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A Study Of Multiple Sclerosis, Christine Chen 2022 University of Louisville

A Study Of Multiple Sclerosis, Christine Chen

The Cardinal Edge

No abstract provided.


Prenatal Choline Supplementation During Maternal Obesity Alters Offspring Response To Western Diets, Hunter W. Korsmo 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Prenatal Choline Supplementation During Maternal Obesity Alters Offspring Response To Western Diets, Hunter W. Korsmo

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Maternal obesity has led to an increase in adverse offspring developmental outcomes and a greater risk for long-term metabolic diseases. Choline, a semi-essential nutrient, can be incorporated into phosphatidylcholine (PC) as well as sphingomyelin (SM) and donate its labile methyl group for the remethylation of homocysteine after choline is oxidized to betaine. Prenatal choline insufficiency has been related to maternal obesity and metabolic diseases, such as metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Choline may interact with maternal obesity to influence the programming offspring.

Chapter 1 presents an introduction of choline and the various clinical outcomes associated with choline supplementation during …


Weaving An Interdisciplinary Microbiome Career Using Threads From Different Ecosystems, Sarah Hosler 2022 University of Maine

Weaving An Interdisciplinary Microbiome Career Using Threads From Different Ecosystems, Sarah Hosler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Animals have trillions of microorganisms living in or on many body sites, these communities of microorganisms are called microbiomes. Microbiomes are typically host-specific, and a lot of information about the host can be determined from investigating them. Microbiome research has many real-world applications, and this thesis utilizes the One Health perspective, which acknowledges the connection of humans, animals, and environments, and emphasizes the need for collaborative, interdisciplinary research. The first interdisciplinary project is an investigation into the bacteria in wild and cultured Atlantic deep-sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus larvae. Adults in hatcheries can be induced to spawn, but the last two …


A Microfluidics-Based Approach For Isolation Of Antigen-Specific Cd8+ T Cells, Meredith Frank 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

A Microfluidics-Based Approach For Isolation Of Antigen-Specific Cd8+ T Cells, Meredith Frank

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cancer is a global epidemic: there are predicted to be 200 million new cases this year alone. Almost a quarter of all cancer-related deaths are caused by lung cancer, for which 5-year survival rates are just above 20%. 85% of lung cancer diagnoses are classified as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for which 5-year survival rates in metastatic disease are less than 10%. Early detection and targeted therapies have improved prognoses, yet relapse is still common among patients.

Immunotherapies that leverage tumor-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells have shown great promise for the treatment of NSCLC. However, although highly promising, …


Choline Supplementation Modifies The Effects Of Developmental Alcohol Exposure On Immune Responses In Adult Rats, Jessica A. Baker, Kristen R. Breit, Tamara S. Bodnar, Joanne Weinberg, Jennifer D. Thomas 2022 San Diego State University

Choline Supplementation Modifies The Effects Of Developmental Alcohol Exposure On Immune Responses In Adult Rats, Jessica A. Baker, Kristen R. Breit, Tamara S. Bodnar, Joanne Weinberg, Jennifer D. Thomas

Psychology Faculty Publications

Prenatal alcohol exposure can disrupt the development of numerous systems, including the immune system. Indeed, alterations in cytokine levels may contribute to the neuropathological, behavioral, and cognitive problems, and other adverse outcomes observed in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Importantly, supplementation with the essential nutrient choline can improve performance in hippocampal-dependent behaviors; thus, the present study examined the effects of choline on plasma and hippocampal cytokines in adult rats exposed to ethanol in early development. From postnatal day (PD) 4-9 (third trimester equivalent), pups received ethanol (5.25 g/kg/day) or Sham intubations. Subjects were treated with choline chloride (100 mg/kg/day) …


Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz PhD, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz Phd, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Salmonella is a relatively abundant, virulent species of bacteria that is most known for spreading gastrointestinal diseases through food. These illnesses result in approximately 1.35 million infections, including over 25,000 hospitalizations each year, in the U.S. alone (CDC.gov). As antibiotic resistance becomes an increasingly urgent public health problem, the importance of developing alternative treatment methods is only becoming more crucial. One of the genes responsible for this virulence is known as hilA. HilA is the main transcriptional regulator of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-1 gene (UniProt). SPI-1 plays an important role in the invasion of Salmonella into epithelial cells. The proteins encoded …


Cat Covid, Cmv And Chemokines, Oh My!, Trevor Hancock 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Cat Covid, Cmv And Chemokines, Oh My!, Trevor Hancock

Doctoral Dissertations

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen infecting most humans worldwide. CMV infection within immunocompromised individuals can cause severe morbidity and potential mortality. Disease during CMV infection is due to virus dissemination and subsequent inflammation. Host immune cells lie at the intersection potentially mediating both. The CMV-encoded viral chemokine vCXCL-1 is a proposed virulence factor in mouse models increasing immune cell recruitment and disease. However, the primary immune cell mediator is undetermined. To identify targets, Chapter 2 examines CXCR2 expression (receptor for vCXCL-1) among various mouse tissues and human peripheral blood under steady-state conditions. In vitro, isoforms of HCMV’s vCXCL-1 …


Macrophage Rac2 Promotes Suppression Of Germination During Aspergillus Fumigatus Infection, Chris D. Tanner 2022 Clemson University

Macrophage Rac2 Promotes Suppression Of Germination During Aspergillus Fumigatus Infection, Chris D. Tanner

All Theses

Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungus found ubiquitously in the environment including in the air we breathe. Though not a threat to most people, immunodeficient or immunosuppressed individuals are at risk for developing severe infection, including the life-threatening condition of invasive aspergillosis. The hematopoietic cell specific GTPase protein Rac2 is associated with major roles in innate immune defense. Currently Rac2 has been demonstrated to be crucial for survival against a variety of infections. Here, we use a rac2 null mutant zebrafish line and morpholino approaches to elucidate roles of Rac2 in mounting the macrophage host defense response against A. fumigatus infection. …


Selective Gsk3Β Inhibition Mediates An Nrf2-Independent Anti-Inflammatory Microglial Response, Mohamed H. Yousef 2022 The American University in Cairo AUC

Selective Gsk3Β Inhibition Mediates An Nrf2-Independent Anti-Inflammatory Microglial Response, Mohamed H. Yousef

Theses and Dissertations

Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3) is associated with the proinflammatory phenotype of microglia and has been shown to act in concert with Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). . GSK3 is also a suppressor of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), the principal regulator of redox homeostasis. Agreeing with the oxidative paradigm of aging, Nrf2 is often deregulated in parainflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we aimed to explore a multimodal disease-modifying utility of GSK3 inhibition, beyond neuronal proteopathologies, Furthermore, we aimed to underscore the difference in therapeutic value between the two GSK3 paralogs by isoform-selective chemical inhibition.

The …


Impact Of Probiotics On Black Soldier Fly Larvae Transmission Of Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia, Emily Marie McLaughlin 2021 University of Maine - Main

Impact Of Probiotics On Black Soldier Fly Larvae Transmission Of Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia, Emily Marie Mclaughlin

Honors College

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic pathogen which can cause a variety of infections, especially in immunocompromised individuals. It has recently been found that black soldier flies can act as carriers for S. maltophilia (Callegari et al., 2020). I have investigated how probiotics impact their vector capabilities. Black soldier fly larvae have been fed substrate spiked with S. maltophilia. After several days of feeding, the larvae were investigated by PCR and plating (Sveensson-Stadler et al., 2011). Two groups of larvae were fed with potatoes infected with S. maltophilia. Persistence of S. maltophilia was determined using PCR by taking samples …


Role Of Gut Microbiome In Covid-19: An Insight Into Pathogenesis And Therapeutic Potential, Ikram Hussain, Gabriel Liu Yuan Cher, Muhammad Abbas Abid, Muhammad Bilal Abid 2021 Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, Singapore, Singapore

Role Of Gut Microbiome In Covid-19: An Insight Into Pathogenesis And Therapeutic Potential, Ikram Hussain, Gabriel Liu Yuan Cher, Muhammad Abbas Abid, Muhammad Bilal Abid

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), resulted in an unprecedented global crisis. Although primarily a respiratory illness, dysregulated immune responses may lead to multi-organ dysfunction. Prior data showed that the resident microbial communities of gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts act as modulators of local and systemic inflammatory activity (the gut-lung axis). Evolving evidence now signals an alteration in the gut microbiome, brought upon either by cytokines from the infected respiratory tract or from direct infection of the gut, or both. Dysbiosis leads to a "leaky gut". The intestinal permeability then allows access to …


Understanding The Effect Of Dietary Palmitic Acid On Glycolysis During Innate Immune Memory In Macrophages, Khaleda A. Aqaei 2021 Portland State University

Understanding The Effect Of Dietary Palmitic Acid On Glycolysis During Innate Immune Memory In Macrophages, Khaleda A. Aqaei

University Honors Theses

Trained immunity is long-term innate immune memory induced by a primary stimulus, which leads to hyper-inflammation upon secondary stimulation with a homologous or heterologous ligand. Trained immunity is mediated by epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming of the target cell and leads to modification of gene expression and cellular function. Classically, trained immunity is initiated by β-glucans, an inflammatory molecule found on the exterior of fungal species. Interestingly, our lab has recently described that dietary fatty acids can initiate trained immunity, working through similar pathways as β-glucans. Specifically, our data show that a pre-treatment with a specific dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA), …


Roles Of A Bradykinin Storm And A Cytokine Storm In Covid-19 Cases, Nouha H. Odeh 2021 Wayne State University

Roles Of A Bradykinin Storm And A Cytokine Storm In Covid-19 Cases, Nouha H. Odeh

Honors College Theses

In the light of recent events, it is imperative to understand the key inflammatory response elements that appear to be the source of more severe ailments resulting from a SARS-CoV-2 viral infection known as Covid-19 The more severe cases of Covid-19 are characterized by a severe inflammatory response resulting in tissue damage. My research proposal aims to investigate the two possible culprits of this response: a bradykinin (BK) storm and an interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated cytokine storm. In both systems respectively, the excess release of these signals subsequently signals the production of even more of the same response element, resulting in …


Anti-Inflammatory And Chemopreventive Activity Of Lunasin From Tofu Whey For The Management Of Gastrointestinal Diseases, Cindy Andrea Nieto Veloza 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Anti-Inflammatory And Chemopreventive Activity Of Lunasin From Tofu Whey For The Management Of Gastrointestinal Diseases, Cindy Andrea Nieto Veloza

Doctoral Dissertations

Gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC) are pathological conditions associated with chronic inflammation, characterized by intestinal damage, debilitating symptoms, and detrimental health consequences. The increased risk of CRC in IBD patients, and the adverse effects associated with current therapeutic strategies, point out the need for safer alternatives to reduce chronic inflammation in the bowel. Lunasin is a bioactive peptide naturally occurring in soybeans, with chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties demonstrated in several extra-intestinal diseases. However, to date, there is no evidence of the biological activity of lunasin on the gastrointestinal tract as a target site. …


21°C Is The Emerging Ideal Temperature For Kidney Preservation In The Presence Of Hydrogen Sulfide, Smriti Juriasingani 2021 The University of Western Ontario

21°C Is The Emerging Ideal Temperature For Kidney Preservation In The Presence Of Hydrogen Sulfide, Smriti Juriasingani

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage kidney disease. However, the shortage of transplantable kidneys has led to ever-increasing waiting lists. As a result, kidneys obtained via donation after cardiac death (DCD) are being used more frequently for transplantation. However, they exhibit poorer outcomes due to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and cold preservation methods, such as static cold storage (SCS). Supplementing cold preservation solutions with hydrogen sulfide donors, such as AP39, has been shown to improve renal IRI and graft outcomes, but the injury associated with cold preservation remains. This thesis evaluates the effect of subnormothermic kidney …


An Investigation Of Healthcare Supports For Those With Food Allergy In Ireland, Joseph Bolger, Nicola Blake, Sneha Vinod 2021 Munster Technological University

An Investigation Of Healthcare Supports For Those With Food Allergy In Ireland, Joseph Bolger, Nicola Blake, Sneha Vinod

International Undergraduate Journal of Health Sciences

Introduction: In Ireland, around 5% of children and 3% adults have food allergy (134,000 people). This current paper describes a survey that was carried out on a subset of service-users with the aim of identifying whether there is a need for increased specialist medical services and/or for a funded charity such as Anaphylaxis Ireland, defunct since 2015.

Materials & Methods: These needs were assessed via an online survey using Google Forms. The survey was conducted from 17-27th February 2020. There were 31 questions in total, relating to topics such as symptoms, clinical wait times, satisfaction with care provided and demand …


Full Issue: The International Undergraduate Journal Of Health Sciences, Volume 1, Issue 1, June 2021, 2021 Munster Technological University

Full Issue: The International Undergraduate Journal Of Health Sciences, Volume 1, Issue 1, June 2021

International Undergraduate Journal of Health Sciences

The full June 2021 issue (Volume 1, Issue 1) of the International Undergraduate Journal of Health Sciences


Decline In Amphibian Health In Local Stream, Elyse Vetter, Elise DeArment, Colton Russell, Audrey Fontes, Lee Kats 2021 Pepperdine University

Decline In Amphibian Health In Local Stream, Elyse Vetter, Elise Dearment, Colton Russell, Audrey Fontes, Lee Kats

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Many local streams of the Santa Monica Mountains are populated by the native California Newt, Taricha torosa, a species of special concern. Arroyo Sequit is one of these streams, the upper and lower portions of which are split by a culvert and the Mulholland Highway. This stream and the surrounding areas burned during the Woolsey fire of 2018. Since the fire, construction has been ongoing in and around the stream. Two years post-fire (during the summer of 2020) significantly more newts were found in the stream than years prior. A large proportion of these newts were unhealthy in appearance, …


Ketogenic Diet As A Preventative Measure Or Treatment Option For Osteoarthritistargeting Nfl Athletes As A High-Risk Group, Kelsi J. Smith 2021 Southeastern University - Lakeland

Ketogenic Diet As A Preventative Measure Or Treatment Option For Osteoarthritistargeting Nfl Athletes As A High-Risk Group, Kelsi J. Smith

Selected Honors Theses

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent joint disease that results from the degradation of articular cartilage, leading to inflammation, pain, and eventual joint failure. At one time, it was thought that OA was only the result of the natural decline experienced in old age; however, various risk factors have now been identified that may contribute to an increased risk for developing OA. Risk factors may include joint loading, altered biomechanics, obesity, and joint injury, to which athletes are exposed at a high rate. NFL athletes are one group of athletes that have continued to show a high prevalence of arthritis in …


Food Insecurity Is Associated With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Cognitive Impairment, And Immune Activation In People Living With Hiv, Javier A. Tamargo 2021 Florida International University

Food Insecurity Is Associated With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Cognitive Impairment, And Immune Activation In People Living With Hiv, Javier A. Tamargo

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Food insecurity (FI) is a socioeconomic condition characterized by inadequate access to enough food and nutrition to sustain health and wellbeing. Food insecurity is a risk factor for chronic and age-related conditions, raising concerns for the aging population of people living with HIV (PLWH), in whom food insecurity is disproportionately prevalent. PLWH are at increased risk of nutrition-related complications and chronic co-morbidities, thus food insecurity may exacerbate adverse health outcomes in this population. This study investigated whether food insecurity was associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cognitive impairment, and immune activation among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults living with and without …


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