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Effects Of A Low Crude Protein Diet With And Without Spirulina Platensis Inclusion On The Concentrations And Proportions Of Circulating Immune Cells In Broilers, Heather Glenn 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of A Low Crude Protein Diet With And Without Spirulina Platensis Inclusion On The Concentrations And Proportions Of Circulating Immune Cells In Broilers, Heather Glenn

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Immune system health is an important aspect of broiler production, especially with the reduction of the use of antibiotics. Nutritional aspects, like crude protein percentage, and natural alternatives to antibiotics are being investigated to see the effect they have on immunity. Spirulina is an alternative proteinaceous ingredient that producers are looking into, not only due to its high nutritional value, but also its immune boosting properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a low crude protein diet (LCP) and a Spirulina-supplemented low crude protein (LCP-SP) diet on broiler blood cell measurements, including, concentrations and proportions ...


B25: Generation And Characterization Of Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein-Pseudotyped Lentivirus Particles For Use In Neutralizing Antibody Titer Testing Of Human Serum, Luis Sanchez 2021 Roseman University of Health Sciences

B25: Generation And Characterization Of Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein-Pseudotyped Lentivirus Particles For Use In Neutralizing Antibody Titer Testing Of Human Serum, Luis Sanchez

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Simulated Contact Tracing Of Covid-19 Propagation At Kutztown University For Fall 2020, Dale E. Parson 2021 Kutztown University

Simulated Contact Tracing Of Covid-19 Propagation At Kutztown University For Fall 2020, Dale E. Parson

Computer Science and Information Technology Faculty

From mid-May through August 2020 the author designed, built, revised, and analyzed resulting data from two simulation programs for virtual contact tracing of COVID-19 infection propagation at Kutztown University in the fall 2020 semester. The first was command-line driven and non-graphical, with results distributed to faculty and administrators on May 28. The second was a three-dimensional interactive graphical simulation, distributed to faculty, administrators, and the public as a narrated video via YouTube on July 16. The algorithm is an adaptation of spreading activation as used in theoretical psychology and artificial intelligence research since the 1970s. It propagates discrete, probable infections ...


H1n1 Influenza Virus (Swine Flu): A Comprehensive Insight Into Escalating Catch-22 Scenarios, Muhammad Shahzaib, Ehsan Ul Haq 2021 University of Sargodha, Sargodha

H1n1 Influenza Virus (Swine Flu): A Comprehensive Insight Into Escalating Catch-22 Scenarios, Muhammad Shahzaib, Ehsan Ul Haq

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: Viruses have always been a major cause of various disastrous pandemics in mankind’s history. H1N1 became a threat when its original strain was first discovered back in the swine flu pandemic of 2009. It became highly catastrophic on a large scale because none of the therapeutic interventions and methodologies that were already present at the time were effective against the virus.

Methods: A vast amount of literature and research is available regarding H1N1 influenza from different reputable sources online. The data was gathered following the contrasting and relative situations of 1918 as well as the 2009 pandemic in ...


Cnbp, Rel, And Bhlhe40 Variants Are Associated With Il-12 And Il-10 Responses And Tuberculosis Risk [Preprint], Javeed A. Shah, Christopher M. Sassetti, Katherine A. Fitzgerald 2021 University of Washington

Cnbp, Rel, And Bhlhe40 Variants Are Associated With Il-12 And Il-10 Responses And Tuberculosis Risk [Preprint], Javeed A. Shah, Christopher M. Sassetti, Katherine A. Fitzgerald

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Rationale: The major human genes regulating M. tuberculosis (Mtb)-induced immune responses and tuberculosis (TB) susceptibility are poorly understood. Although IL-12 and IL-10 are critical for TB pathogenesis, the genetic factors that regulate their expression are unknown. CNBP, REL, and BHLHE40 are master regulators of IL-12 and IL-10 signaling.

Objectives: To determine whether common human genetic variation in CNBP, REL and BHLHE40 is associated with IL-12 and IL-10 expression, adaptive immune responses to mycobacteria, and susceptibility to TB.

Methods and Main Measurements: We characterized the association between common variants in CNBP, REL, and BHLHE40 and innate immune responses in dendritic ...


Cd4 T Cell Help Prevents Cd8 T Cell Exhaustion And Promotes Control Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection [Preprint], Yu-Jung Lu, Palmira Barreira-Silva, Shayla Boyce, Jennifer Powers, Kelly Cavallo, Samuel M. Behar 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Cd4 T Cell Help Prevents Cd8 T Cell Exhaustion And Promotes Control Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection [Preprint], Yu-Jung Lu, Palmira Barreira-Silva, Shayla Boyce, Jennifer Powers, Kelly Cavallo, Samuel M. Behar

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

CD4 T cells are essential for immunity to tuberculosis because they produce cytokines including interferon-γ. Whether CD4 T cells act as “helper” cells to promote optimal CD8 T cell responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis is unknown. Using two independent models, we show that CD4 T cell help enhances CD8 effector functions and prevents CD8 T cell exhaustion. We demonstrate synergy between CD4 and CD8 T cells in promoting the survival of infected mice. Purified helped, but not helpless, CD8 T cells efficiently restrict intracellular bacterial growth in vitro. Thus, CD4 T cell help plays an essential role in generating protective CD8 ...


Identification Of A Neutralizing Epitope Within Minor Repeat Region Of Plasmodium Falciparum Cs Protein, J. Mauricio Calvo-Calle, Robert Mitchell, Rita Altszuler, Caroline Othoro, Elizabeth Nardin 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Identification Of A Neutralizing Epitope Within Minor Repeat Region Of Plasmodium Falciparum Cs Protein, J. Mauricio Calvo-Calle, Robert Mitchell, Rita Altszuler, Caroline Othoro, Elizabeth Nardin

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with 219 million infections and 435,000 deaths predominantly in Africa. The infective Plasmodium sporozoite is the target of a potent humoral immune response that can protect murine, simian and human hosts against challenge by malaria-infected mosquitoes. Early murine studies demonstrated that sporozoites or subunit vaccines based on the sporozoite major surface antigen, the circumsporozoite (CS) protein, elicit antibodies that primarily target the central repeat region of the CS protein. In the current murine studies, using monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal sera obtained following immunization with P. falciparum sporozoites or synthetic ...


Human Antibody Immune Responses Are Personalized By Selective Removal Of Mhc-Ii Peptide Epitopes [Preprint], Matias Gutiérrez-González, Padma P. Nanaware, Liying Lu, Lawrence J. Stern, Brandon J. DeKosky 2021 University of Kansas

Human Antibody Immune Responses Are Personalized By Selective Removal Of Mhc-Ii Peptide Epitopes [Preprint], Matias Gutiérrez-González, Padma P. Nanaware, Liying Lu, Lawrence J. Stern, Brandon J. Dekosky

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Human antibody responses are established by the generation of combinatorial sequence diversity in antibody variable domains, followed by iterative rounds of mutation and selection via T cell recognition of antigen peptides presented on MHC-II. Here, we report that MHC-II peptide epitope deletion from B cell receptors (BCRs) correlates with antibody development in vivo. Large-scale antibody sequence analysis and experimental validation of peptide binding revealed that MHC-II epitope removal from BCRs is linked to genetic signatures of T cell help, and donor-specific antibody repertoire modeling demonstrated that somatic hypermutation selectively targets the personalized MHC-II epitopes in antibody variable regions. Mining of ...


Innate Lymphoid Cells And Disease Tolerance In Sars-Cov-2 Infection [Preprint], Noah J. Silverstein, Yetao Wang, Zachary Manickas-Hill, Claudia C. Carbone, Ann Dauphin, MGH COVID-19 Collection & Processing Team, Jonathan Z. Li, Bruce D. Walker, Xu G. Yu, Jeremy Luban 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Innate Lymphoid Cells And Disease Tolerance In Sars-Cov-2 Infection [Preprint], Noah J. Silverstein, Yetao Wang, Zachary Manickas-Hill, Claudia C. Carbone, Ann Dauphin, Mgh Covid-19 Collection & Processing Team, Jonathan Z. Li, Bruce D. Walker, Xu G. Yu, Jeremy Luban

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) increases with age, is greater in males, and is associated with decreased numbers of blood lymphoid cells. Though the reasons for these robust associations are unclear, effects of age and sex on innate and adaptive lymphoid subsets, including on homeostatic innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) implicated in disease tolerance, may underlie the effects of age and sex on COVID-19 morbidity and mortality.

METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to quantitate subsets of blood lymphoid cells from people infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), comparing those hospitalized with severe COVID-19 (n=40 ...


Current And Time‐Lagged Effects Of Climate On Innate Immunity In Two Sympatric Snake Species, Lucia L. Combrink, Anne M. Bronikowski, David A. W. Miller, Amanda M. Sparkman 2021 Westmont College

Current And Time‐Lagged Effects Of Climate On Innate Immunity In Two Sympatric Snake Species, Lucia L. Combrink, Anne M. Bronikowski, David A. W. Miller, Amanda M. Sparkman

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

  1. Changing environments result in alterations at all levels of biological organization, from genetics to physiology to demography. The increasing frequency of droughts worldwide is associated with higher temperatures and reduced precipitation that can impact population persistence via effects on individual immune function and survival.
  2. We examined the effects of annual climate variation on immunity in two sympatric species of garter snakes from four populations in California over a seven‐year period that included the record‐breaking drought.
  3. We examined three indices of innate immunity: bactericidal competence (BC), natural antibodies (NABs), and complement‐mediated lysis (CL).
  4. Precipitation was the only climatic ...


Liver Kinase B1 Isoform Expression As A Regulator Of T Cell Phenotypic Stability, Heather Sherman 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Liver Kinase B1 Isoform Expression As A Regulator Of T Cell Phenotypic Stability, Heather Sherman

Doctoral Dissertations

Following activation, CD4 T cells undergo extensive metabolic and transcriptional changes to respond to external cues and differentiate into T helper (Th) cell subsets. This differentiation process was originally perceived to be terminal. However, it has been shown that T cells exhibit plasticity between subsets in the context of highly inflammatory environments. This phenomenon is especially prevalent in autoimmune conditions such as colitis and multiple sclerosis in which high levels of IL-6 promote considerable plasticity between regulatory T (Treg) cells and Th17 cells. Herein we show that Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1), a metabolic sensor that enforces energy-preserving mechanisms such as ...


Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Innate Immunity Against Herpesviridae Infection: A Current Perspective On Viral Infection Signaling Pathways, Wenjin Zheng, Qing Xu, Yiyuan Zhang, Xiaofei E, Wei Gao, Mogen Zhang, Weijie Zhai, Ronaldjit Singh Rajkumar, Zhijun Liu 2020 Weifang Medical University

Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Innate Immunity Against Herpesviridae Infection: A Current Perspective On Viral Infection Signaling Pathways, Wenjin Zheng, Qing Xu, Yiyuan Zhang, Xiaofei E, Wei Gao, Mogen Zhang, Weijie Zhai, Ronaldjit Singh Rajkumar, Zhijun Liu

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND: In the past decades, researchers have demonstrated the critical role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the innate immune system. They recognize viral components and trigger immune signal cascades to subsequently promote the activation of the immune system.

MAIN BODY: Herpesviridae family members trigger TLRs to elicit cytokines in the process of infection to activate antiviral innate immune responses in host cells. This review aims to clarify the role of TLRs in the innate immunity defense against herpesviridae, and systematically describes the processes of TLR actions and herpesviridae recognition as well as the signal transduction pathways involved.

CONCLUSIONS: Future studies ...


Lipid Source And Peroxidation Status Alter Immune Cell Recruitment In Broiler Chicken Ileum, Krysten A. Fries-Craft, Meaghan M. Meyer, Stephanie C. Lindblom, Brain J. Kerr, Elizabeth A. Bobeck 2020 Iowa State University

Lipid Source And Peroxidation Status Alter Immune Cell Recruitment In Broiler Chicken Ileum, Krysten A. Fries-Craft, Meaghan M. Meyer, Stephanie C. Lindblom, Brain J. Kerr, Elizabeth A. Bobeck

Animal Science Publications

Background: Restaurant oil in poultry diets increases energy content, reduces production costs, and promotes sustainability within the food supply chain. However, variable oil composition and heating temperatures among restaurant oil sources can impact broiler chicken health due to heat-induced lipid modifications.

Objectives: A 21-d experiment was conducted to evaluate ileal morphology, liver cytokine gene expression, and ileal immune cell populations in broilers fed control or peroxidized lipids with varying chain and saturation characteristics.

Methods: Day-old broilers were housed in battery cages (5 birds per cage) and fed diets containing 5% control or peroxidized oils. Eight diets were randomly assigned in ...


An Artificial Intelligence-Based, Personalized Smartphone App To Improve Childhood Immunization Coverage And Timelines Among Children In Pakistan: Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial, Abdul Momin Kazi, Saad Ahmed Qazi, Sadori Khawaja, Nazia Ahsan, Rao Moueed Ahmed, Muhammad Ayub Khan Mughal, Hussain Kalimuddin, Yasir Rauf, Mehreen Raza, Saima Jamal 2020 Aga Khan University

An Artificial Intelligence-Based, Personalized Smartphone App To Improve Childhood Immunization Coverage And Timelines Among Children In Pakistan: Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial, Abdul Momin Kazi, Saad Ahmed Qazi, Sadori Khawaja, Nazia Ahsan, Rao Moueed Ahmed, Muhammad Ayub Khan Mughal, Hussain Kalimuddin, Yasir Rauf, Mehreen Raza, Saima Jamal

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: The immunization uptake rates in Pakistan are much lower than desired. Major reasons include lack of awareness, parental forgetfulness regarding schedules, and misinformation regarding vaccines. In light of the COVID-19 pandemic and distancing measures, routine childhood immunization (RCI) coverage has been adversely affected, as caregivers avoid tertiary care hospitals or primary health centers. Innovative and cost-effective measures must be taken to understand and deal with the issue of low immunization rates. However, only a few smartphone-based interventions have been carried out in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to improve RCI.
Objective: The primary objectives of this study are to ...


Mitochondrial Respiration Contributes To The Interferon Gamma Response In Antigen Presenting Cells [Preprint], Michael C. Kiritsy, Daniel Mott, Samuel M. Behar, Christopher M. Sassetti, Andrew J. Olive 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Mitochondrial Respiration Contributes To The Interferon Gamma Response In Antigen Presenting Cells [Preprint], Michael C. Kiritsy, Daniel Mott, Samuel M. Behar, Christopher M. Sassetti, Andrew J. Olive

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The immunological synapse allows antigen presenting cells (APC) to convey a wide array of functionally distinct signals to T cells, which ultimately shape the immune response. The relative effect of stimulatory and inhibitory signals is influenced by the activation state of the APC, which is determined by an interplay between signal transduction and metabolic pathways. While toll-like receptor ligation relies on glycolytic metabolism for the proper expression of inflammatory mediators, little is known about the metabolic dependencies of other critical signals such as interferon gamma (IFNγ). Using CRISPR-Cas9, we performed a series of genome-wide knockout screens in macrophages to identify ...


Differential Tcr Signaling Dynamics Tune Graded Gene Expression In Early-Activating Cd8+ T Cells, Michael P. Gallagher 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Differential Tcr Signaling Dynamics Tune Graded Gene Expression In Early-Activating Cd8+ T Cells, Michael P. Gallagher

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The strength of peptide:MHC interactions with the T cell receptor (TCR) is correlated with the time to first cell division, the relative scale of the effector cell response, and the graded expression of activation-induced proteins. The TCR proximal tyrosine kinase ITK simultaneously influences many biochemically separate signaling cascades. T cells lacking ITK exhibit selective impairments in effector T cell responses after activation, but under the strongest signaling conditions ITK activity is dispensable. To gain insight into whether TCR signal strength and ITK activity tune observed graded gene expression through unequal activation of disparate signaling pathways, I examined NFAT, NF-κB ...


Applying Immuno-Epidemiology Principles To Violence, Anna H. Sisk, Nina H. Fefferman, Judy Day, Patricia Bamwine 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Applying Immuno-Epidemiology Principles To Violence, Anna H. Sisk, Nina H. Fefferman, Judy Day, Patricia Bamwine

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Deep Gene Sequence Cluster Analyses Of Multi-Virus Infected Mucosal Tissue Reveal Enhanced Transmission Of Acute Hiv-1, Katja Klein, Nicholas J. Hathaway, Eric J. Arts 2020 University of Western Ontario

Deep Gene Sequence Cluster Analyses Of Multi-Virus Infected Mucosal Tissue Reveal Enhanced Transmission Of Acute Hiv-1, Katja Klein, Nicholas J. Hathaway, Eric J. Arts

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Exposure of the genital mucosa to a genetically diverse viral swarm from the donor HIV-1 can result in breakthrough and systemic infection by a single transmitted/founder (TF) virus in the recipient. The highly diverse HIV-1 envelope (Env) in this inoculating viral swarm may have critical role in transmission and subsequent immune response. Thus, chronic (Envchronic) and acute (Envacute) Env chimeric HIV-1 were tested using multi-virus competition assays in human mucosal penile and cervical tissues. Viral competition analysis revealed that Envchronic viruses resided and replicated mainly in the tissue while Envacute viruses penetrated the human tissue and established infection of ...


M. Tuberculosis Reprograms Hematopoietic Stem Cells To Limit Myelopoiesis And Impair Trained Immunity, Nargis Khan, Christopher M. Sassetti, Maziar Divangahi 2020 McGill University

M. Tuberculosis Reprograms Hematopoietic Stem Cells To Limit Myelopoiesis And Impair Trained Immunity, Nargis Khan, Christopher M. Sassetti, Maziar Divangahi

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

A greater understanding of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) regulation is required for dissecting protective versus detrimental immunity to pathogens that cause chronic infections such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We have shown that systemic administration of Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) or beta-glucan reprograms HSCs in the bone marrow (BM) via a type II interferon (IFN-II) or interleukin-1 (IL1) response, respectively, which confers protective trained immunity against Mtb. Here, we demonstrate that, unlike BCG or beta-glucan, Mtb reprograms HSCs via an IFN-I response that suppresses myelopoiesis and impairs development of protective trained immunity to Mtb. Mechanistically, IFN-I signaling dysregulates iron metabolism, depolarizes mitochondrial ...


A Natural Polymorphism Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis In The Esxh Gene Disrupts Immunodomination By The Tb10.4-Specific Cd8 T Cell Response, Rujapak Sutiwisesak, Nathan D. Hicks, Shayla Boyce, Kenan C. Murphy, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Stephen M. Carpenter, Julie Boucau, Neelambari Joshi, Sylvie Le Gall, Sarah M. Fortune, Christopher M. Sassetti, Samuel M. Behar 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Natural Polymorphism Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis In The Esxh Gene Disrupts Immunodomination By The Tb10.4-Specific Cd8 T Cell Response, Rujapak Sutiwisesak, Nathan D. Hicks, Shayla Boyce, Kenan C. Murphy, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Stephen M. Carpenter, Julie Boucau, Neelambari Joshi, Sylvie Le Gall, Sarah M. Fortune, Christopher M. Sassetti, Samuel M. Behar

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

CD8 T cells provide limited protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection in the mouse model. As Mtb causes chronic infection in mice and humans, we hypothesize that Mtb impairs T cell responses as an immune evasion strategy. TB10.4 is an immunodominant antigen in people, nonhuman primates, and mice, which is encoded by the esxH gene. In C57BL/6 mice, 30-50% of pulmonary CD8 T cells recognize the TB10.44-11 epitope. However, TB10.4-specific CD8 T cells fail to recognize Mtb-infected macrophages. We speculate that Mtb elicits immunodominant CD8 T cell responses to antigens that are inefficiently presented by infected ...


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