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Immunoprophylaxis and Therapy Commons

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Evaluation Of The Humoral/Fc-Mediated Immune Responses To An Adenovirus-26 Viral Vector/Gp140 Subunit Combined Vaccine Regimen As A Prophylactic Hiv-1, Nathan E. Adam 2022 Cedarville University

Evaluation Of The Humoral/Fc-Mediated Immune Responses To An Adenovirus-26 Viral Vector/Gp140 Subunit Combined Vaccine Regimen As A Prophylactic Hiv-1, Nathan E. Adam

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

Background and Introduction: HIV is one of the most problematic pandemics to date, currently infecting upwards of 38 million people worldwide (“The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic,” 2020). Although infection and mortality rates have generally decreased, current prophylactic (preventive) measures against HIV-1 acquisition have shown major weaknesses that could be remedied with a vaccine (Pitisuttuthum & Marovich, 2020). Manufacturing an effective, prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine, however, is not without challenges - namely design/selection of vaccine-delivered immunogens (antigens) and elicitation of proper immune responses to HIV-1 antigens (Ng’uni et al., 2020). Fortunately, despite past, unsuccessful research, studies within the past 10-15 years have begun …


Combinatorial Administration Of Synthetic Tlr4 Agonist Ini-2002 And Novel Mincle Agonist Um-1098 Delivered Via A-Snps Results In Synergistic Il-1Β Production In Human Primary Cells And Enhances Th1 And Th17 Responses In Vivo, Grace D. Jones, Asia Marie Stephanie Riel, Alexander Riffey, Cassandra Buhl 2022 University of Montana, Missoula

Combinatorial Administration Of Synthetic Tlr4 Agonist Ini-2002 And Novel Mincle Agonist Um-1098 Delivered Via A-Snps Results In Synergistic Il-1Β Production In Human Primary Cells And Enhances Th1 And Th17 Responses In Vivo, Grace D. Jones, Asia Marie Stephanie Riel, Alexander Riffey, Cassandra Buhl

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Tuberculosis (TB) kills more people each year than any infectious disease worldwide with recent exception of SARS-CoV-2. Though the Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine confers protection against severe extrapulmonary forms of TB, there is no licensed vaccine for the prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis. The strongest correlate of protection against pulmonary tuberculosis is Th1/Th17 biased cell mediated immunity. Several candidates for TB vaccine adjuvants have shown Th1/Th17 polarizing capacity in clinical trials including Mincle agonist trehalose dibehenate (TDB) and TLR4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). Furthermore, combinatorial administration of MPL and TDB formulated in dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) liposomes has been previously reported …


Sodium Pyruvate Ameliorates Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro And In Vivo, Jessica M. Reel 2021 Missouri State University

Sodium Pyruvate Ameliorates Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro And In Vivo, Jessica M. Reel

MSU Graduate Theses

Pyruvate is produced in duplicate at the end of glycolysis in addition to ATP and NADH. Pyruvate is the metabolite of choice in most cells, whether obtained exogenously or endogenously. Recently we found that the addition of pyruvate’s conjugate base, sodium pyruvate, to cell culture media dampened the immune response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection in cultured innate immune cells. Thus, I decided to investigate the mechanism and potential for treatment of IAV. In vitro using bone marrow derived macrophages that were infected with IAV we found that adding sodium pyruvate to the media decreased immune signaling pathways through …


The Intellectual Property Of Covid-19, Ana Santos Rutschman 2021 Saint Louis University School of Law

The Intellectual Property Of Covid-19, Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

The response to COVID-19 is indissolubly tied to intellectual property. In an increasingly globalized world in which infectious disease pathogens travel faster and wider than before, the development of vaccines, treatments and other forms of medical technology has become an integral part of public health preparedness and response frameworks. The development of these technologies, and to a certain extent the allocation and distribution of resulting outputs, is informed by intellectual property regimes. These regimes influence the commitment of R&D resources, shape scientific collaborations and, in some cases, may condition the widespread availability of emerging technologies. As seen throughout this chapter, …


Histidine-Triad Hydrolases Provide Resistance To Peptide-Nucleotide Antibiotics., Eldar Yagmurov, Darya Tsibulskaya, Alexey Livenskyi, Marina Serebryakova, Yury I Wolf, Sergei Borukhov, Konstantin Severinov, Svetlana Dubiley 2020 Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology

Histidine-Triad Hydrolases Provide Resistance To Peptide-Nucleotide Antibiotics., Eldar Yagmurov, Darya Tsibulskaya, Alexey Livenskyi, Marina Serebryakova, Yury I Wolf, Sergei Borukhov, Konstantin Severinov, Svetlana Dubiley

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

The Escherichia coli microcin C (McC) and related compounds are potent Trojan horse peptide-nucleotide antibiotics. The peptide part facilitates transport into sensitive cells. Inside the cell, the peptide part is degraded by nonspecific peptidases releasing an aspartamide-adenylate containing a phosphoramide bond. This nonhydrolyzable compound inhibits aspartyl-tRNA synthetase. In addition to the efficient export of McC outside the producing cells, special mechanisms have evolved to avoid self-toxicity caused by the degradation of the peptide part inside the producers. Here, we report that histidine-triad (HIT) hydrolases encoded in biosynthetic clusters of some McC homologs or by standalone genes confer resistance to McC-like …


Haemonchus Contortus Antigen Identification And Use Of Tropomyosin In Ovine Vaccine Development, Brynnan P. Russ 2020 West Virginia University

Haemonchus Contortus Antigen Identification And Use Of Tropomyosin In Ovine Vaccine Development, Brynnan P. Russ

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Globally, the small ruminant industry loses hundreds of millions of dollars due to parasitism by the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus. This parasite feeds on blood in the host’s abomasum leading to disease including anemia, hypoproteinemia, lethargy, and death. There have been exhaustive efforts to manage this parasite including different management applications, anthelmintic treatment, and now integration of resistance genetics into a flock. Like antibiotics, overuse of anthelmintics has led to resistance of H. contortus to these drugs. Therefore, other methods of control are the main focuses of many research initiatives. St. Croix are a resistant breed of sheep that mount …


Exploring The Impact Of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Related To Sexual Behavior In College Men, Dalton J. Poe 2020 University of Central Florida

Exploring The Impact Of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Related To Sexual Behavior In College Men, Dalton J. Poe

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective tool for preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition in sexually active at-risk individuals such as men who have sex with men (MSM). The purpose of this study is to examine factors associated with intent to engage in risky sexual behavior among HIV-negative college aged (18-24) MSM who are currently adherent to PrEP or who have expressed interest in the future adoption of PrEP. A multiracial/ethnic sample of 31 men expressing interest in the adoption of PrEP and 6 men currently taking PrEP completed a quantitative survey identifying key themes regarding attitudes towards PrEP and …


Endogenous, Controlled Expression Of Anti-Hiv-1 Broadly Neutralizing Antibody, Darshit Patel 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Endogenous, Controlled Expression Of Anti-Hiv-1 Broadly Neutralizing Antibody, Darshit Patel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Recently, researchers have identified a number of anti-HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), such as VRC01 and N6, capable of targeting a broad range of HIV-1 strains. Passive immunization using these patient-derived bNAbs could provide temporary protection but are limited by the short antibody half-life. While current gene transfer technology allows sustained bNAb expression, it lacks the ability to control bNAb production in vivo resulting in possible autoimmunity. To address this issue of achieving controlled bNAb expression in vivo, we hypothesize that bNAb expression from transduced Flu-specific B cells can be activated and modulated by subsequent Flu immunizations in the …


Development Of Novel Zika And Anthrax Viral Nanoparticle Vaccines, Elizabeth Henderson 2019 Claremont Colleges

Development Of Novel Zika And Anthrax Viral Nanoparticle Vaccines, Elizabeth Henderson

KGI Theses and Dissertations

Vaccines protect against numerous infectious diseases and prevent millions of deaths annually, but there are still many infectious diseases for which no licensed vaccine exists. Developing a new vaccine requires balancing safety and efficacy, and viral nanoparticle (VNP) vaccines possess both of these characteristics. The work herein demonstrates how tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) nanoparticles can serve as a platform to create candidate vaccines for Zika virus (ZIKV) and anthrax. In the first study, a ZIKV-specific epitope was genetically fused to TMV to create a safe and inexpensive vaccine that proved highly immunogenic in mice and led to the discovery of …


Structure-Based Design Of Hepatitis C Virus Vaccines That Elicit Neutralizing Antibody Responses To A Conserved Epitope, Brian G. Pierce, Elisabeth N. Boucher, Kurt H. Piepenbrink, Ejemel Monir, Chelsea A. Rapp, William D. Thomas Jr., Eric J. Sundberg, Zhiping Weng, Yan Wang 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Structure-Based Design Of Hepatitis C Virus Vaccines That Elicit Neutralizing Antibody Responses To A Conserved Epitope, Brian G. Pierce, Elisabeth N. Boucher, Kurt H. Piepenbrink, Ejemel Monir, Chelsea A. Rapp, William D. Thomas Jr., Eric J. Sundberg, Zhiping Weng, Yan Wang

Kurt Piepenbrink

Despite recent advances in therapeutic options, hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a severe global disease burden, and a vaccine can substantially reduce its incidence. Due to its extremely high sequence variability, HCV can readily escape the immune response; thus, an effective vaccine must target conserved, functionally important epitopes. Using the structure of a broadly neutralizing antibody in complex with a conserved linear epitope from the HCV E2 envelope glycoprotein (residues 412 to 423; epitope I), we performed structure-based design of immunogens to induce antibody responses to this epitope. This resulted in epitope-based immunogens based on a cyclic defensin protein, as …


A Mathematical Investigation On Tumor-Immune Dynamics: The Impact Of Vaccines On The Immune Response, Jonathan Quinonez, Neethi Dasu, Mahboobi Qureshi 2019 Larkin Hospital (Florida)

A Mathematical Investigation On Tumor-Immune Dynamics: The Impact Of Vaccines On The Immune Response, Jonathan Quinonez, Neethi Dasu, Mahboobi Qureshi

Stratford Campus Research Day

Mathematical models analyzing tumor-immune interactions provide a framework by which to address specific scenarios in regard to tumor-immune dynamics. Important aspects of tumor-immune surveillance to consider is the elimination of tumor cells from a host’s cell-mediated immunity as well as the implications of vaccines derived from synthetic antigen. In present studies, our mathematical model examined the role of synthetic antigen to the strength of the immune system. The constructed model takes into account accepted knowledge of immune function as well as prior work done by de Pillis et al. All equations describing tumor-immune growth, antigen presentation, immune response, and interaction …


Defining And Manipulating The Function Of Protein Kinase C-Theta In Graft Versus Host Responses, Emrah Ilker Ozay 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Defining And Manipulating The Function Of Protein Kinase C-Theta In Graft Versus Host Responses, Emrah Ilker Ozay

Doctoral Dissertations

Immune-mediated tissue destruction of graft-vs-host disease (GvHD) remains a major barrier to greater use of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). It is found that alloreactive donor-derived T cells activated through their T cell receptor (TCR) are primarily the major contributors to the immunopathobiology of GvHD. Protein kinase C-theta (PKCtheta), a crucial, early downstream kinase of TCR signaling, enhances T cell activation, thereby promoting alloreactive responses such as differentiation, proliferation, migration, and cytotoxicity. Thus, delineating specific ways of interfering PKCtheta signaling is beneficial for the GvHD treatment or prevention.

Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms driven by PKCtheta in T cells by …


Polymeric Peptide Mimics For Protein Delivery, Coralie Backlund 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Polymeric Peptide Mimics For Protein Delivery, Coralie Backlund

Doctoral Dissertations

The plasma membrane is a major obstacle in the development and use of biomacromolecules for intracellular applications. Consequently, proteins with intracellular targets represent an enormous, yet under studied avenue for therapeutics. Extended research has aimed at facilitating intracellular delivery of exogenous proteins using protein transduction domains (PTDs), which allow transport of bioactive molecules into cells. Synthetic polymers, inspired by PTDs, provide a well-controlled platform to vary molecular architecture for structure activity relationship studies. Specifically, this thesis focuses on the use of ring-opening metathesis, a facile and efficient polymerization technique, through which we can vary structural parameters to optimize delivery of …


Tumor Immunotherapy: Mechanisms Of Acquired Resistance And Characterization Of Immune Related Toxicities, Ashvin Jaiswal 2018 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Tumor Immunotherapy: Mechanisms Of Acquired Resistance And Characterization Of Immune Related Toxicities, Ashvin Jaiswal

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Tumor immunotherapy has shown very promising clinical benefit across an array of cancers; however, two major challenges remain unresolved in the field. First, many patients do not respond to therapy at all or relapse after a period of remission. Second, there are often dose-limiting immune related adverse effects associated with immunomodulation.

In order to understand the mechanisms employed by tumors to evade immunotherapeutic responses, we established a murine model of melanoma designed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying immunotherapy resistance. Through multiple in vivo passages, we selected a B16 melanoma tumor line that evolved complete resistance to combination blockade of …


Tumor Surveillance Using Liquid Biome In Pediatric High Grade Gliomas, Erin Bonner, Eshini Panditharatna, Madhuri Kambhampati, Stefaan Van Gool, Wilfried Stuecker, Roger J. Packer, Javad Nazarian 2018 Children's National Health System

Tumor Surveillance Using Liquid Biome In Pediatric High Grade Gliomas, Erin Bonner, Eshini Panditharatna, Madhuri Kambhampati, Stefaan Van Gool, Wilfried Stuecker, Roger J. Packer, Javad Nazarian

GW Research Days 2016 - 2020

Immunotherapy is currently being used to treat pediatric brain cancer, though its efficacy in treating patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), the deadliest pediatric brain tumor, has not been evaluated. MRI is the gold standard for monitoring tumor response to therapy, but is limited by pseudoresponse and psuedoprogression: post-treatment, immune cells infiltrate the primary tumor causing transient tumor enlargement, which falsely resembles tumor progression on MRI. Thus, it is critical to develop more accurate approaches to monitor tumor response to immunotherapy. Here, we use a liquid biopsy platform we have already established to monitor tumor response to therapy, to …


Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis: Tuberculosis, Tnfα Inhibitors, And Crohn's Disease, Brent L. Cao 2018 University of Central Florida

Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis: Tuberculosis, Tnfα Inhibitors, And Crohn's Disease, Brent L. Cao

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Inflammation is often a protective reaction against harmful foreign agents. However, in many disease conditions, the mechanisms behind the inflammatory response are poorly understood. Often times, the inflammation causes adverse effects, such as joint pain, abdominal pain, fever, fatigue, and loss of appetite. Thus, many treatments aim to inhibit the inflammatory response in order to control adverse symptoms. Such treatments include TNFα inhibitors. However, a major risk associated with drugs inhibiting tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is serious infection, including tuberculosis (TB).

Anti-TNFα therapy is used to treat patients with Crohn’s disease, for which the risk of tuberculosis may be …


Phytochemical Screening And Determination Of Antibacterial, Anti-Tumorigenic And Dna Protection Ability Of Root Extracts Of Saussurea Lappa, Sughra Arif Minhas, Fida Muhammad Khan, Fakhar-i- Abbas, Abu Ul Hassan Faiz 2017 Institute of Natural and Management Sciences (INAM), Rawalpindi

Phytochemical Screening And Determination Of Antibacterial, Anti-Tumorigenic And Dna Protection Ability Of Root Extracts Of Saussurea Lappa, Sughra Arif Minhas, Fida Muhammad Khan, Fakhar-I- Abbas, Abu Ul Hassan Faiz

Journal of Bioresource Management

Saussurea lappa is a traditionally well-known plant for its medicinal uses in different indigenous systems of medicine. It is widely used in the treatment of asthma, ulcer, stomach problems and inflammatory diseases. In current study the phytochemical screening of S. lappa showed the presence of sesquiterpenes, anthraquinones, lignans, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides and steroids. Antimicrobial potential of subject plant was also investigated against three bacterial strains and maximum antibacterial activity was observed by CEE against S. aureus, CAE against P. aeruginosa, while CME, CEE, EAE and PEE showed almost same significant activity against E. coli. The CME (1000 …


Development Of C5ar-Targeted Nanoparticles For Delivery Of Vaccines, Shailendra Bharadwaj Tallapaka Venkata Sesha 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Development Of C5ar-Targeted Nanoparticles For Delivery Of Vaccines, Shailendra Bharadwaj Tallapaka Venkata Sesha

Theses & Dissertations

Since the early attempts of Benjamin Jesty at inducing immunity against smallpox and the pioneering work of Edward Jenner, vaccination has been, and continues to remain, the principal method of protection from diseases. However, most of the successful vaccines have been against pathogens that do not have major mechanisms to evade the immune system. So far, many life-threatening diseases like hepatitis C, HIV infection, malaria etc., have been resistant to existing vaccination strategies. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop new vaccination strategies that can generate long-lived protective immunity against such pathogens.

The purpose of this thesis is to …


Rational Drug Design Directed At Blocking The Initial Signaling Events In Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Sepsis., Christopher A. Tipton 2017 University of Missouri - St. Louis

Rational Drug Design Directed At Blocking The Initial Signaling Events In Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Sepsis., Christopher A. Tipton

Theses

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) is classified as an immune system response to an infectious state. If left untreated, SIRS leads to sepsis, septic shock, end-organ dysfunction, and death. As a patient progresses through these stages, associations of acute respiratory distress, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and acute renal failure persist, resulting in millions of deaths annually. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, is released into the blood stream, triggering SIRS. LPS is found in the outer cell-wall of Gram-negative bacteria and is responsible for initiation of a devastating cytokine storm. One of the regions of LPS, lipid A, is a polyacylated glucosamine …


5 Year Expression And Neutrophil Defect Repair After Gene Therapy In Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, Christian Mueller, Gwladys Gernoux, Alisha M. Gruntman, Florie Borel, Emer P. Reeves, Roberto Calcedo, Farshid N. Rouhani, Anthony Yachnis, Margaret Humphries, Martha Campbell-Thompson, Louis M. Messina, Jeffrey D. Chulay, Bruce Trapnell, James M. Wilson, Noel G. McElvaney, Terence R. Flotte 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

5 Year Expression And Neutrophil Defect Repair After Gene Therapy In Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, Christian Mueller, Gwladys Gernoux, Alisha M. Gruntman, Florie Borel, Emer P. Reeves, Roberto Calcedo, Farshid N. Rouhani, Anthony Yachnis, Margaret Humphries, Martha Campbell-Thompson, Louis M. Messina, Jeffrey D. Chulay, Bruce Trapnell, James M. Wilson, Noel G. Mcelvaney, Terence R. Flotte

Christian Mueller

Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a monogenic disorder resulting in emphysema due principally to the unopposed effects of neutrophil elastase. We previously reported achieving plasma wild-type alpha-1 antitrypsin concentrations at 2.5%-3.8% of the purported therapeutic level at 1 year after a single intramuscular administration of recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 1 alpha-1 antitrypsin vector in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficient patients. We analyzed blood and muscle for alpha-1 antitrypsin expression and immune cell response. We also assayed previously reported markers of neutrophil function known to be altered in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficient patients. Here, we report sustained expression at 2.0%-2.5% of the target level from …


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