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Elucidating Mechanisms Involved In Host Microbial-Tumor Interactions, Vidhi Chandra 2023 The Texas Medical Center Library

Elucidating Mechanisms Involved In Host Microbial-Tumor Interactions, Vidhi Chandra

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Cancer is a rising cause of mortality worldwide. Microbiota is the collection of micro-organisms that live inside our bodies and can impact the host health and disease by interacting with the immune and metabolic systems. The relationship between the microbiota and cancer is complex. Gut and intratumoral microbiota can affect cancer development and progression by influencing patient outcomes and therapy responsiveness in several cancer types. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive cancer surrounded by a highly immuno-suppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) which limits efficacy of most available therapies. The tumoral niche provides a privileged microenvironment for microbial colonization that can …


Ramsay Hunt Syndrome With Oral Findings: A Rare Case, İlknur Eninanç, Büşra Şahin 2023 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial, Faculty of Dentistry, Sivas Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey

Ramsay Hunt Syndrome With Oral Findings: A Rare Case, İlknur Eninanç, Büşra Şahin

Journal of Dentistry Indonesia

Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) is a disease that is caused by the varicella-zoster virus and is characterized by severe ear pain, auricular vesicular eruptions, and peripheral facial paralysis.

Objective: The aim of this case report is to provide information about the clinical findings and treatment process of RHS, which is a rare case and may have oral findings and stress the importance of early diagnosis.

Case Report: A 60-year-old male patient had previously consulted an otolaryngologist and a family physician with complaints of vesicular eruptions in the right ear auricle and on the mandible. The patient in whom a diagnosis …


White Blood Cell Make Up In Kellback Snake Offspring Of Varying Maternal Size, Angelica McCoy 2023 Kennesaw State University

White Blood Cell Make Up In Kellback Snake Offspring Of Varying Maternal Size, Angelica Mccoy

Symposium of Student Scholars

The immune system is composed of various organs, systems, and other components with one of the most important being white blood cells. White blood cells are commonly separated into two scientific varieties, granulocytes and agranulocytes, which can be differentiated by the presence or absence of granules in the cytoplasm once stained on a slide. There are three granulocytes and two agranulocytes, each with a distinct function and shape. The ratio of these may impact the effectiveness of this portion of the immune system, and multiple factors could play a role in this ratio, an example being the size of an …


Staphylococcus Aureus Strains Exhibit Exclusivity In Regards To It’S Toxin Prevalence, Especially With Toxins Responsible For Food Poisoning And Necrotizing Pneumonia, Malia Braiedy, Taylor Mach, Amanda Brosnahan 2023 Concordia University, St. Paul

Staphylococcus Aureus Strains Exhibit Exclusivity In Regards To It’S Toxin Prevalence, Especially With Toxins Responsible For Food Poisoning And Necrotizing Pneumonia, Malia Braiedy, Taylor Mach, Amanda Brosnahan

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

Staphylococcus aureus is a bacteria that can exist asymptomatically, but can be dangerous due to it’s individual toxin profile. These various toxins, however, seem to be mutually exclusive from another in some cases. Samples of S. aureus often have superantigen SELX and some samples have Staphylococcal Enterotoxin (SE) A, B, or C. Through the use of Airtable and various methods of data organization and comparison on the strains we’ve collected on campus, we found that SELX exhibits an inverse relationship with SE- A/B/C, and that SE- A/B/C also exhibits exclusivity between the three toxins. Through thorough research on S. aureus, …


The Presence Of Tetracycline-Resistant Bacteria In A Kean University Campus Soil Sample, Esther Blankson, Jessica Kobilas, Gianna Medeiros 2023 Kean University

The Presence Of Tetracycline-Resistant Bacteria In A Kean University Campus Soil Sample, Esther Blankson, Jessica Kobilas, Gianna Medeiros

Kean Quest

The spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the environment is a worldwide problem that threatens human health. Bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics as the consumption of antibiotics grows. In particular, soil can be contaminated with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics. As of today, there is no surveillance system that tracks the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, however, Tufts University aims to change this by implementing the Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment (PARE) project. The course-based PARE project consists of research students sampling soil in diverse locations and reporting the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The purpose of …


The Role Of Community In Immunity Against Sars-Cov-2, Jessica Kobilas 2023 Kean University

The Role Of Community In Immunity Against Sars-Cov-2, Jessica Kobilas

Kean Quest

This literature review investigated the roles genes activated by social interactions had in helping to build immunity against COVID-19. Past studies have shown that individuals who are more socially connected are less likely to become ill due to social interactions strengthening the immune system through optimal exposure to bacteria and viruses in the environment. The IL-6 and TLR4 genes that are activated through social interactions and associated with cytokines have been analyzed in cases of various viral infections. Cytokines play a role in inflammation and have both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses to infections and viruses. The results suggest that the …


Acinetobacter Baumannii - The Perfect Pathogen, Jesse Guzik, Myrna Rezcallah, Alexcia Zeller, Kaite Mattson 2023 Concordia University, St. Paul

Acinetobacter Baumannii - The Perfect Pathogen, Jesse Guzik, Myrna Rezcallah, Alexcia Zeller, Kaite Mattson

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

Acinetobacter was discovered in 1911 by Martinus Beijerinck. Acinetobacter baumannii didn't receive its scientific name until 1986. A. baumannii is now commonly referred to as "Iraqibacter" due to a rise in infections among US military personnel returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. After the Iraq War began in 2003, the frequency of cases began to rise, especially among patients in intensive care units. Patients using ventilators, catheters, have postoperative wounds, stay in the hospital for an extended period of time, or are immunocompromised are at a considerably higher risk of getting A. baumannii. Because of its large number of virulence …


Cancer-Specific Perturbations To Arginine Metabolism Blunt Replication And Performance Of Oncolytic Myxoma Virus, Parker Dryja 2023 Medical University of South Carolina

Cancer-Specific Perturbations To Arginine Metabolism Blunt Replication And Performance Of Oncolytic Myxoma Virus, Parker Dryja

MUSC Theses and Dissertations

Oncolytic virotherapy (OV) is a class of immunotherapy for treatment of malignancy. Using viruses that exhibit natural coincidental tropisms for cancer, or others that have been engineered to the same effect, intentional infection of lesions leads to two therapeutically beneficial effects: (1) direct destruction of the infected tumor through virally-mediated cell lysis, and (2) recruitment of an otherwise blunted or absent anti-cancer immune response to affect both local and disseminated disease. A surfeit of cancer-specific changes are accumulated during progression from first genetic insult to clinical detection, presenting a dramatically altered underlying biology of cell and tissue. The viruses employed …


Assessment Of Anti-Hiv-1 Guide Rna Efficacy In Cells Containing The Viral Target Sequence, Corresponding Grna, And Crispr/Cas9., Alexander G Allen, Cheng-Han Chung, Stephen D. Worrell, Glad Nwaozo, Rebekah Madrid, Anthony R. Mele, Will Dampier, Michael R. Nonnemacher, Brian Wigdahl 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Assessment Of Anti-Hiv-1 Guide Rna Efficacy In Cells Containing The Viral Target Sequence, Corresponding Grna, And Crispr/Cas9., Alexander G Allen, Cheng-Han Chung, Stephen D. Worrell, Glad Nwaozo, Rebekah Madrid, Anthony R. Mele, Will Dampier, Michael R. Nonnemacher, Brian Wigdahl

Kimmel Cancer Center Faculty Papers

The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 gene editing system has been shown to be effective at inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Studies have not consistently used a trackable dual reporter system to determine what cells received the Cas9/gRNA to determine the overall knockdown of HIV. Some studies have used stably transduced cells under drug selection to accomplish this goal. Here a two-color system was used that allows tracking of viral protein expression and which cells received the CRISPR/Cas9 system. These experiments ensured that each gRNA used was a perfect match to the intended target to remove …


A Ferritin Nanoparticle-Based Zika Virus Vaccine Candidate Induces Robust Humoral And Cellular Immune Responses And Protects Mice From Lethal Virus Challenge, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Lucas R. Struble, Gloria E. O. Borgstahl, You Zhou, Rodrigo Franco, Raul G. Barletta, Fernando A. Osorio, Thomas M. Petro, Asit K. Pattnaik 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Ferritin Nanoparticle-Based Zika Virus Vaccine Candidate Induces Robust Humoral And Cellular Immune Responses And Protects Mice From Lethal Virus Challenge, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Lucas R. Struble, Gloria E. O. Borgstahl, You Zhou, Rodrigo Franco, Raul G. Barletta, Fernando A. Osorio, Thomas M. Petro, Asit K. Pattnaik

School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences: Faculty Publications

The severe consequences of the Zika virus (ZIKV) infections resulting in congenital Zika syndrome in infants and the autoimmune Guillain–Barre syndrome in adults warrant the development of safe and efficacious vaccines and therapeutics. Currently, there are no approved treatment options for ZIKV infection. Herein, we describe the development of a bacterial ferritin-based nanoparticle vaccine candidate for ZIKV. The viral envelope (E) protein domain III (DIII) was fused in-frame at the amino-terminus of ferritin. The resulting nanoparticle displaying the DIII was examined for its ability to induce immune responses and protect vaccinated animals upon lethal virus challenge. Our results show that …


The Regulation Of Autoimmunity Genes In Pancreatic Β-Cells By Nf-Κb, Thomas Malone Martin 2023 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

The Regulation Of Autoimmunity Genes In Pancreatic Β-Cells By Nf-Κb, Thomas Malone Martin

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease where the immune system targets the pancreatic islet beta-cells, which are responsible for insulin production and secretion, leading to a state of insulin insufficiency. Many of the molecular details of disease onset and progression remain poorly understood, including key aspects of cytokine signaling. Therefore, we have examined some of the consequences of inflammatory cytokine signaling as a critical module relevant to T1D. Using interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling as a well-defined paradigm for inflammation, we investigated key components of this signaling pathway in pancreatic beta-cells. We identified ICAM-1, one of the proteins expressed in …


A Diverse Flea (Siphonaptera) Assemblage From The Small Mammals Of Central New Mexico, Dianne E. Peterson, Jonathan L. Dunnum, Schuyler W. Liphart, Karen A. Boegler, Ralph P. Eckerlin, Eric P. Hoberg, Martha O. Perez-Arriaga, Katrina Derieg, David Garnand, Mariel L. Campbell, Joseph A. Cook 2023 University of New Mexico

A Diverse Flea (Siphonaptera) Assemblage From The Small Mammals Of Central New Mexico, Dianne E. Peterson, Jonathan L. Dunnum, Schuyler W. Liphart, Karen A. Boegler, Ralph P. Eckerlin, Eric P. Hoberg, Martha O. Perez-Arriaga, Katrina Derieg, David Garnand, Mariel L. Campbell, Joseph A. Cook

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

The geographical ranges of many mammals and their associated parasites are dynamic. Comprehensive documentation of these communities over time provides a foundation for interpreting how changing environmental conditions, driven by accelerating climate change, other anthropogenic disturbances, and natural events, may influence host-parasite interactions. Fleas (Order Siphonaptera) are obligate, hematophagous parasites of birds and mammals with medical interest because of their role in transmitting pathogens. From 2016 to 2019, we sampled the small mammal and associated flea communities in El Malpais National Conservation Area (El Malpais) in Cibola County, New Mexico. Among 898 mammalian specimens, 925 fleas representing 29 species were …


The Effect Of Bisphenol A (Bpa) Substitutes On Cd4+ T Cell Immunity, Cassandra Poole 2023 Longwood University

The Effect Of Bisphenol A (Bpa) Substitutes On Cd4+ T Cell Immunity, Cassandra Poole

Longwood Senior Theses

CD4+ helper T cells are an important cell of the immune system. One key factor in the mediation of the immune system in general, and T cells in particular, is the female sex hormone estrogen. Abnormal estrogen levels are associated with a variety of conditions, including autoimmune diseases, and several types of cancer, including breast cancer. BPA is a well-known estrogen mimicking compound, used in the manufacturing of plastics, epoxy resins, and polystyrenes. As the negative effects of BPA become more apparent, many BPA substitutes have been developed. While the effect of estrogen on T cells is understood, the effect …


The Effects Of Specialized Pro-Resolving Mediator Lipoxin A4 On Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilms And Interactions With Monocytes, Julianne M. Thornton 2023 Rowan University

The Effects Of Specialized Pro-Resolving Mediator Lipoxin A4 On Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilms And Interactions With Monocytes, Julianne M. Thornton

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is an opportunistic pathogen known as a major cause of hospital-acquired secondary infections, commonly causing chronic respiratory infections in immunocompromised individuals, especially those with cystic fibrosis, and often found in wound infections. P. aeruginosa uses the quorum sensing pathway to readily form protective biofilms, which reduce the efficacy of antibiotics and access by host immune cells to eradicate the pathogen. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) are lipids endogenously produced by the host immune response to infection to aid in infection resolution. One SPM, Lipoxin A4 (LxA4), has been shown to be a robust quorum sensing inhibitor.

The …


Intergenerational Change In Hiv/Aids-Related Stigma In Cato Manor, MiJin Cho 2023 SIT Study Abroad

Intergenerational Change In Hiv/Aids-Related Stigma In Cato Manor, Mijin Cho

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

In South Africa, the world’s epicenter of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, HIV-related stigma and stigma-enforcing stereotypes continue to serve as major health barriers to receiving adequate HIV prevention and treatment. While there continues to be a rise in research and advocacy, there is a need to study HIV stigma through a multigenerational lens that addresses the changing HIV/AIDS stigma in the post-apartheid era. Using qualitative methodology, this study aims to explore the generational differences in perceived HIV stigma between females in their 20s and above 50 years of age (as denoted by “50s+”) living in Cato Manor, South Africa. The study …


Investigating The Antibacterial And Immunomodulatory Properties Of Lactobacillus Acidophilus Postbiotics, Rachael M. Wilson 2023 Rowan University

Investigating The Antibacterial And Immunomodulatory Properties Of Lactobacillus Acidophilus Postbiotics, Rachael M. Wilson

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Probiotics are nonpathogenic microorganisms that have been extensively studied for their ability to prevent various infectious, gastrointestinal, and autoimmune diseases. The mechanisms underlying these probiotic effects have not been elucidated. However, we and other researchers have evidence suggesting that probiotic bacteria secrete metabolites that are antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory. As such, we developed a methodology to collect the secreted metabolites from a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and tested this cell free filtrate (CFF) both in vitro and in vivo. Using this CFF, we have demonstrated that L. acidophilus secretes a molecule(s) that has specific bactericidal activity against the opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas …


Prevalence Of Sars-Cov-2 Antibodies In Liberty University Student Population, Emily Bonus 2023 Liberty University

Prevalence Of Sars-Cov-2 Antibodies In Liberty University Student Population, Emily Bonus

Senior Honors Theses

In 2020, the virus SARS-CoV-2 gained attention as it spread around the world. Its antibodies are poorly understood, and little research focuses on those with few COVID-19 complications yet large numbers of close contacts: university students. This longitudinal study recorded SARS-CoV-2 antibody presence in 107 undergraduate Liberty University students twice during early 2021. After extensive data cleaning and the application of various statistical tests and ANOVAs, the data seems to show that in the case of COVID-19 infections, SARS-CoV-2 IgM antibodies are immediately produced, and then IgG antibodies follow later. However, the COVID-19 vaccine causes the production of both IgM …


Mir125a As Molecular Target Of Vitamin D Mediated Inhibition Of Cd4+ T Cell Differentiation Into Th17 Cells In Mrl/Lpr Lupus-Prone Mice, Miranda Hilt 2023 Otterbein University

Mir125a As Molecular Target Of Vitamin D Mediated Inhibition Of Cd4+ T Cell Differentiation Into Th17 Cells In Mrl/Lpr Lupus-Prone Mice, Miranda Hilt

Undergraduate Distinction Papers

The dynamic function of vitamin D in an array of immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms and its implication in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases has been the topic of much recent scholarship. Here I attempt to elucidate the molecular mechanism of vitamin D-mediated inhibition of the differentiation of CD4+ T cells into pro-inflammatory Th17 cells in MRL/lpr lupus prone mice by investigating how miR-125a expression is affected by dietary modulation of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). MRL/MpJ and MRL/lpr mice were split into three experimental groups and fed specially formulated diets that varied in their concentrations of vitamin D. …


Potentiation Of The Immune Checkpoint Blockade Response By Metabolic Modulation Is Predictable Using Molecular Imaging, Renee L. Chin 2023 University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

Potentiation Of The Immune Checkpoint Blockade Response By Metabolic Modulation Is Predictable Using Molecular Imaging, Renee L. Chin

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Unregulated cell division is a hallmark of cancer. The high metabolic needs of the tumor cells result in nutrient depletion and produce a hostile tumor microenvironment (TME) for antitumor immune cells, protecting the tumor from immune cell-mediated control and immunotherapy. Two of these environmental factors, acidosis and hypoxia, are commonly found in solid cancers. In my thesis, I posited that modulation of tumor acidosis and hypoxia can serve as biomarkers by indicating immunogenicity and tumor sensitivity to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) as monitored using molecular imaging. Esomeprazole was found to promote tumor immunogenicity and induce tumor control when used to …


Mirna-489 Induces Immunogenic Cell Death In Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells, Ryan P. Titus 2023 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Mirna-489 Induces Immunogenic Cell Death In Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells, Ryan P. Titus

Senior Theses

It has been well established that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the regulation of gene expression and consequently promoting or downregulating molecular pathways. When dysregulated, miRNAs have been found to serve as important biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and influence tumor initiation and progression. It has been previously established that miRNA-489 is a tumor suppressor microRNA, and it directly targets cell proliferative pathways like the HER2-SHP2-MAPK pathway. In this study, we focus on the role of miRNA-489, in the induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD) in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. We first examined the effects of miRNA-489 on …


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