Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Immunology and Infectious Disease Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

5,507 Full-Text Articles 11,569 Authors 1,859,070 Downloads 219 Institutions

All Articles in Immunology and Infectious Disease

Faceted Search

5,507 full-text articles. Page 4 of 178.

The Knowns And Unknowns Of Cardiac Autoimmunity In Viral Myocarditis, Kiruthiga Mone, Jay Reddy 2023 University of Nebraska‐Lincoln

The Knowns And Unknowns Of Cardiac Autoimmunity In Viral Myocarditis, Kiruthiga Mone, Jay Reddy

School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences: Faculty Publications

Myocarditis can result from various infectious and non‐infectious causes that can lead to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and heart failure. Among the infectious causes, viruses are commonly suspected. But the challenge is our inability to demonstrate infectious viral particles during clinical presentations, partly because by that point, the viruses would have damaged the tissues and be cleared by the immune system. Therefore, viral signatures such as viral nucleic acids and virus-reactive antibodies may be the only readouts pointing to viruses as potential primary triggers of DCM. Thus, it becomes hard to explain persistent inflammatory infiltrates that might occur in individuals affected …


Naturally Occurring Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5n1 Clade 2.3.4.4b Infection In Three Domestic Cats In North America During 2023, Sarah J. Sillman, Mary Drozd, Duan S. Loy, Seth P. Harris 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Naturally Occurring Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5n1 Clade 2.3.4.4b Infection In Three Domestic Cats In North America During 2023, Sarah J. Sillman, Mary Drozd, Duan S. Loy, Seth P. Harris

School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences: Faculty Publications

The Eurasian strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 is a devastating pathogen for birds that also has the capacity to infect mammals. This report describes the presentation, clinical case findings (including haemogram and serum biochemistry), gross and microscopic lesions and virus detection in three HPAI H5N1-infected domestic cats from the USA in 2023. All three cats presented with neurological abnormalities and were euthanized due to a poor prognosis within 2 days (two cats) or 10 days (one cat) of known clinical disease onset. Necropsy consistently revealed pulmonary congestion and oedema, and cerebrocortical malacia with haemorrhage was also seen …


Withaferin A And Immune Checkpoint Blocker Therapy For The Treatment Of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Roukiah Khalil 2023 University of South Florida

Withaferin A And Immune Checkpoint Blocker Therapy For The Treatment Of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Roukiah Khalil

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lung cancer is the first cause of cancer-related deaths in both men and women with an overall five-year survival rate of 28%. Although immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs) are currently FDA-approved for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), only 17-20% of patients achieve durable responses by the induction of immunologic memory. The lack of response in most patients can be attributed to the tumor-intrinsic or tumor-extrinsic immune resistance mechanisms. A biomarker of importance is the Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1), as higher PD-L1 expression is usually associated with a better response to ICBs. Although studies have attempted to combine ICBs …


Quantitative Risk Assessment Of Oocyst Versus Bradyzoite Foodborne Transmission Of Toxoplasma Gondii In Brazil, Sophie Zhu, Elizabeth VanWormer, Beatriz Martínez-López, Lílian Maria Garcia Bahia-Oliveira, Renato Augusto DaMatta, Pedro Souto Rodrigues, Karen Shapiro 2023 University of California, Davis

Quantitative Risk Assessment Of Oocyst Versus Bradyzoite Foodborne Transmission Of Toxoplasma Gondii In Brazil, Sophie Zhu, Elizabeth Vanwormer, Beatriz Martínez-López, Lílian Maria Garcia Bahia-Oliveira, Renato Augusto Damatta, Pedro Souto Rodrigues, Karen Shapiro

School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences: Faculty Publications

Toxoplasma gondii is a globally distributed zoonotic protozoan parasite. Infection with T. gondii can cause congenital toxoplasmosis in developing fetuses and acute outbreaks in the general population, and the disease burden is especially high in South America. Prior studies found that the environmental stage of T. gondii, oocysts, is an important source of infection in Brazil; however, no studies have quantified this risk relative to other parasite stages. We developed a Bayesian quantitative risk assessment (QRA) to estimate the relative attribution of the two primary parasite stages (bradyzoite and oocyst) that can be transmitted in foods to people in …


Evaluation Of The Humoral Immune Responses To Plasmodium Vivax Circumsporozoite Protein (Csp)-Based Pre-Erythrocytic Vaccine Candidates, Jack Esquenazi 2023 University of South Florida

Evaluation Of The Humoral Immune Responses To Plasmodium Vivax Circumsporozoite Protein (Csp)-Based Pre-Erythrocytic Vaccine Candidates, Jack Esquenazi

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Malaria, caused by the apicomplexan Plasmodium spp. , is a major public health issue that impacts over one-third of the world’s population ,with Plasmodium vivax accounting for over 130 million clinical cases annually. The circumsporozoite protein (CSP) is the most abundant molecule on the surface of Plasmodium sporozoites and is considered a leading pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine candidate. CSP is essential for sporozoite maturation, migration, and invasion. Anti-CSP antibodies interrupt sporozoite migration and infection of hepatocytes thus reducing liver-stage burden. P. vivax CSP is composed of three subdomains: a highly polymorphic immunodominant central repeat region (CRR), conserved N-terminal ,and C-terminal subdomains. …


Tumor Biology And Immune Infiltration Define Primary Liver Cancer Subsets Linked To Overall Survival After Immunotherapy, Anuradha Budhu, Erica C Pehrsson, Aiwu He, Lipika Goyal, Robin Kate Kelley, Hien Dang, Changqing Xie, Cecilia Monge, Mayank Tandon, Lichun Ma, Mahler Revsine, Laura Kuhlman, Karen Zhang, Islam Baiev, Ryan Lamm, Keyur Patel, David E Kleiner, Stephen M Hewitt, Bao Tran, Jyoti Shetty, Xiaolin Wu, Yongmei Zhao, Tsai-Wei Shen, Sulbha Choudhari, Yuliya Kriga, Kris Ylaya, Andrew C Warner, Elijah F Edmondson, Marshonna Forgues, Tim F Greten, Xin Wei Wang 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Tumor Biology And Immune Infiltration Define Primary Liver Cancer Subsets Linked To Overall Survival After Immunotherapy, Anuradha Budhu, Erica C Pehrsson, Aiwu He, Lipika Goyal, Robin Kate Kelley, Hien Dang, Changqing Xie, Cecilia Monge, Mayank Tandon, Lichun Ma, Mahler Revsine, Laura Kuhlman, Karen Zhang, Islam Baiev, Ryan Lamm, Keyur Patel, David E Kleiner, Stephen M Hewitt, Bao Tran, Jyoti Shetty, Xiaolin Wu, Yongmei Zhao, Tsai-Wei Shen, Sulbha Choudhari, Yuliya Kriga, Kris Ylaya, Andrew C Warner, Elijah F Edmondson, Marshonna Forgues, Tim F Greten, Xin Wei Wang

Kimmel Cancer Center Faculty Papers

Primary liver cancer is a rising cause of cancer deaths in the US. Although immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors induces a potent response in a subset of patients, response rates vary among individuals. Predicting which patients will respond to immune checkpoint inhibitors is of great interest in the field. In a retrospective arm of the National Cancer Institute Cancers of the Liver: Accelerating Research of Immunotherapy by a Transdisciplinary Network (NCI-CLARITY) study, we use archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples to profile the transcriptome and genomic alterations among 86 hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma patients prior to and following immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment. …


Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis Candidate Vaccine Strains Are Pro-Apoptotic In Raw264.7murinemacrophages, Raul G. Barletta, John P. Bannantine, Judith R. Stabel, Ezhumalai Muthukrishnan, Dirk Anderson, Enakshy Dutta, Vamsi Manthena, Mostafa Hanafy, Denise K. Zinniel 2023 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis Candidate Vaccine Strains Are Pro-Apoptotic In Raw264.7murinemacrophages, Raul G. Barletta, John P. Bannantine, Judith R. Stabel, Ezhumalai Muthukrishnan, Dirk Anderson, Enakshy Dutta, Vamsi Manthena, Mostafa Hanafy, Denise K. Zinniel

School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences: Faculty Publications

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of Johne’s disease, a severe gastroenteritis of ruminants. This study developed a model cell culture system to rapidly screen MAP mutants with vaccine potential for apoptosis. Two wild-type strains, a transposon mutant, and two deletion mutant MAP strains (MOI of 10 with 1.2 × 106 CFU) were tested in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages to determine if they induce apoptosis and/or necrosis. Both deletion mutants were previously shown to be attenuated and immunogenic in primary bovine macrophages. All strains had similar growth rates, but cell morphology indicated that both deletion mutants …


Complement System In Multiple Sclerosis: Its Role In Disease Course And Potential As A Therapeutic Target, Michael R. Linzey 2023 Dartmouth College

Complement System In Multiple Sclerosis: Its Role In Disease Course And Potential As A Therapeutic Target, Michael R. Linzey

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a clinically heterogeneous neurological condition characterized by neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Relapsing-remitting MS, defined by inflammatory attacks, is the most common initial form of MS and there are currently 23 FDA-approved treatments for these patients. These therapies work primarily by reducing inflammation in the CNS; they do not work well in progressive disease. Therefore, an unmet medical need exists for effective therapeutic options to treat progressive MS (PMS).

In MS, intrathecal immunoglobulins synthesis (IIgS) correlates with disease progression. My goals for this dissertation were to establish the pathological role of IIgS and identify new potential therapeutic …


Understanding Migration And Psychological Health Of Migrant Workers, Zeba Rayee 2023 Jawaharlal Nehru University

Understanding Migration And Psychological Health Of Migrant Workers, Zeba Rayee

International Journal on Responsibility

Migration has been a dynamic phenomenon from the evolution of the human species. It affects various aspects of life and gets affected by different determinants around us. Various studies have been done in this field to comprehend the phenomenon and still, there are distinct aspects of it that need more attention. One such aspect is the psychological health of migrants. Migration is an inevitable process of human life that’s why understanding the phenomenon becomes very imperative. Especially during the Covid-19 pandemic, it has become crucial to study this aspect of migration. Various changes took place very rapidly as the covid-19 …


Effects Of 11-Kt And Prolactin On Gene Expression, Parental Care Behaviour And Immune Response In Male Bluegill Sunfish., Adriano A P da Cunha 2023 Western University

Effects Of 11-Kt And Prolactin On Gene Expression, Parental Care Behaviour And Immune Response In Male Bluegill Sunfish., Adriano A P Da Cunha

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Parental care is very critical for reproduction in species that provide it. Hormones such as prolactin and androgens play a crucial role in parenting and reproductive behaviours. In mammals and birds, prolactin’s role in parental care is well-established; it stimulates milk production and stimulates attachment to newborns by its release in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA), among other functions. Androgens, on the other hand, are commonly associated with male secondary sex characteristics, territoriality, and aggressiveness in mammals and birds. There are similar reports of prolactin and androgen effects in fish, but there are fewer studies. I investigated if …


Mining Sars-Cov-2 Phylogenetic Trees To Estimate Circulating Infections And Patterns Of Migration, Erin V. Brintnell 2023 The University of Western Ontario

Mining Sars-Cov-2 Phylogenetic Trees To Estimate Circulating Infections And Patterns Of Migration, Erin V. Brintnell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic led to the formation of very large databases of genomic viral data. These databases contain information on transmission dynamics, emergence and evolution of SARS-CoV-2. However, extracting this information from sequences is difficult, as most methods of analyzing viral genomes were developed for smaller data sets. Therefore, my objective was to develop new fast estimators of the number of infections (I) and the rate of migration based on simple features of SARS-CoV-2 phylogenies.

I simulated pathogen evolution using a susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model of pathogen spread, reconstructing evolution using CoVizu. For simulations of I, I varied the total number …


Behavior Changes And Lc50 Of Dried Garlic (Allium Sativum) Acute Toxicity In Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) Juvenile [Research Note], Gregoria Erazo Pagador, Haydee Rose Dumaran Paciente, Blan Jericho Caloyloy 2023 Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD), 5021 Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines

Behavior Changes And Lc50 Of Dried Garlic (Allium Sativum) Acute Toxicity In Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) Juvenile [Research Note], Gregoria Erazo Pagador, Haydee Rose Dumaran Paciente, Blan Jericho Caloyloy

The Philippine Agricultural Scientist

Plant-based compounds are emerging substitutes for chemical treatments in aquaculture since they are known to cause less harm to both the environment and its organisms. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a popular herb that has a broad range of uses, especially in the control and treatment of bacterial and parasitic diseases. However, its toxicity to tilapia is not well-studied. Hence, this study was conducted to test the toxicity levels of garlic powder in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by determining the cumulative mortality and median lethal concentration (LC50). Test fish were exposed through immersion in …


Recreational Fishing Location Guide, Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia 2023 Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia

Recreational Fishing Location Guide, Department Of Primary Industries And Regional Development, Western Australia

Fisheries occasional publications

This guide has been developed to help you identify the fishing locations that you may visit. The purpose of this guide is to enhance consistent and accurate identification of fishing locations and block numbers within each Bioregion. If you are unsure about a particular location, please discuss it with a representative of the Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia.


Newer Surveillance Data Extends Our Understanding Of The Niche Of Rickettsia Montanensis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) Infection Of The American Dog Tick (Acari: Ixodidae) In The United States, Catherine A. Lippi, Holly D. Gaff, Robyn M. Nadolny, Sadie J. Ryan 2023 University of Florida

Newer Surveillance Data Extends Our Understanding Of The Niche Of Rickettsia Montanensis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) Infection Of The American Dog Tick (Acari: Ixodidae) In The United States, Catherine A. Lippi, Holly D. Gaff, Robyn M. Nadolny, Sadie J. Ryan

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Understanding the geographic distribution of Rickettsia montanensis infections in Dermacentor variabilis is important for tick-borne disease management in the United States, as both a tick-borne agent of interest and a potential confounder in surveillance of other rickettsial diseases. Two previous studies modeled niche suitability for D. variabilis with and without R. montanensis, from 2002-2012, indicating that the D. variabilis niche overestimates the infected niche. This study updates these, adding data since 2012.

Methods: Newer surveillance and testing data were used to update Species Distribution Models (SDMs) of D. variabilis, and R. montanensis infected D. variabilis, in …


The Influence Of Microorganisms On Human Health, Tiffany Bui 2023 Portland State University

The Influence Of Microorganisms On Human Health, Tiffany Bui

University Honors Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to explore the interplay between the environment, lifestyle, and composition of human microbiomes across different communities, with a specific focus on immune and digestive health. This literature review investigates three distinct types of communities: isolated/traditional, transitional, and urban/industrialized communities, each characterized by unique environments, societal structures, and interactions. These factors contribute to the distinct microbial populations and compositions within each community. It is impossible to avoid contact with microorganisms as they are present in every aspect of our lives, from the air we breathe, the water we drink, the soil we walk on, the …


Effect Of Vitamin C And Probiotics On Broilers Performance And Claudin-2 (Cldn-2) Expression Under Heat Stress [Research Note], Mohammad Chamani, Mohammad Chamani, Farhad Foroudi, Ali Asghar Sadeghi, Mehdi Aminafshar 2023 Department of Animal Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Effect Of Vitamin C And Probiotics On Broilers Performance And Claudin-2 (Cldn-2) Expression Under Heat Stress [Research Note], Mohammad Chamani, Mohammad Chamani, Farhad Foroudi, Ali Asghar Sadeghi, Mehdi Aminafshar

The Philippine Agricultural Scientist

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of vitamin C and probiotic which consists of five species of beneficial bacteria and two species of fungi on performance, blood parameters, and intestinal CLDN-2 gene expression of broilers during heat stress (HS). A total of 400 broilers were randomly divided into five groups, each of which received a different treatment. The first group was considered a negative control and did not experience any HS (C-); the second group was considered a positive control (C+) and was exposed to HS; the third group received only vitamin C (250 …


Development Of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Knock Out Protocol For Drug Substance Assay Development, Julia C. Hanna 2023 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Development Of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Knock Out Protocol For Drug Substance Assay Development, Julia C. Hanna

Master's Theses

Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS) is a rare X-linked primary immunodeficiency affecting approximately 1 in 100,000 live XY births in North America and is caused by a mutation to the WAS gene which is expressed across hematopoietic lineages. The WAS protein (WASp) plays a role in regulating actin polymerization. On a cellular level, there are a variety of effects of a lack of WASp or expression of a dysfunctional WASp protein for patients including issues with migration, adhesion, chemotactic response, phagocytosis, activation, and proliferation across different cell types in addition to reduced platelet size and output. This can lead to several systematic …


Novel Natural Compounds Derived From Tcm In The Treatment Of Food Induced Anaphylaxis, Ibrahim Musa 2023 New York Medical College

Novel Natural Compounds Derived From Tcm In The Treatment Of Food Induced Anaphylaxis, Ibrahim Musa

NYMC Student Theses and Dissertations

Food allergy is a highly prevalent disease affecting about 30 million people in the U.S. It is managed primarily by food avoidance due to lack of promising treatment options. ASHMI (anti-asthma herbal intervention) which consists of three components, Sophorae flavescentis, Ganoderma lucidum, Glycyrrhiza uralensis has been shown to inhibit allergic lung inflammation in antigen sensitized and challenged mice. In this study we isolate and identify the active compound in Sophorae flavescentis, characterized the mechanism of IgE inhibitory effect, biomarkers and potential to prevent food anaphylaxis.

To separate and identify the compounds we used column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, mass …


Serological Prevalence Of Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Infection In Small Ruminants And Cattle In The Gambia, Jerusha Matthews, Arss Secka, David Scott McVey, Kimberly A. Dodd, Bonto Faburay 2023 United States Department of Agriculture

Serological Prevalence Of Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Infection In Small Ruminants And Cattle In The Gambia, Jerusha Matthews, Arss Secka, David Scott Mcvey, Kimberly A. Dodd, Bonto Faburay

School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences: Faculty Publications

Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a widely distributed tickborne zoonotic agent that infects a variety of host species. There is a lack of information on the true geographic distribution of the prevalence and risk of CCHFV in West Africa. A countrywide cross-sectional study involving 1413 extensively managed indigenous small ruminants and cattle at livestock sales markets and in village herds, respectively, was carried out in The Gambia. In sheep, an overall anti-CCHFV antibody prevalence of 18.9% (95% CI: 15.5–22.8%), goats 9.0% (95% CI: 6.7–11.7%), and cattle 59.9% (95% CI: 54.9–64.7%) was detected. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in the prevalence of anti-CCHFV antibodies at sites in the five administrative regions (sheep: 4.8–25.9%; goats: 1.8–17.1%) and three agroecological zones (sheep: 8.9–32.9%; goats: 4.1–18.0%) was also observed. Comparatively, higher anti-CCHFV antibody prevalence was detected in cattle (33.3–84.0%) compared to small ruminants (1.8–8.1%). This study represents the first countrywide investigation of the seroprevalence of CCHFV in The Gambia, and the results suggest potential circulation and endemicity of the virus in the country. These data provide critical information vital to the development of informed policies for the surveillance, diagnosis, and control of CCFHV infection in The Gambia and the region.


The Role Of Complement In Stroke And Traumatic Brain Injury, Christine Couch 2023 Medical University of South Carolina

The Role Of Complement In Stroke And Traumatic Brain Injury, Christine Couch

MUSC Theses and Dissertations

Brain and neural injury are a non-specific disease category that includes traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke. Both TBI and stroke are common, costly, and leading causes of severe disability in adults. Both stroke and TBI are responsible for substantial disability in working age adults, with stroke being the second leading cause of death worldwide [1] and TBI a major cause of disability in people younger than their 40's [2]. The immune response after brain injury is multifactorial and involves both local and systemic events at the cellular and molecular level. The complement system is a component of both the …


Digital Commons powered by bepress