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Endothelial Interleukin-17 Receptor D (Il17rd) Promotes Western Diet-Induced Aortic Myeloid Cell Infiltration, Shivangi Pande 2023 University of Maine

Endothelial Interleukin-17 Receptor D (Il17rd) Promotes Western Diet-Induced Aortic Myeloid Cell Infiltration, Shivangi Pande

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Interleukin-17 (IL17) family is a group of cytokines implicated in the etiology of several inflammatory diseases. Interleukin-17 receptor D (IL17RD), also known as Sef (similar expression to fibroblast growth factor), belonging to the family of IL17 receptors, has been shown to modulate IL17A-associated inflammatory phenotypes. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that IL17RD promotes endothelial cell activation and consequent monocyte adhesion. We utilized primary human aortic endothelial cells and demonstrated that RNAi targeting of IL17RD suppressed transcript levels by 83% compared to non-targeted controls. Further, RNAi knockdown of IL17RD decreased the adhesion of THP-1 cells …


Mutation-Induced Changes In The Stability, B-Cell Epitope, And Antigenicity Of The Sars-Cov-2 Variant Spike Protein: A Comparative Computational Stud, Nira Meirita Wijayanti, Muhammad Hermawan Widyananda, Lailil Muflikhah, Nashi Widodo 2023 Biology Department, Faculty of mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

Mutation-Induced Changes In The Stability, B-Cell Epitope, And Antigenicity Of The Sars-Cov-2 Variant Spike Protein: A Comparative Computational Stud, Nira Meirita Wijayanti, Muhammad Hermawan Widyananda, Lailil Muflikhah, Nashi Widodo

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

The spike (S) protein is a major antigenicity site that targets neutralizing antibodies and drugs. The growing number of S protein mutations has become a severe problem for developing effective vaccines. Here, we investigated four severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that were the most infectious and widespread during the COVID-19 pandemic to determine the trends and patterns of mutation-induced changes in the stability, B-cell epitope, and antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein. The data showed that the Beta and Gamma variants had three mutations on the receptor-binding domain (RBD), which is the specific site on the S …


Genome-Scale Methylation Analysis In Blood And Tumor Identifies Immune Profile, Age Acceleration, And Dna Methylation Alterations Associated With Bladder Cancer Outcomes, Ji-Qing Chen 2023 Dartmouth College

Genome-Scale Methylation Analysis In Blood And Tumor Identifies Immune Profile, Age Acceleration, And Dna Methylation Alterations Associated With Bladder Cancer Outcomes, Ji-Qing Chen

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Bladder cancer patients receive frequent screening due to the high tumor recurrence rate (more than 60%). Nowadays, the conventional monitoring method relies on cystoscopy which is highly invasive and increases patient morbidity and burden to the health care system with frequent follow-up. As a result, it is urgent to explore novel markers related to the outcomes of bladder cancer. Immune profiles have been associated with cancer outcomes and may have the potential to be biomarkers for outcomes management. However, little work has been conducted to investigate the associations of immune cell profiles with bladder cancer outcomes. Here, I utilized the …


Parasites Versus Predation: The Role Of Chronic And Acute Parasite Exposure In Infection Risk And Anti-Predator Behavior, Delaney Farrell 2023 Nova Southeastern University

Parasites Versus Predation: The Role Of Chronic And Acute Parasite Exposure In Infection Risk And Anti-Predator Behavior, Delaney Farrell

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Parasites with complex, multi-host lifecycles often engage in host behavior manipulation to increase transmission between successive hosts. In intermediate fish hosts, previous research has measured increased frequency of conspicuous behaviors, decreased swimming performance, and reduced antipredator behavior, which would collectively increase the fish’s risk of predation. In ecosystems where this type of parasite increased trophic transmission (PITT) occurs, parasites can play a substantial role in food webs. In this study, I investigate how chronic versus acute exposure to the trematode Euhaplorchis sp. A. affects the antipredator behavior of the Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis. Using a fully crossed design, I …


Cytokine Profiles In Peruvian Pinnipeds And Their Relationships With Environmental Stressors, Mykenzee L. Munaco 2023 Nova Southeastern University

Cytokine Profiles In Peruvian Pinnipeds And Their Relationships With Environmental Stressors, Mykenzee L. Munaco

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Large colonies of two vulnerable, sympatric pinniped species, Peruvian fur seals (Arctocephalus australis Peruvian subpopulation; PFS) and South American sea lions (Otaria byronia; SASL), reside and reproduce in Punta San Juan, Peru (PSJ) where they are exposed to stressors such as environmental contaminants and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. Cytokine concentrations can be indicative of an animal’s health and immune function by allowing for immunoresponse characterization as Th1 or Th2 dominant. Utilizing an archived pinniped plasma collection of samples from 2009-2019 (n=148), 13 cytokines were analyzed in PFS and SASL: GM-CSF, IFN-γ, KC-like, MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, …


Cancer: The Burden Of Treatments Eased By Recent Developments In The Field: A Review Of The Literature, Zachary J. Seim 2023 Grand Valley State University

Cancer: The Burden Of Treatments Eased By Recent Developments In The Field: A Review Of The Literature, Zachary J. Seim

Culminating Experience Projects

Cancer is a very prevalent disease that has affected most of the population. Treatment options that have been used for decades are beginning to be outcompeted by newer developments in the field. Newer developments allow a more specific response to cancers that have proven to be very difficult for traditional treatment. Immune specific treatments also give the ability to specifically target areas affected by the cancer, to reduce potential risk of systemic damage and autoimmunity. Developing cancer treatments that are highly specific brings forth a new age of medicine, hoping to prolong the life expectancy of those affected with cancers, …


Evaluating The Role Of The Bovine Vaginal Microbiome In Neonatal And Maternal Health Outcomes, Riley D. Messman 2023 Mississippi State University

Evaluating The Role Of The Bovine Vaginal Microbiome In Neonatal And Maternal Health Outcomes, Riley D. Messman

Theses and Dissertations

The dam vaginal microbiota is the first major microbial inoculating community within the neonate. The composition of the dam vaginal microbiota has implications in calf commensal microbiota development. Alterations of the dam microbial community prior to parturition could alter inoculating communities and immune responses in both the dam and calf. Thus, authors aimed to elucidate the microbial community composition of the bovine dam vaginal and calf nasal microbiota post-partum after utilizing betadine lavages (BL). The dam vaginal and calf nasal microbial communities and immune responses were evaluated at 0-, 15-, 30- and 60-day post-partum. Microbiota composition of the dam haircoat, …


The Development Of Fetal Immunity From In Utero To Shortly After Birth And Complications That Can Arise From Improper Functioning, Marlee Curnutt 2023 Grand Valley State University

The Development Of Fetal Immunity From In Utero To Shortly After Birth And Complications That Can Arise From Improper Functioning, Marlee Curnutt

Culminating Experience Projects

The development of the immune system in humans is highly complex and requires precise timing which is still debated today. Research has shown IL-10 and T-regulatory cells play a significant role in the proper development of the immune system from in utero continuing into months after birth. These components and various cytokines continue to be guiding factors supplemented by the mother via placenta and breastfeeding. The dysregulation of immune development can have detrimental effects on the infant and may lead to autoimmune disorders. In this paper, we aim to further understand the development of the immune system from fetal to …


The Role Of Lkb1 Spliceoforms In Itreg-Th17 Plasticity And Their Interactions With Pkcθ And Sirt1 Downstream Of Il-6 Signaling, Deeksha Mohan 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Role Of Lkb1 Spliceoforms In Itreg-Th17 Plasticity And Their Interactions With Pkcθ And Sirt1 Downstream Of Il-6 Signaling, Deeksha Mohan

Doctoral Dissertations

Following activation, CD4 T cells undergo metabolic and transcriptional changes as they respond to external cues and differentiate into T helper (Th) cells. T cells exhibit plasticity between Th phenotypes in highly inflammatory environments, such as colitis, in which high levels of IL-6 promote plasticity between regulatory T (Treg) cells and Th17 cells. Protein Kinase C theta (PKCθ) is a T cell-specific serine/threonine kinase that promotes Th17 differentiation while negatively regulating Treg differentiation. Liver kinase B1 (LKB1), also a serine/threonine kinase and encoded by Stk11, is necessary for Treg survival and function. Stk11 can be alternatively spliced to produce a …


Johne’S Disease In A Pygmy Doe: A Diagnostic Dilemma, Madison Callicott, Kaitlyn Upton, Joseph Smith, Camille Cordero Aponte 2023 UTK CVM

Johne’S Disease In A Pygmy Doe: A Diagnostic Dilemma, Madison Callicott, Kaitlyn Upton, Joseph Smith, Camille Cordero Aponte

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Large Animal Clinical Sciences

No abstract provided.


Investigating The Role Of Il-10 Producing Nkt Cells In Prevention Of Graft Versus Host Disease, Drew Boagni 2023 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Investigating The Role Of Il-10 Producing Nkt Cells In Prevention Of Graft Versus Host Disease, Drew Boagni

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

The standard curative treatment for hematologic malignancies is allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT), in which the patient’s immune system is replaced with that of a healthy donor. This can lead to cure through the graft versus leukemia (GVL) effect but can also cause graft versus host disease (GVHD), which is characterized by systemic inflammation and organ damage mediated by dysregulated donor T cells. Preclinical studies have shown invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT) cells can prevent GVHD while preserving GVL. iNKT cells are unconventional T cells which recognize glycolipid antigens presented in the context of CD1d. Upon activation, they secrete …


Microglial Response To Glucocorticoids During Chronic Sleep Fragmentation, Christian Chelson 2023 Western Kentucky University

Microglial Response To Glucocorticoids During Chronic Sleep Fragmentation, Christian Chelson

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Sleep is one of the body’s greatest and most basic needs. Chronic sleep loss (<6 hours a day) is linked to many cardiovascular issues, diabetes, and inflammatory conditions and has been shown to lower life expectancy. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a complication that causes sleep fragmentation in >8% of adults from developed countries, and many with OSA may be unaware of their condition. Having long-term OSA is linked to neuroinflammation caused by activated microglia in the brain, but the mechanics of this inflammation are not well understood. It is known that glucocorticoids, steroid hormones produced and released from the adrenal glands, have a suppressive effect on microglia. The purpose of this study is to explore the role that glucocorticoids have upon microglia activation induced by chronic sleep fragmentation (SF). C57BL/6J mice were …


Nivolumab And Ipilimumab In Combination With Radiotherapy In Patients With High-Risk Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma Of The Head And Neck., Jennifer Johnson, Ioannis A. Vathiotis, Larry Harshyne, Ayesha Ali, Voichita Bar-Ad, Rita S. Axelrod, Emily Lorber, Joseph Curry, David Cognetti, Adam J. Luginbuhl, Madalina Tuluc, Scott W Keith, M.G. Mahoney, Athanassios Argiris 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Nivolumab And Ipilimumab In Combination With Radiotherapy In Patients With High-Risk Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma Of The Head And Neck., Jennifer Johnson, Ioannis A. Vathiotis, Larry Harshyne, Ayesha Ali, Voichita Bar-Ad, Rita S. Axelrod, Emily Lorber, Joseph Curry, David Cognetti, Adam J. Luginbuhl, Madalina Tuluc, Scott W Keith, M.G. Mahoney, Athanassios Argiris

Department of Medical Oncology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: The combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab has been approved for the treatment of multiple solid tumors. This was a phase I study investigating definitive radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with nivolumab and ipilimumab for the treatment of locally advanced (LA) squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN).

METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed, stage IVA-IVB SCCHN eligible for cisplatin-based chemotherapy received nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks for a total of 17 doses) and ipilimumab (1 mg/kg every 6 weeks for a total of 6 doses) starting 2 weeks prior to radiotherapy. The primary endpoint was safety of definitive RIT. Secondary …


Investigation Of Orthohantavirus Genetics In Rodent Reservoirs And Clinical Samples, Samuel M Goodfellow 2023 Center for Global Health, Department of Internal Medicine, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA

Investigation Of Orthohantavirus Genetics In Rodent Reservoirs And Clinical Samples, Samuel M Goodfellow

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

Orthohantaviruses are negative-sense, single stranded RNA viruses with trisegmented genomes that can cause severe disease in humans and are carried by several host reservoirs throughout the world. In the United States, Sin Nombre orthohantavirus (SNV) is the primary cause of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) with a fatality rate of ~36% and the highest cases occuring in the southwest region. The primary SNV host reservoir is thought to be the western deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, however it has been shown that other rodents can carry different orthohantaviruses. We designed a pan-orthohantavirus detection tool to survey several small mammal populations throughout New …


Characterization Of The Immunoglobulin Lambda Chain Across Diverse Human Populations., William Gibson 2023 University of Louisville

Characterization Of The Immunoglobulin Lambda Chain Across Diverse Human Populations., William Gibson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The adaptive immune system relies on a diverse set of over one hundred immunoglobulin (IG) genes across three genomic loci that are variably combined to form antibodies (Ab). The IG Lambda locus is one of two loci which encodes the IG light chain. The complexity of the IGL locus severely limits the effective use of standard short-read sequencing, limiting our knowledge of population diversity in these loci. We leveraged single molecule real-time (SMRT) long-read sequencing in conjunction with IGL-targeted DNA capture to develop the method IG-Cap for accurate and high-throughput sequencing of the IGL locus. We benchmarked this method using …


Illuminating Underappreciated Mechanisms Of Receptor Regulation In Human Lymphocytes., Cassandra Woolley 2023 University of Louisville

Illuminating Underappreciated Mechanisms Of Receptor Regulation In Human Lymphocytes., Cassandra Woolley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A thorough understanding of receptor regulation is imperative to predict expression in varying contexts of disease or treatment. Lymphocyte surface receptors are often used as biomarkers and drug targets, making them particularly important for study. For receptors of debated functionality, such as the Fc receptor for IgM (FcMR), understanding regulation can also help to predict expression in vivo to supplement hypotheses of biological roles. Various mechanisms exist for altering receptor surface expression, including direct feedback mechanisms such as ligand-induced endocytosis and broader mechanisms such as transcriptional and translational control. In this dissertation, we explore selected underappreciated mechanisms of lymphocyte receptor …


Black Bear Population Health Monitoring In The Southeast, Kathleen Elizabeth Riese 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Black Bear Population Health Monitoring In The Southeast, Kathleen Elizabeth Riese

Masters Theses

Recent growth of the American black bear (Ursus americanus) population in the southeast raises concerns about the potential spread of density-dependent diseases among bears, particularly sarcoptic mange. However, research on the health of bears in this area is limited. We analyzed samples from 169 bears in the region. We performed Knotts tests, skin scrapes, fecal floats; Canine adenovirus (CAV), canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper virus (CDV), and Toxoplasma gondii serology, Trypanosoma, Rickettsia rickettsii, and apicomplexan PCR, and identified ecto- and endoparasites found grossly or histologically. We found that 69% (63 of 91) had microfilaria; genetic analysis identified …


Elucidating The Biomechanics Of Mertk-Mediated Efferocytosis, Brandon Hayato Dickson 2023 Western University

Elucidating The Biomechanics Of Mertk-Mediated Efferocytosis, Brandon Hayato Dickson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Macrophages are key mediators of efferocytosis – the phagocytic engulfment and removal of apoptotic cells. During engulfment, the coordinated activity of efferocytic receptors induces the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, which facilitates the envelopment of the cell by the plasma membrane. Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (MERTK) is a crucial efferocytic receptor, but its role during actin remodeling is not well understood. Previously, our lab showed that MERTK is an activator of β2 integrins – which are comprised of receptors known to induce the actin polymerization that is required for engulfment. We hypothesized that MERTK is an indirect stimulator of …


Exploring The Interactions Between Sars-Cov-2 And Host Proteins., Sojan Shrestha 2023 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Exploring The Interactions Between Sars-Cov-2 And Host Proteins., Sojan Shrestha

School of Biological Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the current pandemic, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 is considered to be of zoonotic origin; it originated in non-human animals and was transmitted to humans. Since the early stage of the pandemic, however, the evidence of transmissions from humans to animals (reverse zoonoses) has been found in multiple animal species including mink, white-tailed deer, and pet and zoo animals. Furthermore, secondary zoonotic events of SARS-CoV-2, transmissions from animals to humans, have been also reported. It is suggested that non-human hosts can act as SARS-CoV-2 reservoirs where accumulated …


Preclinical Evaluation Of Anti-Cd38 Therapy In Mature T-Cell Neoplasms, Colleen Isabelle, William Johnson, Kathleen McConnell, Ashley Vogel, Jonathan Brammer, Amy Boles, Robyn Keller, Paola Sindaco, Liam Nisenfeld, Guldeep Uppal, Neda Nikbakht, Bruno Calabretta, Patrizia Porazzi, Jerald Gong, Nitin Chakravarti, Pierluigi Porcu, Anjali Mishra 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Preclinical Evaluation Of Anti-Cd38 Therapy In Mature T-Cell Neoplasms, Colleen Isabelle, William Johnson, Kathleen Mcconnell, Ashley Vogel, Jonathan Brammer, Amy Boles, Robyn Keller, Paola Sindaco, Liam Nisenfeld, Guldeep Uppal, Neda Nikbakht, Bruno Calabretta, Patrizia Porazzi, Jerald Gong, Nitin Chakravarti, Pierluigi Porcu, Anjali Mishra

Kimmel Cancer Center Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


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