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Incorporating Adaptive Human Behavior Into Epidemiological Models Using Equation Learning, Austin Barton, Jordan Klein, Jonathan Greer, Kevin Flores, Patrick Haughey 2023 Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus

Incorporating Adaptive Human Behavior Into Epidemiological Models Using Equation Learning, Austin Barton, Jordan Klein, Jonathan Greer, Kevin Flores, Patrick Haughey

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Additive Effects Of Cyclic Peptide [R4w4] When Added Alongside Azithromycin And Rifampicin Against Mycobacterium Avium Infection, Melissa Kelley, Kayvan Sasaninia, Arbi Abnousian, Ali Badaoui, James Owens, Abrianna Beever, Nala Kachour, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Vishwanath Venketaraman 2023 Western University of Health Sciences

Additive Effects Of Cyclic Peptide [R4w4] When Added Alongside Azithromycin And Rifampicin Against Mycobacterium Avium Infection, Melissa Kelley, Kayvan Sasaninia, Arbi Abnousian, Ali Badaoui, James Owens, Abrianna Beever, Nala Kachour, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Vishwanath Venketaraman

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Mycobacterium avium (M. avium), a type of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), poses a risk for pulmonary infections and disseminated infections in immunocompromised individuals. Conventional treatment consists of a 12-month regimen of the first-line antibiotics rifampicin and azithromycin. However, the treatment duration and low antibiotic tolerability present challenges in the treatment of M. avium infection. Furthermore, the emergence of multidrug-resistant mycobacterium strains prompts a need for novel treatments against M. avium infection. This study aims to test the efficacy of a novel antimicrobial peptide, cyclic [R4W4], alongside the first-line antibiotics azithromycin and rifampicin in reducing M. avium survival. Colony-forming unit (CFU) …


Mutation-Induced Changes In The Stability, B-Cell Epitope, And Antigenicity Of The Sars-Cov-2 Variant Spike Protein: A Comparative Computational Stud, Nira Meirita Wijayanti, Muhammad Hermawan Widyananda, Lailil Muflikhah, Nashi Widodo 2023 Biology Department, Faculty of mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

Mutation-Induced Changes In The Stability, B-Cell Epitope, And Antigenicity Of The Sars-Cov-2 Variant Spike Protein: A Comparative Computational Stud, Nira Meirita Wijayanti, Muhammad Hermawan Widyananda, Lailil Muflikhah, Nashi Widodo

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

The spike (S) protein is a major antigenicity site that targets neutralizing antibodies and drugs. The growing number of S protein mutations has become a severe problem for developing effective vaccines. Here, we investigated four severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that were the most infectious and widespread during the COVID-19 pandemic to determine the trends and patterns of mutation-induced changes in the stability, B-cell epitope, and antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein. The data showed that the Beta and Gamma variants had three mutations on the receptor-binding domain (RBD), which is the specific site on the S …


Genome-Scale Methylation Analysis In Blood And Tumor Identifies Immune Profile, Age Acceleration, And Dna Methylation Alterations Associated With Bladder Cancer Outcomes, Ji-Qing Chen 2023 Dartmouth College

Genome-Scale Methylation Analysis In Blood And Tumor Identifies Immune Profile, Age Acceleration, And Dna Methylation Alterations Associated With Bladder Cancer Outcomes, Ji-Qing Chen

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Bladder cancer patients receive frequent screening due to the high tumor recurrence rate (more than 60%). Nowadays, the conventional monitoring method relies on cystoscopy which is highly invasive and increases patient morbidity and burden to the health care system with frequent follow-up. As a result, it is urgent to explore novel markers related to the outcomes of bladder cancer. Immune profiles have been associated with cancer outcomes and may have the potential to be biomarkers for outcomes management. However, little work has been conducted to investigate the associations of immune cell profiles with bladder cancer outcomes. Here, I utilized the …


Investigation Of Orthohantavirus Genetics In Rodent Reservoirs And Clinical Samples, Samuel M Goodfellow 2023 Center for Global Health, Department of Internal Medicine, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA

Investigation Of Orthohantavirus Genetics In Rodent Reservoirs And Clinical Samples, Samuel M Goodfellow

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

Orthohantaviruses are negative-sense, single stranded RNA viruses with trisegmented genomes that can cause severe disease in humans and are carried by several host reservoirs throughout the world. In the United States, Sin Nombre orthohantavirus (SNV) is the primary cause of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) with a fatality rate of ~36% and the highest cases occuring in the southwest region. The primary SNV host reservoir is thought to be the western deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, however it has been shown that other rodents can carry different orthohantaviruses. We designed a pan-orthohantavirus detection tool to survey several small mammal populations throughout New …


Mining Sars-Cov-2 Phylogenetic Trees To Estimate Circulating Infections And Patterns Of Migration, Erin V. Brintnell 2023 The University of Western Ontario

Mining Sars-Cov-2 Phylogenetic Trees To Estimate Circulating Infections And Patterns Of Migration, Erin V. Brintnell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic led to the formation of very large databases of genomic viral data. These databases contain information on transmission dynamics, emergence and evolution of SARS-CoV-2. However, extracting this information from sequences is difficult, as most methods of analyzing viral genomes were developed for smaller data sets. Therefore, my objective was to develop new fast estimators of the number of infections (I) and the rate of migration based on simple features of SARS-CoV-2 phylogenies.

I simulated pathogen evolution using a susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model of pathogen spread, reconstructing evolution using CoVizu. For simulations of I, I varied the total number …


Predicting Dengue Incidence In Central Argentina Using Google Trends Data, Sahil Chindal, Elizabet Estallo, Yanjun Qian, Michael Robert 2023 Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas y Tecnológicas, CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Centro de Investigaciones Entomológicas de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina

Predicting Dengue Incidence In Central Argentina Using Google Trends Data, Sahil Chindal, Elizabet Estallo, Yanjun Qian, Michael Robert

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


The Development Of A Primer Payload With Microparticles For Uti Pathogen Identification Using Polythymidine- Modified Lamp Primers In Droplet Lamp, Jonas Otoo 2023 Claremont Colleges

The Development Of A Primer Payload With Microparticles For Uti Pathogen Identification Using Polythymidine- Modified Lamp Primers In Droplet Lamp, Jonas Otoo

KGI Theses and Dissertations

Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are among the diagnostic tests with the highest sensitivity and specificity. However, they are more complex to develop than other diagnostic tests such as biochemical tests and lateral flow immunoassay tests. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the gold standard for NAATs. PCR requires thermal cycling to achieve clonal amplification of the target pathogen DNA for diagnosis. Thermal cycling poses a challenge in the development of PCR diagnostics for point-of-care (POC) settings. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) offers an isothermal method for NAATs diagnostics. The advancement of the microfluidics field significantly enhances the development of LAMP diagnostics …


The Role Of Community In Immunity Against Sars-Cov-2, Jessica Kobilas 2023 Kean University

The Role Of Community In Immunity Against Sars-Cov-2, Jessica Kobilas

Kean Quest

This literature review investigated the roles genes activated by social interactions had in helping to build immunity against COVID-19. Past studies have shown that individuals who are more socially connected are less likely to become ill due to social interactions strengthening the immune system through optimal exposure to bacteria and viruses in the environment. The IL-6 and TLR4 genes that are activated through social interactions and associated with cytokines have been analyzed in cases of various viral infections. Cytokines play a role in inflammation and have both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses to infections and viruses. The results suggest that the …


Mir125a As Molecular Target Of Vitamin D Mediated Inhibition Of Cd4+ T Cell Differentiation Into Th17 Cells In Mrl/Lpr Lupus-Prone Mice, Miranda Hilt 2023 Otterbein University

Mir125a As Molecular Target Of Vitamin D Mediated Inhibition Of Cd4+ T Cell Differentiation Into Th17 Cells In Mrl/Lpr Lupus-Prone Mice, Miranda Hilt

Undergraduate Distinction Papers

The dynamic function of vitamin D in an array of immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms and its implication in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases has been the topic of much recent scholarship. Here I attempt to elucidate the molecular mechanism of vitamin D-mediated inhibition of the differentiation of CD4+ T cells into pro-inflammatory Th17 cells in MRL/lpr lupus prone mice by investigating how miR-125a expression is affected by dietary modulation of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). MRL/MpJ and MRL/lpr mice were split into three experimental groups and fed specially formulated diets that varied in their concentrations of vitamin D. …


Syndemics And Social Factors: Infectious Disease Patterns Within The Population Of People Experiencing Homelessness In The United States, Kathleen Berzonsky 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Syndemics And Social Factors: Infectious Disease Patterns Within The Population Of People Experiencing Homelessness In The United States, Kathleen Berzonsky

Honors Theses

Individuals experiencing homelessness are at increased risk of suffering from infectious diseases. This is due to a number of social factors and healthcare disparities, as well as the idea of syndemics, by which diseases cluster together to worsen disease burden. Current intervention strategies approach treatment from a post-infection perspective, but reducing transmission rates of infectious diseases within the population of people experiencing homelessness will require a shift in the healthcare framework. The issue of people experiencing homelessness must be viewed through a biosocial lens, focusing on preventative care and treatment. I provide an overview of the social factors governing infectious …


Meta-Narrative Review Of Pd-L1 By Immunotherapy On Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, Hannah Lazo, Tyler Harris, Hao Truong, Alina Masroor 2023 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

Meta-Narrative Review Of Pd-L1 By Immunotherapy On Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, Hannah Lazo, Tyler Harris, Hao Truong, Alina Masroor

Research Methods Poster Session 2023

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive form of subtype breast cancer and there are currently new treatments being discovered such as the combination of immunotherapy and chemotherapy. In immunotherapy against triple-negative breast cancer, checkpoint inhibitors like PD-1/PD-L1 treat TNBC by blocking the “off” signal that prevents T-cells from killing cancer cells. As a group, we conducted a meta-narrative review collecting results from primary sources such as clinical trials and human experimental studies to support our research question on how PD-L1 inhibitor treatments compare to other treatments in patients with TNBC. The review included articles searched from Embase, Pubmed, EMBASE, …


Investigating The Relationship Between Metabolic Reprogramming And Peripheral Cd4+ T-Cell Inflammation In Human Type 2 Diabetes Pathogenesis, Gabriella Kalantar 2023 University of Kentucky

Investigating The Relationship Between Metabolic Reprogramming And Peripheral Cd4+ T-Cell Inflammation In Human Type 2 Diabetes Pathogenesis, Gabriella Kalantar

Theses and Dissertations--Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics

Chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation rises in obesity and promotes type 2 diabetes (T2D). Circulating immune cells are key indicators of obesity and T2D pathogenesis. T cells outnumber monocytes, in blood, suggesting that T cells might fuel peripheral inflammation in obesity/T2D. Our lab’s work supports this idea by identification of a Th17 cytokine profile in T2D from T-cell stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Work described herein further supported this work by demonstrating that T cells dominate peripheral inflammation over monocytes across the spectrum of obesity and glycemic control. Our lab has also recently shown that inflammation changes during prediabetes (preT2D), identified …


Dna Methylation And The Response To Infection In Introduced House Sparrows, Melanie Gibson 2023 Georgia Southern University

Dna Methylation And The Response To Infection In Introduced House Sparrows, Melanie Gibson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Epigenetics is the study of molecular modification of a genome without changing its base pairs. The most studied type of epigenetic mechanism is DNA methylation, which is capable of turning a gene “on” or “off.” Epigenetic potential is the capacity to which an individual can have methylation on its genome. The more CpGs available, the greater the epigenetic potential. In invasive species, genetic variation has been observed to be paradoxical: not much of it exists on a genomic level, but epigenetically, phenotypic variation can occur. The focus on shift in gene expression in this study is on Toll-Like Receptor 4 …


The Psychology Of Science Denialism And Lessons For Public Health Authorities, Brenna Moreno, Molly J. Walker Wilson 2023 King & Spalding

The Psychology Of Science Denialism And Lessons For Public Health Authorities, Brenna Moreno, Molly J. Walker Wilson

All Faculty Scholarship

As it wreaked tragedy on the world, the outbreak of COVID-19 helped expose a pandemic of a different kind, one steeped in distrust and contrarianism. This movement, termed science denialism, has been lurking and undermining public health efforts for decades. Specifically, it is “the employment of rhetorical arguments to give the appearance of legitimate debate where there is none, an approach that has the ultimate goal of rejecting a proposition on which a scientific consensus exists.” Unlike skepticism, which is “doubt as to the truth of something” and works to progress both science and society, denialism is characterized by individuals’ …


Complex Narratives Of Individuals Living With Alpha-Gal Syndrome (Ags). A Mixed-Methods Investigation: Examined Through Self-Reported Data, In-Person Interviews, And A Group Body Mapping Art Therapy Intervention, Sylvan Streightiff 2023 Dominican University of California

Complex Narratives Of Individuals Living With Alpha-Gal Syndrome (Ags). A Mixed-Methods Investigation: Examined Through Self-Reported Data, In-Person Interviews, And A Group Body Mapping Art Therapy Intervention, Sylvan Streightiff

Art Therapy | Master's Theses

Alpha-gal (galactose-α-1,3-galactose) Syndrome or AGS is an under-recognized chronic condition which coincides with tick-bite exposure, resulting in a unique allergy to non-primate mammalian products and byproducts (in addition to other items caring the α-gal epitope such as carrageenan, agar-agar, and nori). This paper explores the experiences of individuals with this illness, establishing psychological context for expressed symptomatology, while emphasizing the complex trauma rooted in the population’s experiences of the life-altering and life-threatening contexts associated with managing AGS. This research is structured with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) theory and utilizes a mixed-methods approach to arts-based research with the goal of …


Crispr Technology As An Antiviral In Dsdna And Ssrna Viruses, Cathryn Mayes 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Crispr Technology As An Antiviral In Dsdna And Ssrna Viruses, Cathryn Mayes

Theses & Dissertations

The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the necessity of emergency response and pandemic preparedness, especially for emerging viral threats. Currently, virus-specific vaccines and antivirals are the primary tools to combat viral diseases; however, broad-spectrum antivirals that target more than one virus species could provide additional protection from emerging and re-emerging viral diseases (Andersen et al. 2020; Zhu et al. 2015; Hickman et al. 2022).

Clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated endonucleases have become recently utilized as potential antiviral strategies due to their high specificity, efficacy, and versatility (Najafi et al. 2022). While CRISPR-based antivirals have previously been used to target specific …


Investigating The Involvement Of The Tick Vector In The Induction Of Alpha-Galactose Hypersensitivity (Alpha-Gal Syndrome, Red Meat Allergy) In The United States., Gary Crispell 2022 The University of Southern Mississippi

Investigating The Involvement Of The Tick Vector In The Induction Of Alpha-Galactose Hypersensitivity (Alpha-Gal Syndrome, Red Meat Allergy) In The United States., Gary Crispell

Dissertations

Alpha-gal syndrome (AGS or sometimes called red meat allergy) is a result of the development of specific IgE antibodies to the oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) after a person has had exposure to tick bites. This dissertation investigates four common tick species found in North America: the lone-star tick (Amblyomma americanum), the Gulf-Coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum), the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis), and the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) for the presence of α-gal by utilizing a combination of immunoproteomic approaches and carbohydrate analysis techniques.

Anti-α-gal IgM antibodies (M86) were used in immunoblotting to detect …


Selection Pressure On Surface Exposed Virus Proteins, Sareh Bagherichimeh 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Selection Pressure On Surface Exposed Virus Proteins, Sareh Bagherichimeh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Viral infection requires the interaction between virus surface-exposed (SE) proteins and host cell receptors. This can result in an “arms race” that is assumed to drive accelerated rates of evolution, and some well known examples of diversifying selection involve surface pro- teins (HIV-1 env, influenza hemagglutinin). We conducted a systematic analysis to determine whether this is truly a distinctive feature of SE virus proteins, in comparison to non-SE proteins encoded by the same genomes.

We obtained reference and all neighbour genomes of 52 human viruses from the NCBI Viral Genomes database. The coding sequences (CDS) of each genome extracted by …


Comparison Of The Humoral Immune Response Following Both Bacterial Challenge And Rnai Of Major Factors On Proliferation Of Bartonella Quintana In The Human Louse, Jake Zina 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Comparison Of The Humoral Immune Response Following Both Bacterial Challenge And Rnai Of Major Factors On Proliferation Of Bartonella Quintana In The Human Louse, Jake Zina

Masters Theses

Human body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus, and head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, have been hematophagous ectoparasites of humans for thousands of years. Despite being ecotypes, only body lice are known to transmit bacterial diseases to humans, and it appears that lower humoral and cellular immune responses allow body lice to possess a higher vector competence. We previously observed that the transcription level of the defensin 1 gene was up-regulated only in head lice following oral challenge of Bartonella quintana, a causative agent of trench fever, and also that body lice excreted more viable B. quintana in their …


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