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Obesity As A Risk Factor For Covid-19, Gabriela Hermes, Mir Saleem 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Obesity As A Risk Factor For Covid-19, Gabriela Hermes, Mir Saleem

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

The coronavirus pandemic has presented a wide range of challenges for healthcare systems in the world. COVID-19 has infected millions of people, with approximately 90% of the population showing mild or no symptoms. The disease has some risk factors that increase its severity, such as obesity, age, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, suppressed immune system, and pulmonary disorders. Obese individuals have higher chances of having symptomatic COVID-19 infection with excessive rates of hospitalization and ICU admission. Understanding the mechanisms defining the link between COVID-19 and obesity is necessary to develop preventive measures and therapeutic interventions for people with obesity. Patients with obesity …


Interrogation Of The Inkt-Mait Cell Interface, Nicole I. Wang 2022 Western University

Interrogation Of The Inkt-Mait Cell Interface, Nicole I. Wang

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are unique subsets of invariant T cells that are involved in regulating various tumor responses and display potent anti-microbial properties. Upon their activation, iNKT and MAIT cells secrete large quantities of T helper 1 (Th1)-, Th2-, and Th17-type cytokines that mediate their ability to regulate a variety of other immune cells, including B cells, natural killer cells, and macrophages. However, whether and how iNKT and MAIT cells regulate each other in vivo remains unknown. Here, we provide evidence for a cross-talk between iNKT and MAIT cells that resembles …


Anticipating Infection: How Parasitism Risk Changes Animal Physiology, Patricia C. Lopes 2022 Chapman University

Anticipating Infection: How Parasitism Risk Changes Animal Physiology, Patricia C. Lopes

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

  1. Uninfected animals can attempt to prevent parasitism in many ways. Behavioural avoidance of parasitized conspecifics, for instance, is documented in several species.
  2. Interactions with parasitized conspecifics can also, however, lead to physiological changes in uninfected animals, an effect that is much less well studied, and consequently, less well understood. The way in which exposure to parasitism risk changes the physiology of uninfected animals and the impacts of those changes on animal fitness remain a significant gap in knowledge.
  3. Determining how the disease environment experienced by animals impacts their physiology, survival and reproduction has major implications for our knowledge of how …


A Checklist Of Parasites Of Peromyscus Maniculatus In North America, John Ubelaker, Gábor R. Rácz 2022 Southern Methodist University

A Checklist Of Parasites Of Peromyscus Maniculatus In North America, John Ubelaker, Gábor R. Rácz

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

This document represents a summary of parasites, in the broadest sense of the term, reported from Peromyscus maniculatus from throughout its range in North America. The document provides data from work ranging from paleontological findings to relatively current reports of parasites and parasitism from P. maniculatus and covers viruses, bacteria sensu lato, protists, helminths, and ectoparasites.


Infection And Transmission Determinants Of Flea-Borne Rickettsioses, Hanna J. Laukaitis 2022 University of South Alabama

Infection And Transmission Determinants Of Flea-Borne Rickettsioses, Hanna J. Laukaitis

Theses and Dissertations

The genus Rickettsia is comprised of Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that are spread by hematophagous arthropods. Elucidating the factors conferring rickettsial virulence has perplexed investigators for decades, complicated by the lack of efficient genetic tools necessary to uncover rickettsial- and vector-specific factors contributing to persistence. The advent of transposon mutagenesis has enabled the field to make vast developments in uncovering novel rickettsial mechanisms utilized in various host backgrounds. Thus, the aim of this study was to generate Rickettsia felis transposon mutants and characterize novel phenotypes associated with genetic disruption in an arthropod background. Distribution of rickettsiae is reliant on the …


Weaving An Interdisciplinary Microbiome Career Using Threads From Different Ecosystems, Sarah Hosler 2022 University of Maine

Weaving An Interdisciplinary Microbiome Career Using Threads From Different Ecosystems, Sarah Hosler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Animals have trillions of microorganisms living in or on many body sites, these communities of microorganisms are called microbiomes. Microbiomes are typically host-specific, and a lot of information about the host can be determined from investigating them. Microbiome research has many real-world applications, and this thesis utilizes the One Health perspective, which acknowledges the connection of humans, animals, and environments, and emphasizes the need for collaborative, interdisciplinary research. The first interdisciplinary project is an investigation into the bacteria in wild and cultured Atlantic deep-sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus larvae. Adults in hatcheries can be induced to spawn, but the last two …


Mitochondrial Dna Diversity, Parasite And Pathogen Occurrence, And A Potential Disease Vector In Managed And Unmanaged Honey Bee, Apis Mellifera L. Populations, Dylan Cleary 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Mitochondrial Dna Diversity, Parasite And Pathogen Occurrence, And A Potential Disease Vector In Managed And Unmanaged Honey Bee, Apis Mellifera L. Populations, Dylan Cleary

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The western honey bee, Apis mellifera L., is a globally important pollinator plagued by several harmful stressors impacting colony health and survival. At least eight A. mellifera subspecies were imported and continue to be the genetic ancestors of U.S. honey bee populations today. Successive genetic bottle-neck events have led to reduced genetic diversity in U.S. honey bees. First, the subset of subspecies imported into the U.S. represents only a third of A. mellifera subspecies. Next, the parasitic varroa mite reduced managed and feral populations. Third, ongoing breeding practices have selected for traits from a single genetic lineage and bred from …


Human Cryptosporidiosis: A Review And Staining Method, Amatullah Ahmad 2022 University of Maine - Main

Human Cryptosporidiosis: A Review And Staining Method, Amatullah Ahmad

Honors College

Cryptosporidiosis is increasingly emerging as the most significant cause of infectious diarrhea in humans and livestock. In humans, studies show that Cryptosporidiosis disease is more prevalent in the immunocompromised and young ones. However, outbreaks from contaminated water sources have caused disease in healthy adults, too. Two main species of the protozoan causative agent,Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis are responsible for most human infections. Cattle, pets, mice, and other livestock can transmit theCryptosporidiumparvumvariantsto humans through fecal transmission. Other species of Cryptosporidium can infect domestic animals, but their host range is narrow; therefore, they are not of significant concern to human health. …


The Influences Of Disperser Behavior, Host Availability, And Environmental Conditions On The Distribution Of Oak Mistletoe [Phoradendron Leucarpum (Raf.) Reveal & M. C. Johnst.] In Eastern Virginia And North Carolina, Nicholas Pearce Flanders 2022 Old Dominion University

The Influences Of Disperser Behavior, Host Availability, And Environmental Conditions On The Distribution Of Oak Mistletoe [Phoradendron Leucarpum (Raf.) Reveal & M. C. Johnst.] In Eastern Virginia And North Carolina, Nicholas Pearce Flanders

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Mistletoes are shrubs that typically parasitize the branches of host trees and rely on avian frugivores for seed dispersal. Because mistletoes are restricted to a narrow range of suitable recruitment sites and avian frugivores are more visible than other guilds of seed dispersers, mistletoe-frugivore systems afford opportunities for assessing the roles of dispersal limitation and local environment in determining plant distribution. These mechanisms have been proposed as determinants of the observed association of oak mistletoe [Phoradendron leucarpum (Raf.) Reveal & M. C. Johnst.] with forested wetlands in eastern Virginia and North Carolina, USA. I tested the alternative hypothesis that …


A Microfluidics-Based Approach For Isolation Of Antigen-Specific Cd8+ T Cells, Meredith Frank 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

A Microfluidics-Based Approach For Isolation Of Antigen-Specific Cd8+ T Cells, Meredith Frank

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cancer is a global epidemic: there are predicted to be 200 million new cases this year alone. Almost a quarter of all cancer-related deaths are caused by lung cancer, for which 5-year survival rates are just above 20%. 85% of lung cancer diagnoses are classified as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for which 5-year survival rates in metastatic disease are less than 10%. Early detection and targeted therapies have improved prognoses, yet relapse is still common among patients.

Immunotherapies that leverage tumor-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells have shown great promise for the treatment of NSCLC. However, although highly promising, …


Eluication Of Lipid Metabolic Pathways In Differentiating Giardia Lamblia Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry, Cameron Ellis 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Eluication Of Lipid Metabolic Pathways In Differentiating Giardia Lamblia Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry, Cameron Ellis

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Giardia lamblia is an intestinal protozoan found worldwide, including the U.S. This parasite exists in two morphologic stages - a replicative trophozoite and a relatively dormant yet viable cyst. While exposures of cysts to gastric acid during passage through the human stomach induces excystation, factors in the small intestine, where trophozoites colonize trigger encystation or cyst formation. Transformation into cyst stage is essential for Giardia to survive in the environment for months before infecting new hosts. Because of its small genome size (11.7 Mb), metabolic pathways in Giardia are highly reduced. As far as lipid metabolism is concerned, only limited …


The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. The only curative option for patients is surgery, but over 80% of patients are not surgical candidates. Unfortunately, PDAC is resistant to the three remaining options. PDAC is characterized by a profoundly hypoxic and immunosuppressive stroma, which contributes to its therapeutic recalcitrance. Alpha-smooth muscle actin+ (αSMA+) cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant stromal component, as well as mediators of stromal deposition. The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF1 and HIF2) coordinate responses to hypoxia, yet, despite their known association to poor patient outcomes, their functions within the PDAC tumor microenvironment (TME) …


Immunotherapeutic Effects Of Intratumorally Injected Zymosan-Adenovirus Conjugates Encoding Constant Active Irfs In A Melanoma Mouse Model, Margaret Musick 2022 Clemson University

Immunotherapeutic Effects Of Intratumorally Injected Zymosan-Adenovirus Conjugates Encoding Constant Active Irfs In A Melanoma Mouse Model, Margaret Musick

All Dissertations

Current immunotherapies are only effective in a fraction of cancer patients. One of the main contributing factors to therapy resistance and overall poor prognosis is the immune status of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been shown to have significant influence on the immune status of the TME. As key players in maintaining tissue homeostasis, macrophages exhibit a broad range of phenotypes and functions, making TAMs a promising target for immunomodulatory therapies. As liaisons between innate and adaptive immunity, TAMs can promote a robust anti-tumor response involving both innate and adaptive immunity. This study investigated the potential of …


Regulation Of Mhc Ii Trafficking And Expression By Host And Viral Factors, Alex Lac 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Regulation Of Mhc Ii Trafficking And Expression By Host And Viral Factors, Alex Lac

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) to the adaptive immune system is crucial for mounting sterilizing immune responses. This central role has made antigen presentation a target for antagonism by many pathogens. Notably, infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) decrease MHC II expression in several immune cells. The mechanisms responsible for this suppression are unknown but involves either redirecting MHC II molecules away from the cell surface or inhibiting MHC II expression. To understand how pathogens manipulate intracellular MHC II trafficking, we first investigated the role of the Golgi trafficking regulator, ERC1, in …


Review Of The Cloacininae Stossich (Nemata: Strongyloidea) From Australasian Marsupials (Marsupialia: Macropodoidea), Ian Beveridge, Lesley R. Smales 2022 University of Melbourne

Review Of The Cloacininae Stossich (Nemata: Strongyloidea) From Australasian Marsupials (Marsupialia: Macropodoidea), Ian Beveridge, Lesley R. Smales

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

The nematode sub-family Cloacininae from Australasian macropodoid marsupials is reviewed. Keys are provided to all genera and species currently known. A revised definition of the sub-family and detailed generic diagnoses are provided. For each species, full synonymies and literature citations are included along with known hosts, geographical distributions and associated DNA sequence data. A brief morphological synopsis of each species is provided together with illustrations of the morphological features needed for identification using the keys. Due to uncertainties relating to the division of the sub-family into tribes, only the nominal allocation to tribe is provided. Two new genera are erected, …


Choline Supplementation Modifies The Effects Of Developmental Alcohol Exposure On Immune Responses In Adult Rats, Jessica A. Baker, Kristen R. Breit, Tamara S. Bodnar, Joanne Weinberg, Jennifer D. Thomas 2022 San Diego State University

Choline Supplementation Modifies The Effects Of Developmental Alcohol Exposure On Immune Responses In Adult Rats, Jessica A. Baker, Kristen R. Breit, Tamara S. Bodnar, Joanne Weinberg, Jennifer D. Thomas

Psychology Faculty Publications

Prenatal alcohol exposure can disrupt the development of numerous systems, including the immune system. Indeed, alterations in cytokine levels may contribute to the neuropathological, behavioral, and cognitive problems, and other adverse outcomes observed in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Importantly, supplementation with the essential nutrient choline can improve performance in hippocampal-dependent behaviors; thus, the present study examined the effects of choline on plasma and hippocampal cytokines in adult rats exposed to ethanol in early development. From postnatal day (PD) 4-9 (third trimester equivalent), pups received ethanol (5.25 g/kg/day) or Sham intubations. Subjects were treated with choline chloride (100 mg/kg/day) …


Robust Network Stability Of Mosquitoes And Human Pathogens Of Medical Importance, Donald A. Yee, Catherine Dean Bermond, Limarie J. Reyes-Torres, Nicole S. Fijman, Nicole A. Scavo, Joseph Nelsen, Susan H. Yee 2022 University of Southern Mississippi

Robust Network Stability Of Mosquitoes And Human Pathogens Of Medical Importance, Donald A. Yee, Catherine Dean Bermond, Limarie J. Reyes-Torres, Nicole S. Fijman, Nicole A. Scavo, Joseph Nelsen, Susan H. Yee

Faculty Publications

Background: The exact number of mosquito species relevant to human health is unknown, posing challenges in understanding the scope and breadth of vector–pathogen relationships, and how resilient mosquito vector–pathogen networks are to targeted eradication of vectors.

Methods: We performed an extensive literature survey to determine the associations between mosquito species and their associated pathogens of human medical importance. For each vector–pathogen association, we then determined the strength of the associations (i.e., natural infection, lab infection, lab dissemination, lab transmission, known vector). A network analysis was used to identify relationships among all pathogens and vectors. Finally, we examined how …


Quality Of Life For Women With Chronic Lyme Disease: A Socioeconomic Investigation, Dale M. Jones 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Quality Of Life For Women With Chronic Lyme Disease: A Socioeconomic Investigation, Dale M. Jones

Doctoral Dissertations

This is a mixed methods investigation of how chronic Lyme disease, including Lyme-like diseases and co-infections, affects the quality of life of women who have chronic Lyme. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used during three phases of research: a 91-question survey instrument followed by focus group discussions and written narratives. The research considered the socioeconomic impact on quality of life in five areas: obtaining a diagnosis, relationships and personal support systems, struggles with the medical system, the ability to work, and access to treatment. There were 500 responses to the survey, of which 373 were analyzed; 11 participants in …


Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz PhD, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz Phd, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Salmonella is a relatively abundant, virulent species of bacteria that is most known for spreading gastrointestinal diseases through food. These illnesses result in approximately 1.35 million infections, including over 25,000 hospitalizations each year, in the U.S. alone (CDC.gov). As antibiotic resistance becomes an increasingly urgent public health problem, the importance of developing alternative treatment methods is only becoming more crucial. One of the genes responsible for this virulence is known as hilA. HilA is the main transcriptional regulator of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-1 gene (UniProt). SPI-1 plays an important role in the invasion of Salmonella into epithelial cells. The proteins encoded …


Factors Affecting The Antibacterial Activity Of Cefiderocol On Klebsiella Pneumoniae With Diverse Characteristics, Lana Jamal Rashed Daoud 2022 United Arab Emirates University

Factors Affecting The Antibacterial Activity Of Cefiderocol On Klebsiella Pneumoniae With Diverse Characteristics, Lana Jamal Rashed Daoud

Theses

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing serious threat that poses a burden on the healthcare system. Spread of AMR bacteria limits treatment options; thus, new antimicrobial agents are required. Cefiderocol (CFDC) is a novel siderophore cephalosporin, approved by the FDA in 2019 for use in treating infections caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens; but it is not yet in clinical use in the UAE. CFDC is equipped with stabilizers against β-lactamases as well as a siderophore side chain that allows it to penetrate the outer membrane of bacteria through the iron uptake pathways. The aim of this study is to …


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