed Agbarya, Mahmoud Abu-Amna, Maya Gottfried, Tatiana Harkovsky, Ido Wolf, Ella Tepper, Gil Loewenthal, Ben Yellin, Yehuda Brody, Nili Dahan, Maya Yanko, Coren Lahav, Michal Harel, Shani Raveh Shoval, Yehonatan Elon, Itamar Sela, Adam Dicker, Yuval Shaked Feb 2024

Biological Insights From Plasma Proteomics Of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With Immunotherapy, Jair Bar, Raya Leibowitz, Niels Reinmuth, Astrid Ammendola, Eyal Jacob, Mor Moskovitz, Adva Levy-Barda, Michal Lotem, Rivka Katsenelson, Abed Agbarya, Mahmoud Abu-Amna, Maya Gottfried, Tatiana Harkovsky, Ido Wolf, Ella Tepper, Gil Loewenthal, Ben Yellin, Yehuda Brody, Nili Dahan, Maya Yanko, Coren Lahav, Michal Harel, Shani Raveh Shoval, Yehonatan Elon, Itamar Sela, Adam Dicker, Yuval Shaked

Department of Radiation Oncology Faculty Papers

INTRODUCTION: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have made a paradigm shift in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, clinical response varies widely and robust predictive biomarkers for patient stratification are lacking. Here, we characterize early on-treatment proteomic changes in blood plasma to gain a better understanding of treatment response and resistance.

METHODS: Pre-treatment (T0) and on-treatment (T1) plasma samples were collected from 225 NSCLC patients receiving PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-based regimens. Plasma was profiled using aptamer-based technology to quantify approximately 7000 plasma proteins per sample. Proteins displaying significant fold changes (T1:T0) were analyzed further to identify associations with clinical outcomes using …


Immunotherapy Resistance In Solid Tumors: Mechanisms And Potential Solutions, Daniel Lefler, Steven Manobianco, Babar Bashir Feb 2024

Immunotherapy Resistance In Solid Tumors: Mechanisms And Potential Solutions, Daniel Lefler, Steven Manobianco, Babar Bashir

Kimmel Cancer Center Faculty Papers

While the emergence of immunotherapies has fundamentally altered the management of solid tumors, cancers exploit many complex biological mechanisms that result in resistance to these agents. These encompass a broad range of cellular activities - from modification of traditional paradigms of immunity via antigen presentation and immunoregulation to metabolic modifications and manipulation of the tumor microenvironment. Intervening on these intricate processes may provide clinical benefit in patients with solid tumors by overcoming resistance to immunotherapies, which is why it has become an area of tremendous research interest with practice-changing implications. This review details the major ways cancers avoid both natural …


Investigating Optimal Laboratory Growth Conditions Of Gracilibacillus Halotolerans In Media Supplemented With Salt, Isaac Young Feb 2024

Investigating Optimal Laboratory Growth Conditions Of Gracilibacillus Halotolerans In Media Supplemented With Salt, Isaac Young

Annual Research Symposium

As interest continues to grow in the field of persister cells and their morphology, there arises an ever-evolving desire to further understand specific strains of bacteria that exemplify the qualities of seemingly anomalous survival regardless of anti-bacterial treatment. In the case of the Gracilibacillus halotolerans, a halotolerant extremophile extracted from the Great Salt Lake with known persistent characteristics, uncovering its optimal growth conditions was essential for future investigations. Identifying the optimal salinity for the growth of G. halotolerans will allow us to standardize our growth methods, uncover several mechanisms of saline tolerance, and add to future investigations of persistence with …


The Mrna-Lnp Vaccines - The Good, The Bad And The Ugly?, Botond Z. Igyártó, Zhen Qin Feb 2024

The Mrna-Lnp Vaccines - The Good, The Bad And The Ugly?, Botond Z. Igyártó, Zhen Qin

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

The mRNA-LNP vaccine has received much attention during the COVID-19 pandemic since it served as the basis of the most widely used SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in Western countries. Based on early clinical trial data, these vaccines were deemed safe and effective for all demographics. However, the latest data raise serious concerns about the safety and effectiveness of these vaccines. Here, we review some of the safety and efficacy concerns identified to date. We also discuss the potential mechanism of observed adverse events related to the use of these vaccines and whether they can be mitigated by alterations of this vaccine mechanism …


Microbial Interactions Among Gardnerella, Prevotella And Fannyhessea Prior To Incident Bacterial Vaginosis: Protocol For A Prospective, Observational Study, Christina A. Muzny, Jacob H. Elnaggar, Lúcia G.V. Sousa, Ângela Lima, Kristal J. Aaron, Isaac C. Eastlund, Keonte J. Graves, Chaoling Dong, Olivia T. Van Gerwen, Meng Luo, Ashutosh Tamhane, Dustin Long, Nuno Cerca, Christopher M. Taylor Feb 2024

Microbial Interactions Among Gardnerella, Prevotella And Fannyhessea Prior To Incident Bacterial Vaginosis: Protocol For A Prospective, Observational Study, Christina A. Muzny, Jacob H. Elnaggar, Lúcia G.V. Sousa, Ângela Lima, Kristal J. Aaron, Isaac C. Eastlund, Keonte J. Graves, Chaoling Dong, Olivia T. Van Gerwen, Meng Luo, Ashutosh Tamhane, Dustin Long, Nuno Cerca, Christopher M. Taylor

School of Graduate Studies Faculty Publications

Introduction The aetiology of bacterial vaginosis (BV), a biofilm-associated vaginal infection, remains unknown. Epidemiologic data suggest that it is sexually transmitted. BV is characterised by loss of lactic acid-producing lactobacilli and an increase in facultative and strict anaerobic bacteria. Gardnerella spp are present in 95%–100% of cases; Gardnerella vaginalis has been found to be more virulent than other BV-associated bacteria (BVAB) in vitro. However, G. vaginalis is found in women with normal vaginal microbiota and colonisation is not sufficient for BV development. We hypothesise that Gardnerella spp initiate BV biofilm formation, but incident BV (iBV) requires incorporation of other key …


Autophagy And Cell Wall Integrity Pathways Coordinately Regulate The Development And Pathogenicity Through Moatg4 Phosphorylation In Magnaporthe Oryzae, Pusheng Guo, Yurong Wang, Jiayun Xu, Zhixiang Yang, Ziqi Zhang, Jinyi Qian, Jiexiong Hu, Ziyi Yin, Leiyun Yang, Muxing Liu, Xinyu Liu, Gang Li, Haifeng Zhang, Ryan Rumsey, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang Jan 2024

Autophagy And Cell Wall Integrity Pathways Coordinately Regulate The Development And Pathogenicity Through Moatg4 Phosphorylation In Magnaporthe Oryzae, Pusheng Guo, Yurong Wang, Jiayun Xu, Zhixiang Yang, Ziqi Zhang, Jinyi Qian, Jiexiong Hu, Ziyi Yin, Leiyun Yang, Muxing Liu, Xinyu Liu, Gang Li, Haifeng Zhang, Ryan Rumsey, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Autophagy and Cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling are critical stress-responsive processes during fungal infection of host plants. In the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, autophagy-related (ATG) proteins phosphorylate CWI kinases to regulate virulence; however, how autophagy interplays with CWI signaling to coordinate such regulation remains unknown. Here, we have identified the phosphorylation of ATG protein MoAtg4 as an important process in the coordination between autophagy and CWI in M. oryzae. The ATG kinase MoAtg1 phosphorylates MoAtg4 to inhibit the deconjugation and recycling of the key ATG protein MoAtg8. At the same time, MoMkk1, a core kinase of CWI, also phosphorylates …


Targeted Repression Of Topa By Crispri Reveals A Critical Function For Balanced Dna Topoisomerase I Activity In The Chlamydia Trachomatis Developmental Cycle, Li Shen, Leiqiong Gao, Abigail R. Swoboda, Scot P. Ouellette Jan 2024

Targeted Repression Of Topa By Crispri Reveals A Critical Function For Balanced Dna Topoisomerase I Activity In The Chlamydia Trachomatis Developmental Cycle, Li Shen, Leiqiong Gao, Abigail R. Swoboda, Scot P. Ouellette

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is responsible for the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection. Changes in DNA topology in this pathogen have been linked to its pathogenicity-associated developmental cycle. Here, evidence is provided that the balanced activity of DNA topoisomerases contributes to controlling Chlamydia developmental processes. Utilizing catalytically inactivated Cas12 (dCas12)-based clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats interference (CRISPRi) technology, we demonstrate targeted knockdown of chromosomal topA transcription in C. trachomatis without detected toxicity of dCas12. Repression of topA impaired the developmental cycle of C. trachomatis mostly through disruption of its differentiation from a replicative form …


Interplay Between Acetylation And Ubiquitination Of Imitation Switch Chromatin Remodeler Isw1 Confers Multidrug Resistance In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Yang Meng, Yue Ni, Zhuoran Li, Tianhang Jiang, Tianshu Sun, Yanjian Li, Xindi Gao, Hailong Li, Chenhao Suo, Chao Li, Sheng Yang, Tian Lan, Guojian Liao, Tongbao Liu, Ping Wang, Chen Ding Jan 2024

Interplay Between Acetylation And Ubiquitination Of Imitation Switch Chromatin Remodeler Isw1 Confers Multidrug Resistance In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Yang Meng, Yue Ni, Zhuoran Li, Tianhang Jiang, Tianshu Sun, Yanjian Li, Xindi Gao, Hailong Li, Chenhao Suo, Chao Li, Sheng Yang, Tian Lan, Guojian Liao, Tongbao Liu, Ping Wang, Chen Ding

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Cryptococcus neoformans poses a threat to human health, but anticryptococcal therapy is hampered by the emergence of drug resistance, whose underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Herein, we discovered that Isw1, an imitation switch chromatin remodeling ATPase, functions as a master modulator of genes responsible for in vivo and in vitro multidrug resistance in C. neoformans. Cells with the disrupted ISW1 gene exhibited profound resistance to multiple antifungal drugs. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that Isw1 is both acetylated and ubiquitinated, suggesting that an interplay between these two modification events exists to govern Isw1 function. Mutagenesis studies of acetylation and ubiquitination sites …


The Development Of A Rabies Virus-Vectored Vaccine Against Borrelia Burgdorferi, Targeting Bbi39, Shantel Rios, Bibek Bhattachan, Kruthi Vavilikolanu, Chrysoula Kitsou, Utpal Pal, Matthias J. Schnell Jan 2024

The Development Of A Rabies Virus-Vectored Vaccine Against Borrelia Burgdorferi, Targeting Bbi39, Shantel Rios, Bibek Bhattachan, Kruthi Vavilikolanu, Chrysoula Kitsou, Utpal Pal, Matthias J. Schnell

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Lyme disease (LD) is the most common tick-borne illness in the United States (U.S.), Europe, and Asia. Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete bacterium transmitted by the tick vector Ixodes scapularis, causes LD in the U.S. If untreated, Lyme arthritis, heart block, and meningitis can occur. Given the absence of a human Lyme disease vaccine, we developed a vaccine using the rabies virus (RABV) vaccine vector BNSP333 and an outer surface borrelial protein, BBI39. BBI39 was previously utilized as a recombinant protein vaccine and was protective in challenge experiments; therefore, we decided to utilize this protective antigen in a rabies virus-vectored vaccine …


Computational Analysis Of Cas Proteins Unlocks New Potential In Hiv-1 Targeted Gene Therapy, Will Dampier, Rachel Berman, Michael Nonnemacher, Brian Wigdahl Jan 2024

Computational Analysis Of Cas Proteins Unlocks New Potential In Hiv-1 Targeted Gene Therapy, Will Dampier, Rachel Berman, Michael Nonnemacher, Brian Wigdahl

Kimmel Cancer Center Faculty Papers

Introduction: The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pandemic has been slowed with the advent of anti-retroviral therapy (ART). However, ART is not a cure and as such has pushed the disease into a chronic infection. One potential cure strategy that has shown promise is the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas gene editing system. It has recently been shown to successfully edit and/or excise the integrated provirus from infected cells and inhibit HIV-1 in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. These studies have primarily been conducted with SpCas9 or SaCas9. However, additional Cas proteins are …


Gut Dysbiosis Correlates With Covid-19 Severity, Ednita Escobar Jan 2024

Gut Dysbiosis Correlates With Covid-19 Severity, Ednita Escobar

CMC Senior Theses

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) impacts not only respiratory but also gut and oral microbiomes, influencing the manifestations of COVID-19. Each person’s unique microbiome consists of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses, some of which are symbiotic and others potentially harmful. Alterations in the gut microbiome, specifically, can affect the severity and symptoms of COVID-19. A review of studies indicate a pattern of gut dysbiosis in COVID-19 patients characterized by a decrease in beneficial microbiota and/or an increase in opportunistic pathogens. This gut imbalance correlates with disease severity, suggesting that the gut microbiome plays a significant role …


Reducing Tick Populations Through Prescribed Burning, Andrea Salazar, Herman Griese, Victoria Pickens, Cassandra Olds Jan 2024

Reducing Tick Populations Through Prescribed Burning, Andrea Salazar, Herman Griese, Victoria Pickens, Cassandra Olds

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Objective: Explore the effect of prescribed fire on tick population dynamics in the Kansas Flint Hills.

Study Description: Ticks were collected from spring (April), summer (August), or fall (September) burned pastures as well as control, unburned areas. Burning had been carried out for four consecutive years prior to this study. Tick populations were sampled every other week from March to August using material dragging and dry ice bait sampling methods. Tick species, sex, and life stage were identified morphologically and the total numbers for each burn treatment were calculated.

The Bottom Line: Consecutive burning of grazing pasture could be considered …


Distribution And Prevalence Of Antibodies To Trichinella Spp. And Toxoplasma Gondii In Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) In The United States, Christopher A. Cleveland, Ellen Haynes, Katherine C. Callaghan, Alinde Fojtik, Sarah Coker, Emily Doub, Vienna R. Brown, Ania A. Majewska, Michael J. Yabsley Jan 2024

Distribution And Prevalence Of Antibodies To Trichinella Spp. And Toxoplasma Gondii In Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) In The United States, Christopher A. Cleveland, Ellen Haynes, Katherine C. Callaghan, Alinde Fojtik, Sarah Coker, Emily Doub, Vienna R. Brown, Ania A. Majewska, Michael J. Yabsley

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are a reservoir for over 100 viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens that are transmissible to humans, livestock, domestic animals, and wildlife in North America. Numerous historical local surveys and results from a nation-wide survey (2006–2010) indicated that wild pigs in the United States act as reservoirs for Trichinella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii, two zoonotic pathogens of importance for human and animal health. Since that time, wild pig populations have expanded and increased in density in many areas. Population expansion of wild pigs creates opportunities for the introduction of pathogens to new areas …


The Characterization Of Vig-1’S Expression Patterns In Ipnv-Infected, Or Dsrna-Treated, Rainbow Trout Cells, Samantha Lum Jan 2024

The Characterization Of Vig-1’S Expression Patterns In Ipnv-Infected, Or Dsrna-Treated, Rainbow Trout Cells, Samantha Lum

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In Canada, annual trout production is valued at over $60M with approximately 10,000 tonnes of trout produced per year. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are one of the most commonly farmed fresh-water fish in Canada. The high-density farming practices involved in aquaculture increase rainbow trout susceptibility to aquatic viruses such as infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). The innate antiviral immune response in rainbow trout is poorly characterized, and the functions of numerous interferon stimulated genes (ISG) in rainbow trout remain unclear. One such gene, virus-induced gene 1 (vig-1) has been poorly studied; however, the human orthologue for vig-1 …


Genital Tract Infections, The Vaginal Microbiome And Gestational Age At Birth Among Pregnant Women In South Africa: A Cohort Study Protocol, Ranjana M.S. Gigi, Mandisa M. Mdingi, Hyunsul Jung, Shantelle Claassen-Weitz, Lukas Bütikofer, Jeffrey D. Klausner, Christina A. Muzny, Christopher M. Taylor, Janneke H.H.M. Van De Wijgert, Remco P.H. Peters, Nicola Low Dec 2023

Genital Tract Infections, The Vaginal Microbiome And Gestational Age At Birth Among Pregnant Women In South Africa: A Cohort Study Protocol, Ranjana M.S. Gigi, Mandisa M. Mdingi, Hyunsul Jung, Shantelle Claassen-Weitz, Lukas Bütikofer, Jeffrey D. Klausner, Christina A. Muzny, Christopher M. Taylor, Janneke H.H.M. Van De Wijgert, Remco P.H. Peters, Nicola Low

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Introduction Preterm birth complications are the most common cause of death in children under 5 years. The presence of multiple microorganisms and genital tract inflammation could be the common mechanism driving early onset of labour. South Africa has high levels of preterm birth, genital tract infections and HIV infection among pregnant women. We plan to investigate associations between the presence of multiple lower genital tract microorganisms in pregnancy and gestational age at birth. Methods and analysis This cohort study enrols around 600 pregnant women at one public healthcare facility in East London, South Africa. Eligible women are ≥18 years and …


Hepatoprotective Effect Of Berberis Lycium In Αlpha-Naphthylisothiocyanate Induced Cholestatic Mouse Models, Shamaila Bashir, Hassan Hameed, Nida Irshad, Aqsa Ashraf, Muhammad Faizan, Saiyada Fatima Maida Halim, Hafiz M. Mazhar Asjad, Andleeb Batool, Imran Sohail Dec 2023

Hepatoprotective Effect Of Berberis Lycium In Αlpha-Naphthylisothiocyanate Induced Cholestatic Mouse Models, Shamaila Bashir, Hassan Hameed, Nida Irshad, Aqsa Ashraf, Muhammad Faizan, Saiyada Fatima Maida Halim, Hafiz M. Mazhar Asjad, Andleeb Batool, Imran Sohail

Journal of Bioresource Management

Cholestasis is characterized by the obstruction of bile flow from hepatocytes to the intestine. It results in accumulation of bile acids in the liver, which cause oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Till now, the treatment options against cholestasis are limited. Therefore, there is an utmost requirement to develop and evaluate the drugs with potential anti-cholestatic effects. In the current study, the drug-induced cholestasis mouse models were generated via oral administration of α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT). The mice were placed into three groups of six animals each. Group I was the control group and was given saline. The cholestasis model Group …


The Potential Of Stem Cell Therapy In Multiple Sclerosis Treatment: A Review, Sorina Amarculesei, Ava O'Meara Cushen, Cathy Brougham Dec 2023

The Potential Of Stem Cell Therapy In Multiple Sclerosis Treatment: A Review, Sorina Amarculesei, Ava O'Meara Cushen, Cathy Brougham

SURE Journal: Science Undergraduate Research Experience Journal

Multiple Sclerosis is an autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. There are currently 2.8 million people living with Multiple Sclerosis worldwide, including 9000 people in Ireland, with a prevalence of 193 per 100,000 people. Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis include sensory loss, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, spasticity, depression, optic neuritis, gait ataxia, diplopia, and loss of bladder control. Currently, there is no standardised treatment or cure for Multiple Sclerosis with many strategies focusing on symptoms. Stem cells have emerged as promising approaches for Multiple Sclerosis therapeutics. Clinical trials primarily focus on mesenchymal stem cell-based therapies for Multiple Sclerosis. Furthermore, …


Treatment Response Of Gingival Squamous-Cell Carcinoma To Palliative Intent Immunotherapy, Natalia Trehan, Angelina Debbas, Mykaihla Sternick, Jennifer Johnson, James Gates Dec 2023

Treatment Response Of Gingival Squamous-Cell Carcinoma To Palliative Intent Immunotherapy, Natalia Trehan, Angelina Debbas, Mykaihla Sternick, Jennifer Johnson, James Gates

Department of Medical Oncology Faculty Papers

The use of PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor medications has become a common practice in the treatment of recurrent and metastatic head and neck squamous-cell carcinomas. Success in this setting has led to the investigation of their efficacy in locally advanced cases as a part of first-line therapy. In this report, we detail the treatment response to palliative intent immunotherapy of three geriatric patients with mandibular gingival squamous-cell carcinoma who decided against surgical intervention. Patient #1 was treated with pembrolizumab, a PD-1 inhibitor, and displayed complete clinical and radiologic response of the gingival mass after three months of treatment, which is …


Resolution Of The Tetrabothrius Jagerskioeldi Cryptic Species Complex Among Holarctic Alcidae (Charadriiformes): Cestodes Among Fraterculinae—Exploring Marine Diversity, Host Range, And Dynamic Oceanography In The Greater North Pacific, Eric P. Hoberg, Kaylen Marie Soudachanh, Svetlana K. Bondarenko Dec 2023

Resolution Of The Tetrabothrius Jagerskioeldi Cryptic Species Complex Among Holarctic Alcidae (Charadriiformes): Cestodes Among Fraterculinae—Exploring Marine Diversity, Host Range, And Dynamic Oceanography In The Greater North Pacific, Eric P. Hoberg, Kaylen Marie Soudachanh, Svetlana K. Bondarenko

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

In the biosphere, limits for diversity among species, communities, and biomes are revealed through intensive and extensive field-based inventory and assembly of voucher specimens and associated informatics examined in a phylogenetic, historical, ecological, and biogeographic arena. Archival resources for specimens and information contribute to a cumulative view of faunal structure and assembly under a comparative umbrella. Ultimately, species definitions, and inclusive partitions among populations and lineages, are fundamental in articulating hypotheses that examine interactions about evolution, the nature of organisms, and the condition of environments across space and time. We conclude our proposals establishing species limits for tapeworms of the …


Effect Of Macrophage Expressed Α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (Α7nachr) On Migration Of Macrophages During Inflammation, Kasey Keever Dec 2023

Effect Of Macrophage Expressed Α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (Α7nachr) On Migration Of Macrophages During Inflammation, Kasey Keever

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition characterized by overwhelming inflammation, resulting in organ system damage, leading to a high mortality rate. Care in the clinical setting is supportive, and there are no approved sepsis-specific treatments. In septic mice, activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway decreases cytokine secretion by leukocytes and improves survival. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is a reflex of the parasympathetic nervous system, converging on the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (α7nAChR) at the surface of macrophages. Signaling through the receptor blocks NF-kB activation, thus cytokine secretion. Receptor activation has other effects on macrophages, including modulating their migration to …


Cellular Mechanism Of Pentagalloyl Gucose-Mediated Prevention And Reversal Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Greg Halsey Dec 2023

Cellular Mechanism Of Pentagalloyl Gucose-Mediated Prevention And Reversal Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Greg Halsey

All Dissertations

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has been the 15th leading cause of death in persons older than 55 for the past ten years in several Western countries, with rupture resulting in an almost 100% mortality rate. AAA is a focal dilation of the aorta characterized by progressive loss of elastin and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), as well as persistent inflammatory response [1]. The only treatment for AAA is surgery; however, the mortality post-procedure is still 1-4%, with a 15-30% chance of morbidity [2].

Pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) treatment is effective in the reversal of AAA. While its stabilizing interactions with extracellular …


Characterization Of The Effects Of The Pyrazolopyrimidine Inhibitor Grassofermata (Nav-2729) In The Eukaryotic Pathogen Trypanosoma Brucei, Kristina Marie Parman Dec 2023

Characterization Of The Effects Of The Pyrazolopyrimidine Inhibitor Grassofermata (Nav-2729) In The Eukaryotic Pathogen Trypanosoma Brucei, Kristina Marie Parman

All Dissertations

The protozoan pathogen, Trypanosoma brucei, is the causative agent of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. T. brucei cycles between tsetse fly and mammalian hosts, and it is adapted to survive in diverse host tissues. Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) plays a key role in immune evasion in the mammalian host. The VSG membrane anchor requires two myristates, 14-carbon saturated fatty acids (FAs) that are scarce in the host. T. brucei can synthesize FAs de novo, but also readily takes up exogenous FAs, despite lacking homologs to fatty acid uptake proteins found in other …


Development Of Novel Methods To Study Host-Microbe Interactions In The Larval Zebrafish Gastrointestinal Tract, Anh K. Trinh Nguyen Dec 2023

Development Of Novel Methods To Study Host-Microbe Interactions In The Larval Zebrafish Gastrointestinal Tract, Anh K. Trinh Nguyen

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

The dynamic nature and inaccessible location of the intestine pose significant challenges to the study of intestinal physiology and pathology. Zebrafish larvae, possessing optical transparency and genetic tractability, offer an accessible and clinically relevant model for investigating dynamic events in the intestine via time-lapse imaging. In the first part of this work, I discuss our efforts to optimize the parameters of a foodborne infection assay using paramecia as a vehicle. This method provides an effective, high-throughput alternative to infection via immersion or oral gavage, and replicates the most common route of transmission of gastrointestinal (GI) infection in humans. The foodborne …


Human-Bat Interactions In A Disease Emergence Hotspot: Implications For Human Health And Bat Conservation, Reilly Tempest Jackson Dec 2023

Human-Bat Interactions In A Disease Emergence Hotspot: Implications For Human Health And Bat Conservation, Reilly Tempest Jackson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bats are an ecologically important taxon that can host zoonotic pathogens. Globally, many bat species are synanthropic and live closely with humans, often roosting in man-made structures. The spatial overlap between humans and bats creates opportunities for human-bat contact, which can lead to human exposure to bat-borne pathogens and conflicts that cause bat mortality. Despite this risk, little is known about the drivers and characteristics of these human-bat interactions in buildings and work is needed to understand this aspect of the wildlife-urban interface. In Chapter I, I present a literature review that identifies the geographic and taxonomic trends in reported …


Behavioral Interactions Between Spotted-Wing Drosophila (Drosophila Suzukii) And It's Parasitoid The Samba Wasp (Ganaspis Brasiliensis), Dominic Crowley Dec 2023

Behavioral Interactions Between Spotted-Wing Drosophila (Drosophila Suzukii) And It's Parasitoid The Samba Wasp (Ganaspis Brasiliensis), Dominic Crowley

Honors College

Past research has found that female Drosophila generally decrease their reproductive output in response to exposure to predators, including parasitoid wasps. However, no studies on behavioral changes induced by the endoparasitic wasp Ganaspis brasiliensis have been documented in the literature. G. brasiliensis has been identified as a biocontrol agent candidate against D. suzukii, with field trials currently underway across the contiguous United States. In this thesis, two experiments were performed: a behavioral observation assay measuring reproductive behaviors and an oviposition assay, a measure of reproductive activity. Female D. suzukii exposed to G. brasiliensis were observed to have depressed oviposition, producing …


Evaluation Of The Efficacy Of Synthetic Glycovaccines Against Both Murine Acute Chagas Disease And Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Colin D. Knight Dec 2023

Evaluation Of The Efficacy Of Synthetic Glycovaccines Against Both Murine Acute Chagas Disease And Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Colin D. Knight

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Chagas disease (CD) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are neglected tropical diseases caused by the protozoan trypanosomatids, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp., respectively. There are approximately 6-8 million people infected with T. cruzi worldwide and ~300,000 people in the US. Between 700,000 and 1.2 million new cases of CL occur worldwide yearly. The approved chemotherapies for both diseases are partially effective and may cause serious adverse events, resulting in premature treatment interruption. Moreover, no effective vaccine for either disease is available. Therefore, developing a vaccine that would provide effective cross-protection against both diseases would provide a cost-effective alternative to the existing …