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Cellular Mechanism Of Pentagalloyl Gucose-Mediated Prevention And Reversal Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Greg Halsey 2023 Clemson University

Cellular Mechanism Of Pentagalloyl Gucose-Mediated Prevention And Reversal Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Greg Halsey

All Dissertations

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has been the 15th leading cause of death in persons older than 55 for the past ten years in several Western countries, with rupture resulting in an almost 100% mortality rate. AAA is a focal dilation of the aorta characterized by progressive loss of elastin and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), as well as persistent inflammatory response [1]. The only treatment for AAA is surgery; however, the mortality post-procedure is still 1-4%, with a 15-30% chance of morbidity [2].

Pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) treatment is effective in the reversal of AAA. While its stabilizing interactions with extracellular …


Cytokine Data For Cytokine Profile Assessment From Peruvian Pinniped (Arctocephalus Australis And Otaria Byronia) Plasma, Mykenzee Munaco, Milton Levin, Michael Adkesson, Susana Cárdenas-Alayzad, Dimitrios G. Giarikos, Amy C. Hirons 2023 University Of Connecticut

Cytokine Data For Cytokine Profile Assessment From Peruvian Pinniped (Arctocephalus Australis And Otaria Byronia) Plasma, Mykenzee Munaco, Milton Levin, Michael Adkesson, Susana Cárdenas-Alayzad, Dimitrios G. Giarikos, Amy C. Hirons

SECLER Data

Large colonies of two vulnerable, sympatric pinniped species, Peruvian fur seals (Arctocephalus australis Peruvian subpopulation; PFS) and South American sea lions (Otaria byronia; SASL), reside and reproduce in Punta San Juan, Peru (PSJ) where they are exposed to stressors such as contaminants and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The use of cytokines as immune biomarkers can be indicative of an animal’s health and function by allowing for the assessment of an individual's cytokine balance as type I helper T cells (Th1) or type II helper T cells (Th2) dominant. Utilizing archived pinniped plasma samples from 2009-2019 …


Endothelial Interleukin-17 Receptor D (Il17rd) Promotes Western Diet-Induced Aortic Myeloid Cell Infiltration, Shivangi Pande 2023 University of Maine

Endothelial Interleukin-17 Receptor D (Il17rd) Promotes Western Diet-Induced Aortic Myeloid Cell Infiltration, Shivangi Pande

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Interleukin-17 (IL17) family is a group of cytokines implicated in the etiology of several inflammatory diseases. Interleukin-17 receptor D (IL17RD), also known as Sef (similar expression to fibroblast growth factor), belonging to the family of IL17 receptors, has been shown to modulate IL17A-associated inflammatory phenotypes. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that IL17RD promotes endothelial cell activation and consequent monocyte adhesion. We utilized primary human aortic endothelial cells and demonstrated that RNAi targeting of IL17RD suppressed transcript levels by 83% compared to non-targeted controls. Further, RNAi knockdown of IL17RD decreased the adhesion of THP-1 cells …


Complement System In Multiple Sclerosis: Its Role In Disease Course And Potential As A Therapeutic Target, Michael R. Linzey 2023 Dartmouth College

Complement System In Multiple Sclerosis: Its Role In Disease Course And Potential As A Therapeutic Target, Michael R. Linzey

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a clinically heterogeneous neurological condition characterized by neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Relapsing-remitting MS, defined by inflammatory attacks, is the most common initial form of MS and there are currently 23 FDA-approved treatments for these patients. These therapies work primarily by reducing inflammation in the CNS; they do not work well in progressive disease. Therefore, an unmet medical need exists for effective therapeutic options to treat progressive MS (PMS).

In MS, intrathecal immunoglobulins synthesis (IIgS) correlates with disease progression. My goals for this dissertation were to establish the pathological role of IIgS and identify new potential therapeutic …


The Role Of Complement In Stroke And Traumatic Brain Injury, Christine Couch 2023 Medical University of South Carolina

The Role Of Complement In Stroke And Traumatic Brain Injury, Christine Couch

MUSC Theses and Dissertations

Brain and neural injury are a non-specific disease category that includes traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke. Both TBI and stroke are common, costly, and leading causes of severe disability in adults. Both stroke and TBI are responsible for substantial disability in working age adults, with stroke being the second leading cause of death worldwide [1] and TBI a major cause of disability in people younger than their 40's [2]. The immune response after brain injury is multifactorial and involves both local and systemic events at the cellular and molecular level. The complement system is a component of both the …


Temporal, Phenotypic, And Quantitative Characterization Of Thyroid Infiltrating Mononuclear Cells During Development Of Spontaneous Autoimmune Thyroiditis In Obese Strain Chickens, Katelyn M. Clark 2023 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Temporal, Phenotypic, And Quantitative Characterization Of Thyroid Infiltrating Mononuclear Cells During Development Of Spontaneous Autoimmune Thyroiditis In Obese Strain Chickens, Katelyn M. Clark

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Obese strain (OS) of chickens spontaneously develops autoimmune thyroiditis and is a well-established biomedical model for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis in humans. Both conditions are characterized by the infiltration of the thyroid glands with mononuclear cells resulting in destruction of the thyroid tissue and impairment of the thyroid’s endocrinological functions. Past studies have described mononuclear cell infiltration in thyroids of the OS chickens, but the time-course, cell composition, and relative amounts of the various mononuclear cells infiltrating the thyroids has not been well defined. In this project, the mononuclear cell infiltrate was characterized phenotypically and quantitatively in OS chickens over the …


White Blood Cell Make Up In Kellback Snake Offspring Of Varying Maternal Size, Angelica McCoy 2023 Kennesaw State University

White Blood Cell Make Up In Kellback Snake Offspring Of Varying Maternal Size, Angelica Mccoy

Symposium of Student Scholars

The immune system is composed of various organs, systems, and other components with one of the most important being white blood cells. White blood cells are commonly separated into two scientific varieties, granulocytes and agranulocytes, which can be differentiated by the presence or absence of granules in the cytoplasm once stained on a slide. There are three granulocytes and two agranulocytes, each with a distinct function and shape. The ratio of these may impact the effectiveness of this portion of the immune system, and multiple factors could play a role in this ratio, an example being the size of an …


The Regulation Of Autoimmunity Genes In Pancreatic Β-Cells By Nf-Κb, Thomas Malone Martin 2023 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

The Regulation Of Autoimmunity Genes In Pancreatic Β-Cells By Nf-Κb, Thomas Malone Martin

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease where the immune system targets the pancreatic islet beta-cells, which are responsible for insulin production and secretion, leading to a state of insulin insufficiency. Many of the molecular details of disease onset and progression remain poorly understood, including key aspects of cytokine signaling. Therefore, we have examined some of the consequences of inflammatory cytokine signaling as a critical module relevant to T1D. Using interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling as a well-defined paradigm for inflammation, we investigated key components of this signaling pathway in pancreatic beta-cells. We identified ICAM-1, one of the proteins expressed in …


Mir125a As Molecular Target Of Vitamin D Mediated Inhibition Of Cd4+ T Cell Differentiation Into Th17 Cells In Mrl/Lpr Lupus-Prone Mice, Miranda Hilt 2023 Otterbein University

Mir125a As Molecular Target Of Vitamin D Mediated Inhibition Of Cd4+ T Cell Differentiation Into Th17 Cells In Mrl/Lpr Lupus-Prone Mice, Miranda Hilt

Undergraduate Distinction Papers

The dynamic function of vitamin D in an array of immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms and its implication in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases has been the topic of much recent scholarship. Here I attempt to elucidate the molecular mechanism of vitamin D-mediated inhibition of the differentiation of CD4+ T cells into pro-inflammatory Th17 cells in MRL/lpr lupus prone mice by investigating how miR-125a expression is affected by dietary modulation of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). MRL/MpJ and MRL/lpr mice were split into three experimental groups and fed specially formulated diets that varied in their concentrations of vitamin D. …


The Immunomodulating Effects Of Delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (Thc) And Cannabidiol (Cbd) In The Context Of Infection, Rose D. Goodman, Kate Rouse, Victor Jimenez 2023 Noorda College of Osteopathic Medicine

The Immunomodulating Effects Of Delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (Thc) And Cannabidiol (Cbd) In The Context Of Infection, Rose D. Goodman, Kate Rouse, Victor Jimenez

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Sex-Dependent Effects Of Induced Acute Inflammation On Glucose Homeostasis And Rna Editing Enzymes, Christian A. Rivas 2023 Missouri State University

Sex-Dependent Effects Of Induced Acute Inflammation On Glucose Homeostasis And Rna Editing Enzymes, Christian A. Rivas

MSU Graduate Theses

The first line of defense against bodily insults, like pathogen invasion, is the innate immune system. Innate immunity sets in motion countless cascades that result in inflammation. Inflammation simultaneously affects multiple biological processes like metabolism and gene expression. Males and females react differently to inflammation. To understand both molecular and physiological sex differences in inflammation, we examined how inflammation affects gene expression and glucose metabolism. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR1) is upregulated by inflammation and catalyzes RNA editing, a process where nucleotides encoded by the genome are modified. ADAR1 also controls the innate immune reaction by decreasing activity of …


Investigating The Relationship Between Metabolic Reprogramming And Peripheral Cd4+ T-Cell Inflammation In Human Type 2 Diabetes Pathogenesis, Gabriella Kalantar 2023 University of Kentucky

Investigating The Relationship Between Metabolic Reprogramming And Peripheral Cd4+ T-Cell Inflammation In Human Type 2 Diabetes Pathogenesis, Gabriella Kalantar

Theses and Dissertations--Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics

Chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation rises in obesity and promotes type 2 diabetes (T2D). Circulating immune cells are key indicators of obesity and T2D pathogenesis. T cells outnumber monocytes, in blood, suggesting that T cells might fuel peripheral inflammation in obesity/T2D. Our lab’s work supports this idea by identification of a Th17 cytokine profile in T2D from T-cell stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Work described herein further supported this work by demonstrating that T cells dominate peripheral inflammation over monocytes across the spectrum of obesity and glycemic control. Our lab has also recently shown that inflammation changes during prediabetes (preT2D), identified …


The Role Of Schwann Cells In Nerve Injury: Forskolin-Mediated Camp Activation Upregulates Tnfα Expression Despite Nf-Κb Downregulation In Lps-Treated Schwann Cells, Caitlyn E. Henry, Angela L. Asirvatham Ph.D. 2023 Misericordia University

The Role Of Schwann Cells In Nerve Injury: Forskolin-Mediated Camp Activation Upregulates Tnfα Expression Despite Nf-Κb Downregulation In Lps-Treated Schwann Cells, Caitlyn E. Henry, Angela L. Asirvatham Ph.D.

Student Research Poster Presentations 2023

Although Schwann cells are known to play a role in axonal regeneration following nerve injury and inflammation, the exact mechanism is unknown. This study explores two potential mechanisms: the NF-κB and cAMP pathways. The NF-κB pathway produces cytokines, such as TNFα, to regulate inflammation, whereas the cAMP pathway is anti-inflammatory and regulates Schwann cell proliferation via AKAP95 and cyclin D3. Although it is well-known that NF-κB and cAMP are involved in inflammation, not much is known regarding the effects of forskolin-mediated cAMP activation on LPS-mediated NF-κB activation in Schwann cells. In this study, RT4-D6P2T immortalized rat Schwann cells were treated …


Vitamin D Enhanced Vitamin D Receptor (Vdr) Inhibition Of Nlrp3 Inflammasome Activation Can Attenuate The Development Of Autoimmune Thyroiditis, Alexzon Mandac 2023 Arcadia University

Vitamin D Enhanced Vitamin D Receptor (Vdr) Inhibition Of Nlrp3 Inflammasome Activation Can Attenuate The Development Of Autoimmune Thyroiditis, Alexzon Mandac

Capstone Showcase

Autoimmune Thyroiditis (AIT) is a prevalent autoimmune disease affecting approximately 2% of the population. Characterized by the gradual loss of thyroid function through an autoimmune attack on the thyroid gland, the disease manifests symptoms that negatively affect one’s quality of life. The mechanisms behind the disease’s pathophysiology are not fully understood; however, researchers are examining the involvement of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the disease. This thesis will address the question of whether Vitamin D can act as an inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome and attenuate the progression of AIT in mouse model. Current investigations explore the effects of NLRP3 inhibition …


Cluster Homolog Of Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Genes In Chicken Immune Responses, Brandi A. Sparling 2023 West Virginia University, Western University of Health Sciences

Cluster Homolog Of Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Genes In Chicken Immune Responses, Brandi A. Sparling

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

This dissertation explores the identity and role of immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) receptors in chickens, with focus on their implications in disease and disease progression. These receptors, wisely expressed across immune cells, interact with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules to modulate immune responses in mammals. Due to the insufficient representation of chicken Ig-like receptors in online databases, this study systematically annotates the chicken Cluster Homolog of Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (CHIR) genes using advanced bioinformatic techniques, aligning with the release of the 7th edition of the chicken genome assembly that comprises builds for a broiler and layer chicken. The analysis identifies …


Characterizing The Function Of B Cells That Accumulate In The Inflamed Central Nervous System In Anti-Myelin Autoimmunity, Lika Chowdhury 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Characterizing The Function Of B Cells That Accumulate In The Inflamed Central Nervous System In Anti-Myelin Autoimmunity, Lika Chowdhury

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

While the role of autoimmune T cells has been extensively studied in anti-myelin

autoimmunity, little is known about the function of B cells in multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). B cells form clusters with T cells in the meninges directly adjacent to demyelinating lesions. Previous studies have shown that disease progression is dependent on the depletion of specific populations of B cells, but it is not clear which contributes to pathology or how. The purpose of this thesis is to characterize the population of meningeal B cells to determine how they differ …


Role Of Cd38 In Pulmonary Host Defense Against Gram-Negative Pneumonia, Xiaoqian Shan 2022 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Role Of Cd38 In Pulmonary Host Defense Against Gram-Negative Pneumonia, Xiaoqian Shan

LSU Master's Theses

The Gram-negative bacterium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, is a major cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia in the U.S. In particular, the dramatic increase in carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infections poses a serious threat to the public health both in the United States and worldwide. Clearance of bacteria in the lungs depends on effective pulmonary immune response. It may be possible to design improved therapies that augment host immune responses while attenuating excessive pulmonary inflammation through modulation of key innate immunity molecules during pneumonic infections. Cluster differentiation CD38 (CD38) has been detected on the surface of many immune cells or intracellular compartments, acting as …


A Study Of Multiple Sclerosis, Christine Chen 2022 University of Louisville

A Study Of Multiple Sclerosis, Christine Chen

The Cardinal Edge

No abstract provided.


Prenatal Choline Supplementation During Maternal Obesity Alters Offspring Response To Western Diets, Hunter W. Korsmo 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Prenatal Choline Supplementation During Maternal Obesity Alters Offspring Response To Western Diets, Hunter W. Korsmo

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Maternal obesity has led to an increase in adverse offspring developmental outcomes and a greater risk for long-term metabolic diseases. Choline, a semi-essential nutrient, can be incorporated into phosphatidylcholine (PC) as well as sphingomyelin (SM) and donate its labile methyl group for the remethylation of homocysteine after choline is oxidized to betaine. Prenatal choline insufficiency has been related to maternal obesity and metabolic diseases, such as metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Choline may interact with maternal obesity to influence the programming offspring.

Chapter 1 presents an introduction of choline and the various clinical outcomes associated with choline supplementation during …


Neural Stem Cells: Age-Dependent Outcomes During Viral Infections In The Central Nervous System, Manisha N. Chandwani 2022 Duquesne University

Neural Stem Cells: Age-Dependent Outcomes During Viral Infections In The Central Nervous System, Manisha N. Chandwani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Viral infections in the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral deficits. The outcomes of viral infections can be driven by damage and death of neurons. Neural stem cells (NSCs) play key roles in neurodevelopment, repair, and physiological brain function. During a viral infection, NSC activity can disturbed by direct infection of NSCs by the virus or by anti-viral immune response. Here, we aimed to assess whether the anti-viral immune response can impact NSC activity during an immunocompetent response in the adult brain. We utilized a transgenic mouse model of Measles virus infection where only the CNS …


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