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The Characterization Of Vig-1’S Expression Patterns In Ipnv-Infected, Or Dsrna-Treated, Rainbow Trout Cells, Samantha Lum 2024 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Characterization Of Vig-1’S Expression Patterns In Ipnv-Infected, Or Dsrna-Treated, Rainbow Trout Cells, Samantha Lum

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In Canada, annual trout production is valued at over $60M with approximately 10,000 tonnes of trout produced per year. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are one of the most commonly farmed fresh-water fish in Canada. The high-density farming practices involved in aquaculture increase rainbow trout susceptibility to aquatic viruses such as infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). The innate antiviral immune response in rainbow trout is poorly characterized, and the functions of numerous interferon stimulated genes (ISG) in rainbow trout remain unclear. One such gene, virus-induced gene 1 (vig-1) has been poorly studied; however, the human orthologue for vig-1 …


Effect Of Macrophage Expressed Α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (Α7nachr) On Migration Of Macrophages During Inflammation, Kasey Keever 2023 East Tennessee State University

Effect Of Macrophage Expressed Α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (Α7nachr) On Migration Of Macrophages During Inflammation, Kasey Keever

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition characterized by overwhelming inflammation, resulting in organ system damage, leading to a high mortality rate. Care in the clinical setting is supportive, and there are no approved sepsis-specific treatments. In septic mice, activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway decreases cytokine secretion by leukocytes and improves survival. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is a reflex of the parasympathetic nervous system, converging on the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (α7nAChR) at the surface of macrophages. Signaling through the receptor blocks NF-kB activation, thus cytokine secretion. Receptor activation has other effects on macrophages, including modulating their migration to …


Sars-Cov-2: Tale Of A Microscopic Murderer, Josiah P. Garner 2023 Collin College

Sars-Cov-2: Tale Of A Microscopic Murderer, Josiah P. Garner

Quest

Independent Study

Research in progress for BIOL1406: Biology for Science Majors I

Faculty Mentor: Amina Tassa, Ph.D.

I am delighted to introduce Josiah Garner’s “SARS-CoV-2: Tale of a Microscopic Murderer.” This independent study assignment explores the impact of a novel, deadly, and worldwide virus. The assignment also examines the fast development of vaccines to control the spread and reduce the symptoms of the virus.

Josiah’s paper focuses on the early history of the emergence of COVID-19, the world response, and vaccine development. He demonstrates critical thinking skills and effectively utilizes various research methods to obtain and communicate his information. Josiah …


The Role Of The Mek1/2-Erk-Rsk Signalling Axis In Innate Immune Memory, Rachel Low 2023 The Unviersity of Western Ontario

The Role Of The Mek1/2-Erk-Rsk Signalling Axis In Innate Immune Memory, Rachel Low

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Macrophages are innate immune cells that change their cellular states in response to different stimuli. This process is referred to as “innate immune memory” which can render two polarizing states: hyporesponsive (tolerated) or hyperresponsive (trained) states. To date, epigenetic modifications were shown to play a key role in innate immune memory. However, the signalling that induces memory is poorly understood. In this study, I examined the effects of various inhibitors targeting key signalling molecules involved in the activation of macrophages by the Gram-negative cell wall component lipopolysaccharide. I found that prolonged inhibition of the MEK1/2-ERK-RSK signalling axis prevented tolerance and …


Evaluating The Role Of The Bovine Vaginal Microbiome In Neonatal And Maternal Health Outcomes, Riley D. Messman 2023 Mississippi State University

Evaluating The Role Of The Bovine Vaginal Microbiome In Neonatal And Maternal Health Outcomes, Riley D. Messman

Theses and Dissertations

The dam vaginal microbiota is the first major microbial inoculating community within the neonate. The composition of the dam vaginal microbiota has implications in calf commensal microbiota development. Alterations of the dam microbial community prior to parturition could alter inoculating communities and immune responses in both the dam and calf. Thus, authors aimed to elucidate the microbial community composition of the bovine dam vaginal and calf nasal microbiota post-partum after utilizing betadine lavages (BL). The dam vaginal and calf nasal microbial communities and immune responses were evaluated at 0-, 15-, 30- and 60-day post-partum. Microbiota composition of the dam haircoat, …


The Role Of Lkb1 Spliceoforms In Itreg-Th17 Plasticity And Their Interactions With Pkcθ And Sirt1 Downstream Of Il-6 Signaling, Deeksha Mohan 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Role Of Lkb1 Spliceoforms In Itreg-Th17 Plasticity And Their Interactions With Pkcθ And Sirt1 Downstream Of Il-6 Signaling, Deeksha Mohan

Doctoral Dissertations

Following activation, CD4 T cells undergo metabolic and transcriptional changes as they respond to external cues and differentiate into T helper (Th) cells. T cells exhibit plasticity between Th phenotypes in highly inflammatory environments, such as colitis, in which high levels of IL-6 promote plasticity between regulatory T (Treg) cells and Th17 cells. Protein Kinase C theta (PKCθ) is a T cell-specific serine/threonine kinase that promotes Th17 differentiation while negatively regulating Treg differentiation. Liver kinase B1 (LKB1), also a serine/threonine kinase and encoded by Stk11, is necessary for Treg survival and function. Stk11 can be alternatively spliced to produce a …


Characterization Of The Immunoglobulin Lambda Chain Across Diverse Human Populations., William Gibson 2023 University of Louisville

Characterization Of The Immunoglobulin Lambda Chain Across Diverse Human Populations., William Gibson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The adaptive immune system relies on a diverse set of over one hundred immunoglobulin (IG) genes across three genomic loci that are variably combined to form antibodies (Ab). The IG Lambda locus is one of two loci which encodes the IG light chain. The complexity of the IGL locus severely limits the effective use of standard short-read sequencing, limiting our knowledge of population diversity in these loci. We leveraged single molecule real-time (SMRT) long-read sequencing in conjunction with IGL-targeted DNA capture to develop the method IG-Cap for accurate and high-throughput sequencing of the IGL locus. We benchmarked this method using …


Effects Of 11-Kt And Prolactin On Gene Expression, Parental Care Behaviour And Immune Response In Male Bluegill Sunfish., Adriano A P da Cunha 2023 Western University

Effects Of 11-Kt And Prolactin On Gene Expression, Parental Care Behaviour And Immune Response In Male Bluegill Sunfish., Adriano A P Da Cunha

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Parental care is very critical for reproduction in species that provide it. Hormones such as prolactin and androgens play a crucial role in parenting and reproductive behaviours. In mammals and birds, prolactin’s role in parental care is well-established; it stimulates milk production and stimulates attachment to newborns by its release in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA), among other functions. Androgens, on the other hand, are commonly associated with male secondary sex characteristics, territoriality, and aggressiveness in mammals and birds. There are similar reports of prolactin and androgen effects in fish, but there are fewer studies. I investigated if …


The Influence Of Microorganisms On Human Health, Tiffany Bui 2023 Portland State University

The Influence Of Microorganisms On Human Health, Tiffany Bui

University Honors Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to explore the interplay between the environment, lifestyle, and composition of human microbiomes across different communities, with a specific focus on immune and digestive health. This literature review investigates three distinct types of communities: isolated/traditional, transitional, and urban/industrialized communities, each characterized by unique environments, societal structures, and interactions. These factors contribute to the distinct microbial populations and compositions within each community. It is impossible to avoid contact with microorganisms as they are present in every aspect of our lives, from the air we breathe, the water we drink, the soil we walk on, the …


Effect Of Vitamin C And Probiotics On Broilers Performance And Claudin-2 (Cldn-2) Expression Under Heat Stress [Research Note], Mohammad Chamani, Mohammad Chamani, Farhad Foroudi, Ali Asghar Sadeghi, Mehdi Aminafshar 2023 Department of Animal Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Effect Of Vitamin C And Probiotics On Broilers Performance And Claudin-2 (Cldn-2) Expression Under Heat Stress [Research Note], Mohammad Chamani, Mohammad Chamani, Farhad Foroudi, Ali Asghar Sadeghi, Mehdi Aminafshar

The Philippine Agricultural Scientist

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of vitamin C and probiotic which consists of five species of beneficial bacteria and two species of fungi on performance, blood parameters, and intestinal CLDN-2 gene expression of broilers during heat stress (HS). A total of 400 broilers were randomly divided into five groups, each of which received a different treatment. The first group was considered a negative control and did not experience any HS (C-); the second group was considered a positive control (C+) and was exposed to HS; the third group received only vitamin C (250 …


Novel Natural Compounds Derived From Tcm In The Treatment Of Food Induced Anaphylaxis, Ibrahim Musa 2023 New York Medical College

Novel Natural Compounds Derived From Tcm In The Treatment Of Food Induced Anaphylaxis, Ibrahim Musa

NYMC Student Theses and Dissertations

Food allergy is a highly prevalent disease affecting about 30 million people in the U.S. It is managed primarily by food avoidance due to lack of promising treatment options. ASHMI (anti-asthma herbal intervention) which consists of three components, Sophorae flavescentis, Ganoderma lucidum, Glycyrrhiza uralensis has been shown to inhibit allergic lung inflammation in antigen sensitized and challenged mice. In this study we isolate and identify the active compound in Sophorae flavescentis, characterized the mechanism of IgE inhibitory effect, biomarkers and potential to prevent food anaphylaxis.

To separate and identify the compounds we used column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, mass …


Du Undergraduate Showcase: Research, Scholarship, And Creative Works, Caitlyn Aldersea, Justin Bravo, Sam Allen, Anna Block, Connor Block, Emma Buechler, Maria de los Angeles Bustillos, Arianna Carlson, William Christensen, Olivia Kachulis, Noah Craver, Kate Dillon, Muskan Fatima, Angel Fernandes, Emma Finch, Colleen Cassidy, Amy Fishman, Andrea Francis, Stacia Fritz, Simran Gill, Emma Gries, Rylie Hansen, Shannon Powers, Jacqueline Martinez, Zachary Harker, Ashley Hasty, Mykaela Tanino-Springsteen, Kathleen Hopps, Adelaide Kerenick, Colin Kleckner, Ci Koehring, Elijah Kruger, Braden Krumholz, Maddie Leake, Lyneé Alves, Seraphina Loukas, Yatzari Lozano Vazquez, Haley Maki, Emily Martinez, Sierra McKinney, Mykaela Tanino-Springsteen, Audrey Mitchell, Kipling Newman, Audrey Ng, Megan Lucyshyn, Andrew Nguyen, Stevie Ostman, Casandra Pearson, Alexandra Penney, Julia Gielczynski, Tyler Ball, Anna Rini, Christina Rorres, Simon Ruland, Helayna Schafer, Emma Sellers, Sarah Schuller, Claire Shaver, Kevin Summers, Isabella Shaw, Madison Sinar, Claudia Pena, Apshara Siwakoti, Carter Sorensen, Madi Sousa, Anna Sparling, Alexandra Revier, Brandon Thierry, Dylan Tyree, Maggie Williams, Lauren Wols 2023 University of Denver

Du Undergraduate Showcase: Research, Scholarship, And Creative Works, Caitlyn Aldersea, Justin Bravo, Sam Allen, Anna Block, Connor Block, Emma Buechler, Maria De Los Angeles Bustillos, Arianna Carlson, William Christensen, Olivia Kachulis, Noah Craver, Kate Dillon, Muskan Fatima, Angel Fernandes, Emma Finch, Colleen Cassidy, Amy Fishman, Andrea Francis, Stacia Fritz, Simran Gill, Emma Gries, Rylie Hansen, Shannon Powers, Jacqueline Martinez, Zachary Harker, Ashley Hasty, Mykaela Tanino-Springsteen, Kathleen Hopps, Adelaide Kerenick, Colin Kleckner, Ci Koehring, Elijah Kruger, Braden Krumholz, Maddie Leake, Lyneé Alves, Seraphina Loukas, Yatzari Lozano Vazquez, Haley Maki, Emily Martinez, Sierra Mckinney, Mykaela Tanino-Springsteen, Audrey Mitchell, Kipling Newman, Audrey Ng, Megan Lucyshyn, Andrew Nguyen, Stevie Ostman, Casandra Pearson, Alexandra Penney, Julia Gielczynski, Tyler Ball, Anna Rini, Christina Rorres, Simon Ruland, Helayna Schafer, Emma Sellers, Sarah Schuller, Claire Shaver, Kevin Summers, Isabella Shaw, Madison Sinar, Claudia Pena, Apshara Siwakoti, Carter Sorensen, Madi Sousa, Anna Sparling, Alexandra Revier, Brandon Thierry, Dylan Tyree, Maggie Williams, Lauren Wols

DU Undergraduate Research Journal Archive

DU Undergraduate Showcase: Research, Scholarship, and Creative Works


Effects Of Cyclic Heat Stress On The Acute Inflammatory Response In Broilers, Alessandro J. Rocchi 2023 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Cyclic Heat Stress On The Acute Inflammatory Response In Broilers, Alessandro J. Rocchi

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Heat stress (HS) is a growing concern in broiler production due to increasing environmental temperatures. Little is known of the overall effect of HS on innate immunity. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, is commonly used to study the inflammatory response. In avian species, the local tissue and systemic inflammatory activities in response to LPS may be determined concurrently, over time, in an individual, using the growing feather (GF) pulp dermal test along with blood measurements (dual-window approach). To examine the effect of cyclic HS on the local and systemic acute inflammatory responses, Cobb 500 male broiler …


The Presence Of Tetracycline-Resistant Bacteria In A Kean University Campus Soil Sample, Esther Blankson, Jessica Kobilas, Gianna Medeiros 2023 Kean University

The Presence Of Tetracycline-Resistant Bacteria In A Kean University Campus Soil Sample, Esther Blankson, Jessica Kobilas, Gianna Medeiros

Kean Quest

The spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the environment is a worldwide problem that threatens human health. Bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics as the consumption of antibiotics grows. In particular, soil can be contaminated with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics. As of today, there is no surveillance system that tracks the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, however, Tufts University aims to change this by implementing the Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment (PARE) project. The course-based PARE project consists of research students sampling soil in diverse locations and reporting the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The purpose of …


Intergenerational Change In Hiv/Aids-Related Stigma In Cato Manor, MiJin Cho 2023 SIT Study Abroad

Intergenerational Change In Hiv/Aids-Related Stigma In Cato Manor, Mijin Cho

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

In South Africa, the world’s epicenter of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, HIV-related stigma and stigma-enforcing stereotypes continue to serve as major health barriers to receiving adequate HIV prevention and treatment. While there continues to be a rise in research and advocacy, there is a need to study HIV stigma through a multigenerational lens that addresses the changing HIV/AIDS stigma in the post-apartheid era. Using qualitative methodology, this study aims to explore the generational differences in perceived HIV stigma between females in their 20s and above 50 years of age (as denoted by “50s+”) living in Cato Manor, South Africa. The study …


Relationship Between Treatment Comorbidities And Hiv Viral Suppression Among People Who Live With Aids In Johannesburg., Nwogo Immaculata Ekeji, Tolulope A. Osoba, Hebatullah Tawfik, Mehdi Agha 2023 Walden University

Relationship Between Treatment Comorbidities And Hiv Viral Suppression Among People Who Live With Aids In Johannesburg., Nwogo Immaculata Ekeji, Tolulope A. Osoba, Hebatullah Tawfik, Mehdi Agha

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

HIV has globally infected over 37.9 million people, of which 28.2 million (73%) are on antiretroviral treatment, and 66% of those on treatment are virally suppressed. In South Africa, however, low rate of viral suppression (47%) among people living with HIV is a major health problem that has continued to fuel HIV prevalence. A cross-sectional quantitative research design was used to investigate the relationship between treatment comorbidities and viral suppression among HIV-infected adults aged 18–49 who were diabetic, had cancer, or tuberculosis in Johannesburg. HIV Care Continuum formed the theoretical framework for this research. An existing HIV-infected patient de-identifiable dataset …


Human Milk: From Covid-19 Immunity To Breast Cancer Risk Assessment, Vignesh Narayanaswamy 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Human Milk: From Covid-19 Immunity To Breast Cancer Risk Assessment, Vignesh Narayanaswamy

Doctoral Dissertations

Breastmilk is a complex biological fluid containing macromolecules including lipids, oligosaccharides, proteins as well as several types of cells. Several studies have reported in detail of these components. My focus is studying the protein component of breastmilk, specifically antibodies, cytokines, and other secreted factors in the setting of different pathogenicity in women. Studies have demonstrated that the levels of numerous cytokines as well as the levels of pathogen-specific antibodies are altered in milk upon either maternal or infant infections. Additionally, there are reports that the levels of certain inflammatory markers are altered in milk among women with breast cancer or …


Tgf-B Signaling Mechanisms In Caenorhabditis Elegans Response To Bacterial Pathogens, Emma J. Ciccarelli 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Tgf-B Signaling Mechanisms In Caenorhabditis Elegans Response To Bacterial Pathogens, Emma J. Ciccarelli

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

When exposed to infection, the nematode C. elegans mounts an innate immune response through secretion of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Different signaling pathways in the worm regulate release of these AMPs. One highly conserved pathway is the C. elegans BMP like pathway – regulated by the ligand DBL-1. The DBL-1 pathway is noted for its significant role in development but has also been shown to regulate many post-developmental processes within the worm, including the immune response. We are interested in determining how DBL-1 signaling can mediate a response specific to immunity, separate from its other functions in the worm. Through survival …


The Impacts Of Immune Challenges On Fish Behavior And Physiology, Teisha King 2023 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

The Impacts Of Immune Challenges On Fish Behavior And Physiology, Teisha King

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

For species living in dominance hierarchies, social rank dictates access to resources and often contributes to reproductive success. To ensure survival, individuals constantly evaluate trade- offs between crucial biological systems, like the reproductive and immune systems, depending on their social rank and physiological state. Little is known about how social species balance interactions between immune system function, fluctuations in social status and reproductive fitness, and the performance of behaviors necessary for maintaining social status when sick, particularly in fishes, the largest and most diverse group of vertebrates. My dissertation research uses a whole animal approach to examine how physiological profiles …


Phase 1a Clinical Study For Q-Griffithsin Intranasal Spray For Prevention Of Coronavirus, Megan Bezold, Kenneth Palmer, Nobuyuki Matoba, Elizabeth Cash 2023 University of Louisville

Phase 1a Clinical Study For Q-Griffithsin Intranasal Spray For Prevention Of Coronavirus, Megan Bezold, Kenneth Palmer, Nobuyuki Matoba, Elizabeth Cash

Posters-at-the-Capitol

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly transmissible virus that causes acute respiratory disease with possible long-term complications, known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Griffithsin (GRFT; including the oxidation-resistant variant Q-GRFT used in this study) is an algal carbohydrate-binding protein exhibiting antiviral effects against many enveloped viruses, including all major variants of SARS- CoV-2 reported to date. Q-GRFT has been recombinantly manufactured in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, thoroughly purified, and formulated as an intranasal spray designed to be developed as a non-vaccine broad-spectrum prophylactic product for acute use. This is the first-in-human, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The …


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