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Selection Pressure On Surface Exposed Virus Proteins, Sareh Bagherichimeh 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Selection Pressure On Surface Exposed Virus Proteins, Sareh Bagherichimeh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Viral infection requires the interaction between virus surface-exposed (SE) proteins and host cell receptors. This can result in an “arms race” that is assumed to drive accelerated rates of evolution, and some well known examples of diversifying selection involve surface pro- teins (HIV-1 env, influenza hemagglutinin). We conducted a systematic analysis to determine whether this is truly a distinctive feature of SE virus proteins, in comparison to non-SE proteins encoded by the same genomes.

We obtained reference and all neighbour genomes of 52 human viruses from the NCBI Viral Genomes database. The coding sequences (CDS) of each genome extracted by …


Comparison Of The Humoral Immune Response Following Both Bacterial Challenge And Rnai Of Major Factors On Proliferation Of Bartonella Quintana In The Human Louse, Jake Zina 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Comparison Of The Humoral Immune Response Following Both Bacterial Challenge And Rnai Of Major Factors On Proliferation Of Bartonella Quintana In The Human Louse, Jake Zina

Masters Theses

Human body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus, and head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, have been hematophagous ectoparasites of humans for thousands of years. Despite being ecotypes, only body lice are known to transmit bacterial diseases to humans, and it appears that lower humoral and cellular immune responses allow body lice to possess a higher vector competence. We previously observed that the transcription level of the defensin 1 gene was up-regulated only in head lice following oral challenge of Bartonella quintana, a causative agent of trench fever, and also that body lice excreted more viable B. quintana in their …


A Study Of Multiple Sclerosis, Christine Chen 2022 University of Louisville

A Study Of Multiple Sclerosis, Christine Chen

The Cardinal Edge

No abstract provided.


Obesity As A Risk Factor For Covid-19, Gabriela Hermes, Mir Saleem 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Obesity As A Risk Factor For Covid-19, Gabriela Hermes, Mir Saleem

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

The coronavirus pandemic has presented a wide range of challenges for healthcare systems in the world. COVID-19 has infected millions of people, with approximately 90% of the population showing mild or no symptoms. The disease has some risk factors that increase its severity, such as obesity, age, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, suppressed immune system, and pulmonary disorders. Obese individuals have higher chances of having symptomatic COVID-19 infection with excessive rates of hospitalization and ICU admission. Understanding the mechanisms defining the link between COVID-19 and obesity is necessary to develop preventive measures and therapeutic interventions for people with obesity. Patients with obesity …


Interrogation Of The Inkt-Mait Cell Interface, Nicole I. Wang 2022 Western University

Interrogation Of The Inkt-Mait Cell Interface, Nicole I. Wang

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are unique subsets of invariant T cells that are involved in regulating various tumor responses and display potent anti-microbial properties. Upon their activation, iNKT and MAIT cells secrete large quantities of T helper 1 (Th1)-, Th2-, and Th17-type cytokines that mediate their ability to regulate a variety of other immune cells, including B cells, natural killer cells, and macrophages. However, whether and how iNKT and MAIT cells regulate each other in vivo remains unknown. Here, we provide evidence for a cross-talk between iNKT and MAIT cells that resembles …


Infection And Transmission Determinants Of Flea-Borne Rickettsioses, Hanna J. Laukaitis 2022 University of South Alabama

Infection And Transmission Determinants Of Flea-Borne Rickettsioses, Hanna J. Laukaitis

Theses and Dissertations

The genus Rickettsia is comprised of Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that are spread by hematophagous arthropods. Elucidating the factors conferring rickettsial virulence has perplexed investigators for decades, complicated by the lack of efficient genetic tools necessary to uncover rickettsial- and vector-specific factors contributing to persistence. The advent of transposon mutagenesis has enabled the field to make vast developments in uncovering novel rickettsial mechanisms utilized in various host backgrounds. Thus, the aim of this study was to generate Rickettsia felis transposon mutants and characterize novel phenotypes associated with genetic disruption in an arthropod background. Distribution of rickettsiae is reliant on the …


Quality Of Life For Women With Chronic Lyme Disease: A Socioeconomic Investigation, Dale M. Jones 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Quality Of Life For Women With Chronic Lyme Disease: A Socioeconomic Investigation, Dale M. Jones

Doctoral Dissertations

This is a mixed methods investigation of how chronic Lyme disease, including Lyme-like diseases and co-infections, affects the quality of life of women who have chronic Lyme. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used during three phases of research: a 91-question survey instrument followed by focus group discussions and written narratives. The research considered the socioeconomic impact on quality of life in five areas: obtaining a diagnosis, relationships and personal support systems, struggles with the medical system, the ability to work, and access to treatment. There were 500 responses to the survey, of which 373 were analyzed; 11 participants in …


Female Presence Does Not Increase Testosterone But Still Ameliorates Sickness Behaviours In Male Japanese Quail, Brenna M. G. Gormally, Kaelyn Bridgette, Aubrey Emmi, Delilah Schuerman, Patricia C. Lopes 2022 Chapman University

Female Presence Does Not Increase Testosterone But Still Ameliorates Sickness Behaviours In Male Japanese Quail, Brenna M. G. Gormally, Kaelyn Bridgette, Aubrey Emmi, Delilah Schuerman, Patricia C. Lopes

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Infections can dramatically modify animal behaviour. The extent of these changes depends on an animal's environment. It has been proposed that testosterone modulates the suppression of behavioural symptoms of sickness under certain reproductive contexts. To further understand the role played by testosterone in modulating sickness behaviours under reproductive contexts, we studied a species, the Japanese quail, in which female exposure rapidly decreases circulating testosterone in males. Males received either an immune challenge (lipopolysaccharide – LPS) or a control injection and their behaviours, mass change and testosterone levels were quantified in the presence or absence of a female. Both the presence …


Contributions Of Vibrational Spectroscopy To Virology: A Review, Iqra Chaudhary, Naomi Jackson, Denise Denning, Luke O'Neill, Hugh Byrne 2022 Technological University Dublin

Contributions Of Vibrational Spectroscopy To Virology: A Review, Iqra Chaudhary, Naomi Jackson, Denise Denning, Luke O'Neill, Hugh Byrne

Articles

Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, both infrared absorption and Raman scattering, are high precision, label free analytical techniques which have found applications in fields as diverse as analytical chemistry, pharmacology, forensics and archeometrics and, in recent times, have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications. As analytical techniques, they have been applied to the characterisation of viruses as early as the 1970s, and, in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, have been explored in response to the World Health Organisation as novel methodologies to aid in the global efforts to implement and improve rapid screening of viral infection. This review …


Microplastics Exposure In At-Risk Myotis Lucifugus Bats Of The Northeastern United States, Leah Crowley 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Microplastics Exposure In At-Risk Myotis Lucifugus Bats Of The Northeastern United States, Leah Crowley

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Innate Lymphoid Cell Characterization And Ilc2s In Neuroinflammation In Aging And Sex Differences, Alexis Mobley, Alexis S. Mobley 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

Innate Lymphoid Cell Characterization And Ilc2s In Neuroinflammation In Aging And Sex Differences, Alexis Mobley, Alexis S. Mobley

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Aging affects immunologic responses by a global immune system suppression, including dysregulation of cytokine mediators, leading to increased inflammation throughout all systems, termed inflammaging. However, understanding healthy aging mechanisms can bypass this effect. Inflammaging also leads to poor outcomes during brain injury, making immune-targeting therapeutics tantamount to overall brain health and longevity. Moreover, sex affects disease etiology and severity through hormonal and chromosomal sex, as the X chromosome contains most immunology-based genes. Androgens have a generally suppressive effect on the immune system. Additionally, when immune responses are mounted, males are better at CD4+ T cell type (Th1) responses, while females …


Genomic Analysis Of Metabolic Differences Found In Clostridium Perfringens That Cause Necrotic Enteritis In Poultry, Connor Aylor 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Genomic Analysis Of Metabolic Differences Found In Clostridium Perfringens That Cause Necrotic Enteritis In Poultry, Connor Aylor

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Clostridium perfringens is a common member of gut microbiota in healthy animals, but can also be an important pathogen in human and veterinary medicine. It produces several protein toxins that contribute to both histotoxic and enteric diseases in animals. Necrotic enteritis in poultry has been associated with the NetB toxin of C. perfringens; however, this toxin alone is insufficient to cause disease in infected chickens. While considerable research has focused on the presence of toxins and virulence factors, little has been done to assess the function of metabolic factors on the ability of the bacteria to cause disease. In …


Investigating Alternative Induction Of The S. Aureus 80a Prophage, Jody Caretti 2022 University of Lynchburg

Investigating Alternative Induction Of The S. Aureus 80a Prophage, Jody Caretti

Student Scholar Showcase

Widespread antibiotic resistance has quickly become one of the most concerning crises affecting modern medicine, especially in cases of Staphylococcal infections, which have become resistant to all ��-lactam antibiotics. As a result, research into alternative forms of treatment for bacterial infections is a top priority. Bacteriophage therapy is a popular candidate for replacing antibiotics, due to the way the viruses interact with the bacteria. The 80�� prophage integrates its DNA into Staphylococcus aureus strain 10616 via the lysogenic cycle, and replicates with the bacterial cell. When stressed, the bacteria stop replicating and the prophage stimulates the lytic cycle, activating transcription …


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez 2022 Brigham Young University - Provo

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez

Annual Research Symposium

A poster presentation and abstract for the Roseman Symposium. The project focuses on testing 3 essential oil blends and two disinfectants containing an essential oil blend against SARS CoV-2 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The project procedure involves plaque assays, disinfection, and neutralization techniques.


Wc1 And Tcr Interactions For Γδ T Cell Activation, Alexandria Gillespie 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Wc1 And Tcr Interactions For Γδ T Cell Activation, Alexandria Gillespie

Doctoral Dissertations

Major subpopulations of gamma delta T cells within ruminant and pigs are defined by expression of WC1, a hybrid pattern recognition receptor/co-receptor to the T cell receptor (TCR). It is known that when WC1 is knocked down cells fail to respond. Showing that WC1 plays an active role in the stimulation of bovine gamma delta T cells. Here we explored the spatio-temporal dynamics of WC1 and TCR interaction using imaging flow cytometry and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. We found that in quiescent gamma delta T cells both WC1 and TCR existed in separate protein domains (protein islands) but after activation …


Response And Molecular Control Of Cd8 T Cells During Infection And Cancer, Nicholas K. Preiss Dr. 2022 Dartmouth College

Response And Molecular Control Of Cd8 T Cells During Infection And Cancer, Nicholas K. Preiss Dr.

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

CD8 T cells are potent immune effector cells capable of vast clonal expansion and clearance of infected or cancerous cells. After control of the pathogenic insult, CD8 T cells develop into quiescent, long-lived memory populations that are poised to mediate rapid protection upon reencounter with cognate antigen. These properties make control of CD8 T cell responses a highly desirable outcome of vaccine strategies and immunotherapy. Therefore, understanding how the effector function and memory differentiation of CD8 T cells are controlled at a molecular level is of great importance. In the context of infection with gammaherpesviruses (γHV), which form a latent …


Escherichia Coli And Salmonella Sp. In Domestic Cattle And Wild Roosevelt Elk: Fecal Pathogens At The Wildlife-Domestic Interface, Emily A. Buck 2022 Humboldt State University

Escherichia Coli And Salmonella Sp. In Domestic Cattle And Wild Roosevelt Elk: Fecal Pathogens At The Wildlife-Domestic Interface, Emily A. Buck

Cal Poly Humboldt theses and projects

Direct or indirect contact between domestic populations of animals and wildlife carries an inherent risk for transmission of pathogens that cause infectious disease. In Humboldt and Del Norte counties of northern California, ongoing conflict between ranchers and Roosevelt elk groups results from elk use of ranching pastures and pastures on private land. Fecal samples from elk in association with cattle, cattle, and from elk not in known association with cattle were assessed for the presence of bacteria Salmonella enterica and pathogenic Escherichia coli to assess whether association with cattle increases risk of infection for elk. Group identity (one of the …


The Influence Of Political Party Affiliation And Park Accessibility On Covid-19 Case Incidence, Sascha Wolf-Sorokin 2022 Claremont Colleges

The Influence Of Political Party Affiliation And Park Accessibility On Covid-19 Case Incidence, Sascha Wolf-Sorokin

CMC Senior Theses

This paper examines the joint effect of political party affiliation and the urban landscape, as measured by access to parks, on case rates during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. The 2016 and 2020 U.S. Presidential Election returns are used as a proxy for a county’s political party affiliation prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. A county population’s spatial relationship to its parks encapsulates the green open space within an urban environment. The data set controls for features of the built environment, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics (race, gender, income, education), COVID-19 government regulations, and presidential election returns. Using …


How Within-Host Priority Effects Between Specialist And Generalist Pathogens Affect Disease Risk, Jing Jiao, Michael H. Cortez 2021 Florida State University

How Within-Host Priority Effects Between Specialist And Generalist Pathogens Affect Disease Risk, Jing Jiao, Michael H. Cortez

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Undergraduate Research In Mathematical Modeling, Glenn Ledder 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Undergraduate Research In Mathematical Modeling, Glenn Ledder

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


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