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Thrombospondin-1 Expression And Modulation Of Wnt And Hippo Signaling Pathways During The Early Phase Of Trypanosoma Cruzi Infection Of Heart Endothelial Cells, Ashutosh Arun, Kayla J. Rayford, Ayorinde Cooley, Tanu Rana, Girish Rachakonda, Fernando Villalta, Siddharth Pratap, Maria F. Lima, Nader Sheibani, Pius N. Nde 2022 Meharry Medical College

Thrombospondin-1 Expression And Modulation Of Wnt And Hippo Signaling Pathways During The Early Phase Of Trypanosoma Cruzi Infection Of Heart Endothelial Cells, Ashutosh Arun, Kayla J. Rayford, Ayorinde Cooley, Tanu Rana, Girish Rachakonda, Fernando Villalta, Siddharth Pratap, Maria F. Lima, Nader Sheibani, Pius N. Nde

Publications and Research

The protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, causes severe morbidity and mortality in afflicted individuals. Approximately 30% of T. cruzi infected individuals present with cardiac pathology. The invasive forms of the parasite are carried in the vascular system to infect other cells of the body. During transportation, the molecular mechanisms by which the parasite signals and interact with host endothelial cells (EC) especially heart endothelium is currently unknown. The parasite increases host thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) expression and activates the Wnt/β-catenin and hippo signaling pathways during the early phase of infection. The links between TSP1 and activation of the signaling pathways and …


Dissecting The Role Of Actin-Myosin Motor And Calcium – Based Organelle Secretion In Motility Of Sarcocystis Neurona, Parul Suri 2022 University of Kentucky

Dissecting The Role Of Actin-Myosin Motor And Calcium – Based Organelle Secretion In Motility Of Sarcocystis Neurona, Parul Suri

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Sarcocystis neurona is a protozoan parasite that causes a rare neurological disorder in horses called Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM). Apicomplexa use actin-myosin based motor and organelle secretion to interact with the host cell and invade it. Despite the importance of motility and invasion-needed factors, the mechanisms by which S. neurona employs host cell association strategies to interact remains largely undefined. To address this knowledge gap, we hypothesize that just like other Apicomplexa, S. neurona utilizes actin polymerization for substrate-dependent gliding. Moreover, we also hypothesize that micronemes of S. neurona secrete proteins that are calcium-dependent. Based on previous studies in T. …


Phenotypic Analysis Of Murine Gut Associated Lymphocytes, Madison Flood 2022 Loyola University Chicago

Phenotypic Analysis Of Murine Gut Associated Lymphocytes, Madison Flood

Master's Theses

γδ T cells are important in the role of immune homeostasis, especially in relation to the gut. It has been shown that there is a higher proportion of γδ T cells in the intestines than in circulation. With this knowledge, our lab focused on understanding the mechanisms of these cells, specifically regarding immune tolerance. In our preliminary research, we identified a subset of γδ T cells that express Foxp3, a transcription factor essential for the functioning of regulatory T cells, in the neonatal (5 day old) intestine. We hypothesized that these Foxp3+ γδ T cells have immunosuppressive functions upon exposure …


Epidemiologia De La Tripanosomosis En Bovidos Del Departamento Del Caqueta, Diana Cristina Sánchez Arévalo 2022 Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá

Epidemiologia De La Tripanosomosis En Bovidos Del Departamento Del Caqueta, Diana Cristina Sánchez Arévalo

Maestría en Agrociencias

La tripanosomosis bovina es una enfermedad de ocurrencia global, causada por el protozoario flagelado Trypanosoma vivax que es trasmitido por la mosca tsé-tsé en África. La enfermedad se introdujo en América del Sur con la importación de ganado procedente de África Occidental a inicios del siglo XX. En el continente americano el parásito se adaptó a la transmisión mecánica por dípteros hematófagos como Stomoxys sp. y Tabanus sp. y de forma iatrogénica. Los estudios en Colombia son escasos, se sabe que el organismo circula de forma endémica en la Costa Atlántica y Llanos Orientales, Valle del Cauca y Magdalena Medio. …


Emerging Biomedical Applications Of The Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Glycoprotein, Sheeba Rehman, Suman Bishnoi, Rajarshi Roy, Anshu Kumari, Harikrishnan Jayakumar, Sharad Gupta, Parimal Kar, Asit K. Pattnaik, Bebasis Nayak 2022 Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Bhopal

Emerging Biomedical Applications Of The Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Glycoprotein, Sheeba Rehman, Suman Bishnoi, Rajarshi Roy, Anshu Kumari, Harikrishnan Jayakumar, Sharad Gupta, Parimal Kar, Asit K. Pattnaik, Bebasis Nayak

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Nanoparticles (NPs) made of metals, polymers, micelles, and liposomes are increasingly being used in various biomedical applications. However, most of these NPs are hazardous for long- and short-term use and hence have restricted biomedical applications. Therefore, naturally derived, biocompatible, and biodegradable nanoconstructs are being explored for such applications. Inspired by the biology of viruses, researchers are exploring the viral proteins that hold considerable promise in biomedical applications. The viral proteins are highly stable and further amenable to suit specific biological applications. Among various viral proteins, vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) has emerged as one of the most versatile platforms for …


Determining Effective Treatment Regimens For Breast Cancer Using Combined Immunotherapy And Chemotherapy In Vivo, Akhila R. Kunuthuru, Laura Graham, Harry D. Bear MD, PhD 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Determining Effective Treatment Regimens For Breast Cancer Using Combined Immunotherapy And Chemotherapy In Vivo, Akhila R. Kunuthuru, Laura Graham, Harry D. Bear Md, Phd

Undergraduate Research Posters

Breast cancer has the highest incidence rate of all cancers globally in women, and those of African descent, especially West African females, face higher rates of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), a more aggressive form of breast cancer. Immunotherapy for breast cancer is a relatively new treatment option, and research is ongoing to identify the best combination treatments for increasing survival of those diagnosed with TNBC. Eganelisib (IPI-549: a PI3K-gamma inhibitor that works to shift M2 macrophages to M1 to augment T cell function) with other combinatory treatments has shown promising results in reducing tumor growth and increasing survival in mice. …


Sodium Hydrogen Exchanger 1 Enhances Antitumor Activity Of Nk-92 Natural Killer Cells, Yaoyu Gong 2022 University of Pennsylvania

Sodium Hydrogen Exchanger 1 Enhances Antitumor Activity Of Nk-92 Natural Killer Cells, Yaoyu Gong

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Adoptive cell transfer immunotherapy has remarkable efficacy against some hematological malignancies. However, its efficacy in solid tumors is limited by the adverse tumor microenvironment (TME) conditions, most notably that acidity inhibits T and NK cell mTORC1 activity and impairs cytotoxicity. In several reported studies, systemic buffering of tumor acidity enhanced the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Paradoxically, we found in a Myc-inducible hepatocellular carcinoma model that buffering increased tumor mTORC1 activity, negating inhibition of tumor growth by anti-PD1 treatment. To avoid such adverse effects of systemic buffering favoring tumor growth, we overexpressed activated RHEB in the human NK-92 cell line, …


Central Control Of Pain And Inflammation Through A Hunger Circuit, Michelle Lynne Klima 2022 University of Pennsylvania

Central Control Of Pain And Inflammation Through A Hunger Circuit, Michelle Lynne Klima

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Homeostasis is established through bidirectional communication between the periphery and the central nervous system. To maintain homeostasis, some biological drives can become prioritized over others. This changing balance between biological drives encourages peak performance and survival. However, when homeostasis is disturbed, chronic inflammatory diseases such as obesity, chronic pain, and arthritis can arise. We became interested in understanding if competing biological drives could be leveraged for therapeutic purposes. Food restriction inhibits inflammation; therefore, we explored how hunger and feeding neural circuits affect responses to noxious agents. Our first study investigated the role of hunger to alleviate pain behavior. We found …


Development Of Novel Vaccination Strategies Against Emerging Bunyaviruses, Tomaz Manzoni 2022 University of Pennsylvania

Development Of Novel Vaccination Strategies Against Emerging Bunyaviruses, Tomaz Manzoni

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a highly pathogenic emergent bunyavirus. First isolated in 2009 in China, SFTSV is now endemic to several east Asian countries where high case fatality ratios of 6-30% are reported. The primary tick vector of SFTSV, Haemaphysalis longicornis, has a large range and is a well reported invasive species throughout the world. This, in addition to SFTSV’s ability to spread in the absence of its vector in nosocomial and veterinary settings, suggests SFTSV is well suited to cause widespread lethal outbreaks. Currently no vaccines or therapeutics against SFTSV exist, prompting health agencies to …


The Microbiome Of The Equine Roundworm, Parascaris Spp., Jennifer Lynn Cain 2022 University of Kentucky

The Microbiome Of The Equine Roundworm, Parascaris Spp., Jennifer Lynn Cain

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Parasitic nematodes, including the large roundworms colloquially known as ascarids, affect the health and well-being of livestock animals worldwide. The equine ascarid, Parascaris spp., was the first ascarid parasite to develop wide-spread anthelmintic drug resistance, with other species slowly following suit. There are no new classes of anthelmintics currently in development, and a solution to the ever-increasing prevalence of resistance is desperately needed. The microbiome has been shown to be an important factor in the fitness and health of many organisms and changes to microbiome composition have been associated with a plethora of diseases. The microbiome is also important to …


Deciphering The Heterogeneity Of Hiv Reservoir Immunology: A Single-Cell Perspective, Vincent Huang Wu 2022 University of Pennsylvania

Deciphering The Heterogeneity Of Hiv Reservoir Immunology: A Single-Cell Perspective, Vincent Huang Wu

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Since its initial documentation in 1981, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic has impacted more than 70 million people. As the causative agent of AIDS, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that integrates a copy of its viral genome (termed provirus) into the genome of target cells known as CD4+ T cells. With antiretroviral therapy (ART), persons living with HIV (PLWH) can suppress viral replication and prevent progression to AIDS. However, ART is usually a lifelong requirement as interruption can lead to viral rebound via transcription at the integrated viral genome. During early HIV infection, some infected cells can …


Response And Molecular Control Of Cd8 T Cells During Infection And Cancer, Nicholas K. Preiss Dr. 2022 Dartmouth College

Response And Molecular Control Of Cd8 T Cells During Infection And Cancer, Nicholas K. Preiss Dr.

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

CD8 T cells are potent immune effector cells capable of vast clonal expansion and clearance of infected or cancerous cells. After control of the pathogenic insult, CD8 T cells develop into quiescent, long-lived memory populations that are poised to mediate rapid protection upon reencounter with cognate antigen. These properties make control of CD8 T cell responses a highly desirable outcome of vaccine strategies and immunotherapy. Therefore, understanding how the effector function and memory differentiation of CD8 T cells are controlled at a molecular level is of great importance. In the context of infection with gammaherpesviruses (γHV), which form a latent …


Social Determinants Of Disease: Hiv And Covid-19 Experiences, Raiza M. Beltran, Ian W. Holloway, Chenglin Hong, Ayako Miyashita, Luisita Cordero, Elizabeth Wu, Katherine Burris, Paula M. Frew 2022 David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

Social Determinants Of Disease: Hiv And Covid-19 Experiences, Raiza M. Beltran, Ian W. Holloway, Chenglin Hong, Ayako Miyashita, Luisita Cordero, Elizabeth Wu, Katherine Burris, Paula M. Frew

Epidemiology & Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Purpose of Review: The differential impact of the COVID-19 and HIV pandemics on marginalized communities has renewed calls for more robust and deeper investigation into structural and social causes of health inequities contributing to these infections, including underlying factors related to systematic racism. Using the Social Determinants of Health (SDOH) framework, we analyzed parallel and divergent factors associated with COVID-19 and HIV/AIDS and the prevalence of disparate disease in diverse communities. We utilized PRISMA guidelines to identify relevant literature (N = 210 articles) that resulted in a review of 125 articles included in our synthesis. Recent Findings: With racial health …


Evaluation Of Ivermectin Antiviral Activity Against Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus Using A Chicken Embryo Model, Donald L. Reynolds, E. Barry Simpson 2022 University of Nebraska – Lincoln

Evaluation Of Ivermectin Antiviral Activity Against Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus Using A Chicken Embryo Model, Donald L. Reynolds, E. Barry Simpson

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Ivermectin is widely used in both animals and humans as an FDA-approved parasiticide. Ivermectin has also been reported to have antiviral activity against several viruses including coronaviruses. There are reports that indicate ivermectin may have some role in diminishing the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, but the evidence is inconclusive. The objective of this study was to determine if ivermectin was efficacious in inhibiting avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV, a coronavirus) replication in chicken embryos. Briefly, our approach was to use the Massachusetts vaccine strain of IBV in combination with various doses of ivermectin and then inoculate these preparations into chicken …


Escherichia Coli And Salmonella Sp. In Domestic Cattle And Wild Roosevelt Elk: Fecal Pathogens At The Wildlife-Domestic Interface, Emily A. Buck 2022 Humboldt State University

Escherichia Coli And Salmonella Sp. In Domestic Cattle And Wild Roosevelt Elk: Fecal Pathogens At The Wildlife-Domestic Interface, Emily A. Buck

Cal Poly Humboldt theses and projects

Direct or indirect contact between domestic populations of animals and wildlife carries an inherent risk for transmission of pathogens that cause infectious disease. In Humboldt and Del Norte counties of northern California, ongoing conflict between ranchers and Roosevelt elk groups results from elk use of ranching pastures and pastures on private land. Fecal samples from elk in association with cattle, cattle, and from elk not in known association with cattle were assessed for the presence of bacteria Salmonella enterica and pathogenic Escherichia coli to assess whether association with cattle increases risk of infection for elk. Group identity (one of the …


A Multi-Scale Examination Of Skeletal Muscle’S Contribution To Local And Systemic Immunomodulation, Joseph J. Bivona III 2022 University of Vermont

A Multi-Scale Examination Of Skeletal Muscle’S Contribution To Local And Systemic Immunomodulation, Joseph J. Bivona Iii

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

The innate immune system requires input from a myriad of tissues and cell types to adequately prepare, locate, and neutralize infections. Skeletal muscle’s widespread distribution throughout the body and its potent ability to secrete cytokines makes it a vital signaling organ to alert the immune system during both localized and systemic injuries and illnesses. This dissertation first deciphers the crosstalk between skeletal muscle myocytes and macrophages during acute lung injury, reporting the macrophage-derived cytokine, tumor necrosis factor α, to be necessary for eliciting the full potential of the skeletal muscle inflammatory milieu. Next, the total contribution of skeletal muscle mediators …


Structural Variant-Based Pangenome Construction Has Low Sensitivity To Variability Of Haplotype-Resolved Bovine Assemblies, Alexander S. Leonard, Danang Crysnanto, Zih-Hua Fang, Michael P. Heaton, Brian L. Vander Ley, Carolina Herrera, Heinrich Bollwein, Derek M. Bickhart, Benjamin D. Rosen, Hubert Pausch 2022 Animal Genomics, ETH Zurich

Structural Variant-Based Pangenome Construction Has Low Sensitivity To Variability Of Haplotype-Resolved Bovine Assemblies, Alexander S. Leonard, Danang Crysnanto, Zih-Hua Fang, Michael P. Heaton, Brian L. Vander Ley, Carolina Herrera, Heinrich Bollwein, Derek M. Bickhart, Benjamin D. Rosen, Hubert Pausch

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Advantages of pangenomes over linear reference assemblies for genome research have recently been established. However, potential effects of sequence platform and assembly approach, or of combining assemblies created by different approaches, on pangenome construction have not been investigated. Here we generate haplotype-resolved assemblies from the offspring of three bovine trios representing increasing levels of heterozygosity that each demonstrate a substantial improvement in contiguity, completeness, and accuracy over the current Bos taurus reference genome. Diploid coverage as low as 20x for HiFi or 60x for ONT is sufficient to produce two haplotype-resolved assemblies meeting standards set by the Vertebrate Genomes Project. …


Dissecting The Cellular Landscape And Transcriptome Network In Viral Myocarditis By Single-Cell Rna Sequencing, Ninaad Lasrado, Nicholas Borcherding, Rajkumar Arumugam, Timothy K. Starr, Jay Reddy 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Dissecting The Cellular Landscape And Transcriptome Network In Viral Myocarditis By Single-Cell Rna Sequencing, Ninaad Lasrado, Nicholas Borcherding, Rajkumar Arumugam, Timothy K. Starr, Jay Reddy

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis is commonly employed to study viral pathogenesis in mice.Chronically affected micemaydevelop dilated cardiomyopathy, which may involve the mediation of immune and nonimmune cells. To dissect this complexity, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing on heart cells from healthy and myocarditic mice, leading us to note significant proportions of myeloid cells, T cells, and fibroblasts. Although the transcriptomes of myeloid cells were mainly of M2 phenotype, the Th17 cells, CTLs, and Treg cells had signatures critical for cytotoxic functions. Fibroblasts were heterogeneous expressing genes important in fibrosis and regulation of inflammation and immune responses. The intercellular communication networks …


Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian M. Gilbert, Jossie M. Santamaria, Gisela F. Erf 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian M. Gilbert, Jossie M. Santamaria, Gisela F. Erf

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a cell-wall polymer in Gram-positive bacteria that stimulates inflammation. Few studies have investigated in vivo immune response to LTA, and none of the in vivo studies have been performed in birds. For this project, the pulp (a skin derivative) of growing feathers (GF) of chickens was used to investigate the in vivo effects of intradermally injected LTA. In Study 1, GF of chickens were injected with 10 μL of differing concentrations of LTA (0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 or 250 μg LTA/mL; 3 chickens/dose). Growing feathers were plucked before injection (0 h) and at 6, 24, 48, …


The Role Of Ly49 Receptors In Maintaining Healthy Murine Pregnancy, Michelle Belmont 2022 Loyola University Chicago

The Role Of Ly49 Receptors In Maintaining Healthy Murine Pregnancy, Michelle Belmont

Master's Theses

Natural Killer (NK) cells are abundant in pregnancy and contribute to the health of the fetus. Uterine NK (uNK) cells provide less cytotoxic function than their conventional NK (cNK) cell counterparts. Various combinations of Killer Immunoglobulin Receptor (KIR)- Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) on maternal NK and fetally derived cells, respectively, can have different effects on the health of pregnancy in humans. Murine NK cells contain Ly49 receptors, an equivalent to KIRs. Therefore, Ly49 receptor interactions with fetally-derived MHC-I molecules can be a valuable model for studying the role of NK cells in pregnancy. The process of spiral artery remodeling can …


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