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The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. The only curative option for patients is surgery, but over 80% of patients are not surgical candidates. Unfortunately, PDAC is resistant to the three remaining options. PDAC is characterized by a profoundly hypoxic and immunosuppressive stroma, which contributes to its therapeutic recalcitrance. Alpha-smooth muscle actin+ (αSMA+) cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant stromal component, as well as mediators of stromal deposition. The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF1 and HIF2) coordinate responses to hypoxia, yet, despite their known association to poor patient outcomes, their functions within the PDAC tumor microenvironment (TME ...


Regulation Of Mhc Ii Trafficking And Expression By Host And Viral Factors, Alex Lac 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Regulation Of Mhc Ii Trafficking And Expression By Host And Viral Factors, Alex Lac

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) to the adaptive immune system is crucial for mounting sterilizing immune responses. This central role has made antigen presentation a target for antagonism by many pathogens. Notably, infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) decrease MHC II expression in several immune cells. The mechanisms responsible for this suppression are unknown but involves either redirecting MHC II molecules away from the cell surface or inhibiting MHC II expression. To understand how pathogens manipulate intracellular MHC II trafficking, we first investigated the role of the Golgi trafficking regulator, ERC1, in ...


Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria that stimulates inflammation during bacterial infection. However, few studies have investigated the in vivo immune response to LTA, and none of the in vivo studies done have been performed in birds. For this project, the pulp (a skin-derivative) of growing feathers (GFs) of chickens were used as a test site to investigate the in vivo effects of intradermally injected LTA. In Study 1, the pulp of 12 GFs of 11-week-old Light-brown Leghorn (LBL) males were injected with 10 μL of differing concentrations of LTA (0.1, 1.0 ...


Macrophage Rac2 Promotes Suppression Of Germination During Aspergillus Fumigatus Infection, Chris D. Tanner 2022 Clemson University

Macrophage Rac2 Promotes Suppression Of Germination During Aspergillus Fumigatus Infection, Chris D. Tanner

All Theses

Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungus found ubiquitously in the environment including in the air we breathe. Though not a threat to most people, immunodeficient or immunosuppressed individuals are at risk for developing severe infection, including the life-threatening condition of invasive aspergillosis. The hematopoietic cell specific GTPase protein Rac2 is associated with major roles in innate immune defense. Currently Rac2 has been demonstrated to be crucial for survival against a variety of infections. Here, we use a rac2 null mutant zebrafish line and morpholino approaches to elucidate roles of Rac2 in mounting the macrophage host defense response against A. fumigatus infection ...


Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans Exploits And Modulates The Immune Response By Human Neutrophils For Survival In The Anaerobic Environment., Hazel Ozuna 2022 University of Louisville

Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans Exploits And Modulates The Immune Response By Human Neutrophils For Survival In The Anaerobic Environment., Hazel Ozuna

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe and an opportunistic oral pathogen, strongly associated with localized periodontitis and other inflammatory diseases. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammation of the periodontium resulting from the inflammatory response of the host towards the dysbiotic microbial community present at the gingival crevice. The host immune response creates a hostile environment for microorganisms; therefore, it is important for Aa to be able to regulate the necessary genes to survive and thrive in such an environment. Aaexpresses several virulence factors such as a cytolethal distending toxin (Cdt), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and leukotoxin A (LtxA), that allows ...


Physician's Attitudes On Pulmonary Rehabilitation Following Covid-19: A Brief Perspective From A Developing Country, Ivan Cherrez-Ojeda, Emanuel Vanegas, Miguel Felix, María José Farfán Bajaña, Azza Sarfraz, Zouina Sarfraz, Genesis Camacho, Alanna Barrios-Ruiz, Jack Michel 2022 Universidad Espíritu Santo, Samborondón, Ecuador

Physician's Attitudes On Pulmonary Rehabilitation Following Covid-19: A Brief Perspective From A Developing Country, Ivan Cherrez-Ojeda, Emanuel Vanegas, Miguel Felix, María José Farfán Bajaña, Azza Sarfraz, Zouina Sarfraz, Genesis Camacho, Alanna Barrios-Ruiz, Jack Michel

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Despite the uncertainty about the follow up of COVID-19 survivors, there is a growing body of evidence supporting specific interventions including pulmonary rehabilitation, which may lead to a reduced hospital stay and improved overall respiratory function. The aim of this short report was to assess the attitudes toward pulmonary rehabilitation following COVID-19 among Ecuadorian physicians. A cross-sectional study was conducted, in which a 5-question survey was used to assess the level of agreement to specific statements with a 5-point Likert scale. Out of the 282 participants, 48.2% (n=136) were male, with a mean of 12.6 (SD=11 ...


Wc1 And Tcr Interactions For Γδ T Cell Activation, Alexandria Gillespie 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Wc1 And Tcr Interactions For Γδ T Cell Activation, Alexandria Gillespie

Doctoral Dissertations

Major subpopulations of gamma delta T cells within ruminant and pigs are defined by expression of WC1, a hybrid pattern recognition receptor/co-receptor to the T cell receptor (TCR). It is known that when WC1 is knocked down cells fail to respond. Showing that WC1 plays an active role in the stimulation of bovine gamma delta T cells. Here we explored the spatio-temporal dynamics of WC1 and TCR interaction using imaging flow cytometry and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. We found that in quiescent gamma delta T cells both WC1 and TCR existed in separate protein domains (protein islands) but after ...


Innate Lymphoid Cells And Covid-19 Severity In Sars-Cov-2 Infection, Noah J. Silverstein, Yetao Wang, Claudia Carbone, Ann Dauphin, Jeremy Luban 2022 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Innate Lymphoid Cells And Covid-19 Severity In Sars-Cov-2 Infection, Noah J. Silverstein, Yetao Wang, Claudia Carbone, Ann Dauphin, Jeremy Luban

COVID-19 Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Background: Risk of severe COVID-19 increases with age, is greater in males, and is associated with lymphopenia, but not with higher burden of SARS-CoV-2. It is unknown whether effects of age and sex on abundance of specific lymphoid subsets explain these correlations.

Methods: Multiple regression was used to determine the relationship between abundance of specific blood lymphoid cell types, age, sex, requirement for hospitalization, duration of hospitalization, and elevation of blood markers of systemic inflammation, in adults hospitalized for severe COVID-19 (n=40), treated for COVID-19 as outpatients (n=51), and in uninfected controls (n=86), as well as in ...


Salicylic Acid And N-Hydroxypipecolic Acid At The Fulcrum Of The Plant Immunity-Growth Equilibrium, Alyssa Shields, Vanessa Shivnauth, Christian Danve M. Castroverde 2022 Wilfrid Laurier University

Salicylic Acid And N-Hydroxypipecolic Acid At The Fulcrum Of The Plant Immunity-Growth Equilibrium, Alyssa Shields, Vanessa Shivnauth, Christian Danve M. Castroverde

Biology Faculty Publications

Salicylic acid (SA) and N-hydroxypipecolic acid (NHP) are two central plant immune signals involved in both resistance at local sites of pathogen infection (basal resistance) and at distal uninfected sites after primary infection (systemic acquired resistance). Major discoveries and advances have led to deeper understanding of their biosynthesis and signaling during plant defense responses. In addition to their well-defined roles in immunity, recent research is emerging on their direct mechanistic impacts on plant growth and development. In this review, we will first provide an overview of how SA and NHP regulate local and systemic immune responses in plants. We ...


Selective Gsk3Β Inhibition Mediates An Nrf2-Independent Anti-Inflammatory Microglial Response, Mohamed H. Yousef 2022 The American University in Cairo AUC

Selective Gsk3Β Inhibition Mediates An Nrf2-Independent Anti-Inflammatory Microglial Response, Mohamed H. Yousef

Theses and Dissertations

Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3) is associated with the proinflammatory phenotype of microglia and has been shown to act in concert with Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). . GSK3 is also a suppressor of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), the principal regulator of redox homeostasis. Agreeing with the oxidative paradigm of aging, Nrf2 is often deregulated in parainflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we aimed to explore a multimodal disease-modifying utility of GSK3 inhibition, beyond neuronal proteopathologies, Furthermore, we aimed to underscore the difference in therapeutic value between the two GSK3 paralogs by isoform-selective chemical inhibition.

The anti-inflammatory ...


The Role Of Ly49 Receptors In Maintaining Healthy Murine Pregnancy, Michelle Belmont 2022 Loyola University Chicago

The Role Of Ly49 Receptors In Maintaining Healthy Murine Pregnancy, Michelle Belmont

Master's Theses

Natural Killer (NK) cells are abundant in pregnancy and contribute to the health of the fetus. Uterine NK (uNK) cells provide less cytotoxic function than their conventional NK (cNK) cell counterparts. Various combinations of Killer Immunoglobulin Receptor (KIR)- Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) on maternal NK and fetally derived cells, respectively, can have different effects on the health of pregnancy in humans. Murine NK cells contain Ly49 receptors, an equivalent to KIRs. Therefore, Ly49 receptor interactions with fetally-derived MHC-I molecules can be a valuable model for studying the role of NK cells in pregnancy. The process of spiral artery remodeling can ...


Phenotypic Analysis Of Murine Gut Associated Lymphocytes, Madison Flood 2022 Loyola University Chicago

Phenotypic Analysis Of Murine Gut Associated Lymphocytes, Madison Flood

Master's Theses

γδ T cells are important in the role of immune homeostasis, especially in relation to the gut. It has been shown that there is a higher proportion of γδ T cells in the intestines than in circulation. With this knowledge, our lab focused on understanding the mechanisms of these cells, specifically regarding immune tolerance. In our preliminary research, we identified a subset of γδ T cells that express Foxp3, a transcription factor essential for the functioning of regulatory T cells, in the neonatal (5 day old) intestine. We hypothesized that these Foxp3+ γδ T cells have immunosuppressive functions upon exposure ...


The Combination Of Tlr7/8 And Tlr4 Adjuvants In An Influenza Vaccine Produce Unique Antigen-Specific Adaptive Immunity And Protect Against Lethal Heterologous Influenza Challenge, Shelby Lynn Cole 2022 University of Montana, Missoula

The Combination Of Tlr7/8 And Tlr4 Adjuvants In An Influenza Vaccine Produce Unique Antigen-Specific Adaptive Immunity And Protect Against Lethal Heterologous Influenza Challenge, Shelby Lynn Cole

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Influenza virus infection is a global health concern resulting in death and illness each year, which disproportionally effects high-risk individuals. While there are several approved vaccines for seasonal influenza, there are some limitations to consider: current vaccines provide minimal cross protection against seasonally drifted influenza subtypes, influenza vaccine strains change each year, requiring timely manufacture of a new vaccine. Thus, vaccines capable of inducing a more robust and broadly protective immune response to multiple influenza subtypes remains a critical unmet need. Adjuvants and novel delivery systems are an interesting and promising avenue of exploration for enhancing and broadening seasonal influenza ...


Capsaicinoids From Capsicum Annuum As An Alternative Fabh Inhibitor Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis: In Silico Study, Gabriella Chandrakirana Krisnamurti, Dewi Ratih Tirto Sari, Yohanes Bare 2021 Biotechnology Program, School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bang Khun Thian 10150, Thailand

Capsaicinoids From Capsicum Annuum As An Alternative Fabh Inhibitor Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis: In Silico Study, Gabriella Chandrakirana Krisnamurti, Dewi Ratih Tirto Sari, Yohanes Bare

Makara Journal of Science

The number of tuberculosis (TB) cases worldwide reached 1.5 million in 2018; thus, TB is considered a deadly disease. TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and involves lipid synthesis. Considering the importance of lipid metabolism in bacteria, FabH may be an essential protein target for repressing lipid synthesis. Capsaicinoids from Capsicum annuum demonstrate potent antibacterial activity. This study predicted the ability of capsaicinoid compounds to inhibit FabH. In silico analysis was performed by retrieving the structure of FabH from PDB and those of selected capsaicinoid derivatives from PubChem. The compounds were docked using AutoDock Vina in PyRx 0.8 ...


Dicer Represses Antiviral Innate Immunity Pathways In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells, Chandan Gurung 2021 University of Southern Mississippi

Dicer Represses Antiviral Innate Immunity Pathways In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells, Chandan Gurung

Dissertations

Recent studies have demonstrated that embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are deficient in expressing type I interferons (IFN), the cytokines that play key roles in antiviral responses. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and biological implications of this finding are poorly understood. In this study, I used a synthetic RNA-based assay that can simultaneously assess multiple forms of antiviral responses in ESCs. Dicer is an enzyme essential for RNA interference (RNAi), which is used as a major antiviral mechanism in invertebrates but not clear in vertebrates. RNAi activity is detected in wild-type ESCs but is abolished in Dicer knockout ESCs (D−/−ESCs ...


Structural Analysis And Vaccine Efficacy Of Hla Mutants, Kelly Tomaszewski 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Structural Analysis And Vaccine Efficacy Of Hla Mutants, Kelly Tomaszewski

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal of the human skin and also a major human pathogen. Currently, there has been no successful vaccine despite many approaches over the last two decades. S. aureus α-hemolysin (Hla), a potent cytotoxin, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of S. aureus diseases, through the activation of its receptor, ADAM10. We utilized three distinct Hla mutants with differing structural and ADAM10 binding properties to examine for vaccine efficacy. Our studies have demonstrated immunization with each vaccine candidate antigens provided significant protection against S. aureus skin infection yet elicited distinguishable immune responses. We have also generated ...


Trained Immunity Enhances The Immune Response And Maintains Microbiome Diversity In Aging And Sepsis, P. Spencer Gill 2021 East Tennessee State University

Trained Immunity Enhances The Immune Response And Maintains Microbiome Diversity In Aging And Sepsis, P. Spencer Gill

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The global population is rapidly aging. It is estimated that over the next thirty years, the number of individuals >60 years of age will increase by over a billion, and the number of individuals over age 80 may increase by 300 million. As humans age, our immune system becomes progressively weaker through a process called immune senescence. This age-related decrease in immune function increases susceptibility to infection and chronic diseases. Sepsis is a leading cause of death worldwide. Over the past two decades, there has been an increased incidence of sepsis which is due, in part, to our aging population ...


Usability And Acceptability Of A Mobile App For Behavior Change And To Improve Immunization Coverage Among Children In Pakistan: A Mixed-Methods Study, Abdul Momin Kazi, Nazia Ahsan, Waliyah Mughis, Saima Jamal, Raheel Allana, Mehreen Raza, Sahrish Muneer, Muhammad Ayub Khan Mughal, Hussain Kalimuddin, Fareeha Sameen 2021 Aga Khan University

Usability And Acceptability Of A Mobile App For Behavior Change And To Improve Immunization Coverage Among Children In Pakistan: A Mixed-Methods Study, Abdul Momin Kazi, Nazia Ahsan, Waliyah Mughis, Saima Jamal, Raheel Allana, Mehreen Raza, Sahrish Muneer, Muhammad Ayub Khan Mughal, Hussain Kalimuddin, Fareeha Sameen

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Pakistan's immunization uptake rates are still significantly lower than anticipated despite several initiatives. Lack of awareness, forgetting about vaccination schedule, and vaccine misconception/misinformation are a few of the major drivers that mitigate the rates of immunization. The current COVID-19 pandemic emphasizes the importance of immunization. The significant reductions in regular childhood vaccination during pandemic have increased the risk of outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Concerns among parents over possibly exposing their children to COVID-19 during child visits may have contributed to the reported declines. Innovative and cost-effective mHealth interventions must be implemented in order to address the problem ...


Characterization Of Metabolic Gene Expression In The Raw 264.7 Monocyte Cell Line, Lauren Macaisa 2021 University of North Florida

Characterization Of Metabolic Gene Expression In The Raw 264.7 Monocyte Cell Line, Lauren Macaisa

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

Immune cells undergo changes in gene expression and metabolism when activated by a foreign molecule. Although the changes are short-lived in response to an acute infection, they persist in disorders with underlying chronic inflammation. To understand how changes in gene expression relate to changes in metabolism, the expression of metabolic transporter proteins, was analyzed in response to chronic inflammation in a mouse monocyte cell line. Specifically, Glucose Transporter-1 (GLUT1), Monocarboxylate Transporter-1 (MCT1), Monocarboxylate Transporter-4 (MCT4), and Glutamate Aspartate Transporter (GLAST) were analyzed, and it was hypothesized that all the transporters would increase in expression in response to a prolonged inflammatory ...


Roles Of A Bradykinin Storm And A Cytokine Storm In Covid-19 Cases, Nouha H. Odeh 2021 Wayne State University

Roles Of A Bradykinin Storm And A Cytokine Storm In Covid-19 Cases, Nouha H. Odeh

Honors College Theses

In the light of recent events, it is imperative to understand the key inflammatory response elements that appear to be the source of more severe ailments resulting from a SARS-CoV-2 viral infection known as Covid-19 The more severe cases of Covid-19 are characterized by a severe inflammatory response resulting in tissue damage. My research proposal aims to investigate the two possible culprits of this response: a bradykinin (BK) storm and an interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated cytokine storm. In both systems respectively, the excess release of these signals subsequently signals the production of even more of the same response element, resulting in ...


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