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Perspectives On Covid, Glenn Bass 2021 Liberty University

Perspectives On Covid, Glenn Bass

CULTURE & CRISIS: Reconciling Constitutionalism & Federalism in a Time of Crisis

The purpose of this paper is to delve further into the topic of Culture & Crisis: Reconciling Constitutionalism & Federalism in a Time of Crisis through Liberty University’s Helms School of Government & Journal of Statesmanship & Public Policy. The United States of America is currently under siege by the COVID-19 virus. This virus has steadily killed hundreds of individuals and consequently nearly shutdown the American socio-economic system. Through a constitutional government and federal principles, the executive functions have been able to address this time of crisis. However, there are different views referencing exactly how to address the needs of our nation during this time of crisis. This threat to public health is perceived differently by the Republican and Democratic parties. Democrats have been viewed as trying to present the severity of the situation, in terms of health, finances, and safety. The Republicans are viewed as presenting information that does not demonstrate such a severity of the situation; however, they do understand the perceived threats which have invoked several governmental functions (e.g., relief funds, unemployment insurance). These views can be skewed, as Republicans and Democrats, as they live in different counties which have been impacted differently by the COVID-19 virus. Tensions have been on the rise due to this phenomenon which can be handled efficiently through the execution of deliberative constitutionalism. These issues and more will be discussed further.


The Clinical Review Committee: Impact Of The Development Of In Vitro Diagnostic Tests For Sars-Cov-2 Within Radx Tech, Matthew L. Robinson, Laura L. Gibson, David D. McManus 2021 Johns Hopkins University

The Clinical Review Committee: Impact Of The Development Of In Vitro Diagnostic Tests For Sars-Cov-2 Within Radx Tech, Matthew L. Robinson, Laura L. Gibson, David D. Mcmanus

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The NIH Rapid Acceleration of Diagnostics (RADx SM ) Tech Program was created to speed the development, validation, and commercialization of innovative point-of-care (POC) and home-based tests, and to improve clinical laboratory tests, that can directly detect SARS-CoV-2. Leveraging the experience of the Point-of-Care Technologies Research Network, a Clinical Review Committee (CRC) composed of clinicians, bioengineers, regulatory experts, and laboratorians was created to provide structured feedback to SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic innovators. The CRC convened 53 meetings with 49 companies offering SARS-CoV-2 tests in POC and reference laboratory formats as well as collection materials. The CRC identified common barriers to device design finalization ...


B25: Generation And Characterization Of Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein-Pseudotyped Lentivirus Particles For Use In Neutralizing Antibody Titer Testing Of Human Serum, Luis Sanchez 2021 Roseman University of Health Sciences

B25: Generation And Characterization Of Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein-Pseudotyped Lentivirus Particles For Use In Neutralizing Antibody Titer Testing Of Human Serum, Luis Sanchez

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


B16: Chikungunya Virus Time Course Infection Of Human Macrophages, Madison Gray, Israel Guerrero-Arguero, Antonio Solis Leal, Richard Robison, Brad Burges, Brett Pickett 2021 Brigham Young University - Provo

B16: Chikungunya Virus Time Course Infection Of Human Macrophages, Madison Gray, Israel Guerrero-Arguero, Antonio Solis Leal, Richard Robison, Brad Burges, Brett Pickett

Annual Research Symposium

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an Alphavirus spread by Aedes spp. mosquitoes and is responsible for infecting 1.1 million people per year worldwide, including a large epidemic in the western hemisphere in 2014-2015. During the body’s immune response to CHIKV, human macrophages become infected after phagocytosis of CHIKV and undergo induced apoptosis, catalyzing the virus spread in the body. It is presently unclear what macrophage genes, functions, and intracellular signaling pathways are impacted during the early, intermediate, and late stages of CHIKV infection. Therefore we quantified the transcriptional response of human macrophage cells infected with CHIKV at two different ...


P6: Predictors Of Compliance With Covid-19 Related Non- Pharmaceutical Interventions Amongst University Students, Spencer G. Shumway, Ethan R. Tolman, Jonas D. Hopper, David Patterson, Gabriella Hubble, Jamie L. Jensen Dr. 2021 Brigham Young University

P6: Predictors Of Compliance With Covid-19 Related Non- Pharmaceutical Interventions Amongst University Students, Spencer G. Shumway, Ethan R. Tolman, Jonas D. Hopper, David Patterson, Gabriella Hubble, Jamie L. Jensen Dr.

Annual Research Symposium

College campuses have been an area where the novel coronavirus has spread rapidly, thus this study is focused on compliance with COVID-19 related non-pharmaceutical interventions among college students.
We surveyed over 600 college students from across the United States and modeled predictors of compliance with non-pharmaceutical interventions. To determine how applicable nationwide modeling might be to individual local campuses we also administered this same survey to nearly 600 students at two large universities in Utah County (Brigham Young University and Utah Valley University). We then ran structural equation modeling (SEM) to determine what factors are related to student compliance with ...


Effectiveness Of Pathogen-Specific Passive Antibodies To Mitigate Infectious Diseases In Apis Mellifera, Tanner Nordseth 2021 University of South Dakota

Effectiveness Of Pathogen-Specific Passive Antibodies To Mitigate Infectious Diseases In Apis Mellifera, Tanner Nordseth

Honors Thesis

Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are widely recognized as a vital part of the global ecosystem and the world's food supply due to their pivotal role in the pollination of both natural and agricultural flora. Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) is an emerging phenomenon characterized by a colony's worker bees deserting the hive and leaving the queen behind. This usually results in colony failure. CCD is a multifactorial issue, with many environmental stressors and pathogens playing a role. Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) has been identified as a leading cause in this phenomenon. Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) is another lethal pathogen that ...


Lung Epithelial Cell Transcriptional Regulation As A Factor In Covid-19 Associated Coagulopathies, Ethan S. FitzGerald, Yongzhi Chen, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Amanda M. Jamieson 2021 Brown University

Lung Epithelial Cell Transcriptional Regulation As A Factor In Covid-19 Associated Coagulopathies, Ethan S. Fitzgerald, Yongzhi Chen, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Amanda M. Jamieson

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly become a global pandemic. In addition to the acute pulmonary symptoms of COVID-19 (the disease associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection), pulmonary and distal coagulopathies have caused morbidity and mortality in many patients. Currently, the molecular pathogenesis underlying COVID-19 associated coagulopathies are unknown. Identifying the molecular basis of how SARS-CoV-2 drives coagulation is essential to mitigating short and long term thrombotic risks of sick and recovered COVID-19 patients. We aimed to perform coagulation focused transcriptome analysis of in vitro infected primary respiratory epithelial cells, patient derived bronchial alveolar lavage (BALF) cells, and circulating immune cells during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our ...


H1n1 Influenza Virus (Swine Flu): A Comprehensive Insight Into Escalating Catch-22 Scenarios, Muhammad Shahzaib, Ehsan Ul Haq 2021 University of Sargodha, Sargodha

H1n1 Influenza Virus (Swine Flu): A Comprehensive Insight Into Escalating Catch-22 Scenarios, Muhammad Shahzaib, Ehsan Ul Haq

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: Viruses have always been a major cause of various disastrous pandemics in mankind’s history. H1N1 became a threat when its original strain was first discovered back in the swine flu pandemic of 2009. It became highly catastrophic on a large scale because none of the therapeutic interventions and methodologies that were already present at the time were effective against the virus.

Methods: A vast amount of literature and research is available regarding H1N1 influenza from different reputable sources online. The data was gathered following the contrasting and relative situations of 1918 as well as the 2009 pandemic in ...


Development Of Potency, Breadth And Resilience To Viral Escape Mutations In Sars-Cov-2 Neutralizing Antibodies [Preprint], Frauke Muecksch, Shurong Hou, Celia A. Schiffer, Michel Nussenzweig, Pamela J. Bjorkman, Theodora Hatziioannou, Paul Bieniasz 2021 The Rockefeller University

Development Of Potency, Breadth And Resilience To Viral Escape Mutations In Sars-Cov-2 Neutralizing Antibodies [Preprint], Frauke Muecksch, Shurong Hou, Celia A. Schiffer, Michel Nussenzweig, Pamela J. Bjorkman, Theodora Hatziioannou, Paul Bieniasz

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Antibodies elicited in response to infection undergo somatic mutation in germinal centers that can result in higher affinity for the cognate antigen. To determine the effects of somatic mutation on the properties of SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific antibodies, we analyzed six independent antibody lineages. As well as increased neutralization potency, antibody evolution changed pathways for acquisition of resistance and, in some cases, restricted the range of neutralization escape options. For some antibodies, maturation apparently imposed a requirement for multiple spike mutations to enable escape. For certain antibody lineages, maturation enabled neutralization of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and ...


Cnbp, Rel, And Bhlhe40 Variants Are Associated With Il-12 And Il-10 Responses And Tuberculosis Risk [Preprint], Javeed A. Shah, Christopher M. Sassetti, Katherine A. Fitzgerald 2021 University of Washington

Cnbp, Rel, And Bhlhe40 Variants Are Associated With Il-12 And Il-10 Responses And Tuberculosis Risk [Preprint], Javeed A. Shah, Christopher M. Sassetti, Katherine A. Fitzgerald

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Rationale: The major human genes regulating M. tuberculosis (Mtb)-induced immune responses and tuberculosis (TB) susceptibility are poorly understood. Although IL-12 and IL-10 are critical for TB pathogenesis, the genetic factors that regulate their expression are unknown. CNBP, REL, and BHLHE40 are master regulators of IL-12 and IL-10 signaling.

Objectives: To determine whether common human genetic variation in CNBP, REL and BHLHE40 is associated with IL-12 and IL-10 expression, adaptive immune responses to mycobacteria, and susceptibility to TB.

Methods and Main Measurements: We characterized the association between common variants in CNBP, REL, and BHLHE40 and innate immune responses in dendritic ...


Ifnγ And Inos-Mediated Alterations In The Bone Marrow And Thymus And Its Impact On Mycobacterium Avium-Induced Thymic Atrophy [Preprint], Palmira Barreira-Silva, Rita Melo-Miranda, Claudia Nobrega, Susana Roque, Cláudia Serre-Miranda, Margarida Borges, Daniela de Sá Calçada, Samuel M. Behar, Rui Appelberg, Margarida Correia-Neves 2021 University of Minho

Ifnγ And Inos-Mediated Alterations In The Bone Marrow And Thymus And Its Impact On Mycobacterium Avium-Induced Thymic Atrophy [Preprint], Palmira Barreira-Silva, Rita Melo-Miranda, Claudia Nobrega, Susana Roque, Cláudia Serre-Miranda, Margarida Borges, Daniela De Sá Calçada, Samuel M. Behar, Rui Appelberg, Margarida Correia-Neves

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Disseminated infection with the high virulence strain of Mycobacterium avium 25291 lead to progressive thymic atrophy. We previously uncovered that M. avium-induced thymic atrophy is due to increased levels of glucocorticoids synergizing with nitric oxide (NO) produced by interferon gamma (IFNγ) activated macrophages. Where and how these mediators are playing, was yet to be understood. We hypothesized that IFNγ and NO might be affecting bone marrow (BM) T cell precursors and/or T cell differentiation in the thymus. We show that M. avium infection causes a reduction on the percentage of lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitors (LMPP) and common lymphoid progenitors ...


Cd4 T Cell Help Prevents Cd8 T Cell Exhaustion And Promotes Control Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection [Preprint], Yu-Jung Lu, Palmira Barreira-Silva, Shayla Boyce, Jennifer Powers, Kelly Cavallo, Samuel M. Behar 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Cd4 T Cell Help Prevents Cd8 T Cell Exhaustion And Promotes Control Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection [Preprint], Yu-Jung Lu, Palmira Barreira-Silva, Shayla Boyce, Jennifer Powers, Kelly Cavallo, Samuel M. Behar

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

CD4 T cells are essential for immunity to tuberculosis because they produce cytokines including interferon-γ. Whether CD4 T cells act as “helper” cells to promote optimal CD8 T cell responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis is unknown. Using two independent models, we show that CD4 T cell help enhances CD8 effector functions and prevents CD8 T cell exhaustion. We demonstrate synergy between CD4 and CD8 T cells in promoting the survival of infected mice. Purified helped, but not helpless, CD8 T cells efficiently restrict intracellular bacterial growth in vitro. Thus, CD4 T cell help plays an essential role in generating protective CD8 ...


Vaccines, Troy Moon 2021 Vanderbilt University

Vaccines, Troy Moon

PEER Liberia Project

This is a lecture in the PEER Liberia Infectious Disease Lecture Series. This presentation provides an overview of: prevention and control of vaccine preventable diseases; global impact of vaccines - successes and challenges; and vaccine fundamentals - basic immunology, introduction to vaccinology.


A Novel Dna And Protein Combination Covid-19 Vaccine Formulation Provides Full Protection Against Sars-Cov-2 In Rhesus Macaques, Yuzhong Li, Guangnan Hu, Shixia Wang, Qihan Li, Shan Lu, Wei Cun 2021 Peking Union Medical College

A Novel Dna And Protein Combination Covid-19 Vaccine Formulation Provides Full Protection Against Sars-Cov-2 In Rhesus Macaques, Yuzhong Li, Guangnan Hu, Shixia Wang, Qihan Li, Shan Lu, Wei Cun

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

The current study aims to develop a safe and highly immunogenic COVID-19 vaccine. The novel combination of a DNA vaccine encoding the full-length Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 and a recombinant S1 protein vaccine induced high level neutralizing antibody and T cell immune responses in both small and large animal models. More significantly, the co-delivery of DNA and protein components at the same time elicited full protection against intratracheal challenge of SARS-CoV-2 viruses in immunized rhesus macaques. As both DNA and protein vaccines have been proven safe in previous human studies, and DNA vaccines are capable of eliciting germinal center ...


Long-Term Dynamics Of The Kidney Disease Epidemic Among Hiv-Infected Individuals, Heather Gudaz, Henry A. Ogu, Elissa J. Schwartz 2021 Washington State University

Long-Term Dynamics Of The Kidney Disease Epidemic Among Hiv-Infected Individuals, Heather Gudaz, Henry A. Ogu, Elissa J. Schwartz

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

One of many risks facing HIV+ individuals is the development of kidney dysfunction and end stage kidney disease (ESKD). A differential equation-based mathematical model was developed to assess the impact of antiretroviral therapy on the progression to kidney disease and on reducing mortality due to kidney failure. Analytical and numerical predictions of long-term HIV+ ESKD prevalence show that therapy can lead to either extremely low levels of disease prevalence or increased prevalence, depending on drug efficacy levels and mechanisms of action. Maintenance of HIV+ ESKD prevalence below one individual is possible with sufficient efficacy (e.g., 99%) against the progression ...


Human Antibody Immune Responses Are Personalized By Selective Removal Of Mhc-Ii Peptide Epitopes [Preprint], Matias Gutiérrez-González, Padma P. Nanaware, Liying Lu, Lawrence J. Stern, Brandon J. DeKosky 2021 University of Kansas

Human Antibody Immune Responses Are Personalized By Selective Removal Of Mhc-Ii Peptide Epitopes [Preprint], Matias Gutiérrez-González, Padma P. Nanaware, Liying Lu, Lawrence J. Stern, Brandon J. Dekosky

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Human antibody responses are established by the generation of combinatorial sequence diversity in antibody variable domains, followed by iterative rounds of mutation and selection via T cell recognition of antigen peptides presented on MHC-II. Here, we report that MHC-II peptide epitope deletion from B cell receptors (BCRs) correlates with antibody development in vivo. Large-scale antibody sequence analysis and experimental validation of peptide binding revealed that MHC-II epitope removal from BCRs is linked to genetic signatures of T cell help, and donor-specific antibody repertoire modeling demonstrated that somatic hypermutation selectively targets the personalized MHC-II epitopes in antibody variable regions. Mining of ...


Innate Lymphoid Cells And Disease Tolerance In Sars-Cov-2 Infection [Preprint], Noah J. Silverstein, Yetao Wang, Zachary Manickas-Hill, Claudia C. Carbone, Ann Dauphin, MGH COVID-19 Collection & Processing Team, Jonathan Z. Li, Bruce D. Walker, Xu G. Yu, Jeremy Luban 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Innate Lymphoid Cells And Disease Tolerance In Sars-Cov-2 Infection [Preprint], Noah J. Silverstein, Yetao Wang, Zachary Manickas-Hill, Claudia C. Carbone, Ann Dauphin, Mgh Covid-19 Collection & Processing Team, Jonathan Z. Li, Bruce D. Walker, Xu G. Yu, Jeremy Luban

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) increases with age, is greater in males, and is associated with decreased numbers of blood lymphoid cells. Though the reasons for these robust associations are unclear, effects of age and sex on innate and adaptive lymphoid subsets, including on homeostatic innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) implicated in disease tolerance, may underlie the effects of age and sex on COVID-19 morbidity and mortality.

METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to quantitate subsets of blood lymphoid cells from people infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), comparing those hospitalized with severe COVID-19 (n=40 ...


Disrupted Iron Metabolism And Mortality During Co-Infection With Malaria And An Intestinal Gram-Negative Extracellular Pathogen, Luara Isabela Dos Santos, Thais Abdala Torres, Suelen Queiroz. Diniz, Ricardo Goncalves, Gustavo Caballero-Flores, Gabriel Nunez, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Kevin Joseph. Maloy, Lis Ribeiro do V Antonelli 2021 University of Oxford

Disrupted Iron Metabolism And Mortality During Co-Infection With Malaria And An Intestinal Gram-Negative Extracellular Pathogen, Luara Isabela Dos Santos, Thais Abdala Torres, Suelen Queiroz. Diniz, Ricardo Goncalves, Gustavo Caballero-Flores, Gabriel Nunez, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Kevin Joseph. Maloy, Lis Ribeiro Do V Antonelli

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Individuals with malaria exhibit increased morbidity and mortality when infected with Gram-negative (Gr-) bacteria. To explore this experimentally, we performed co-infection of mice with Plasmodium chabaudi and Citrobacter rodentium, an extracellular Gr- bacterial pathogen that infects the large intestine. While single infections are controlled effectively, co-infection results in enhanced virulence that is characterized by prolonged systemic bacterial persistence and high mortality. Mortality in co-infected mice is associated with disrupted iron metabolism, elevated levels of plasma heme, and increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by phagocytes. In addition, iron acquisition by the bacterium plays a key role in pathogenesis because ...


The Intestinal And Oral Microbiomes Are Robust Predictors Of Covid-19 Severity The Main Predictor Of Covid-19-Related Fatality [Preprint], Doyle V. Ward, Shakti Bhattarai, Mayra Rojas-Correa, Ayan Purkayastha, Devon Holler, Ming Da Qu, William G. Mitchell, Jason D. Yang, Samuel Fountain, Abigail Zeamer, Catherine Forconi, Gavin Fujimori, Boaz Odwar, Caitlin Cawley, Beth A. McCormick, Ann M. Moormann, Mireya Wessolossky, Vanni Bucci, Ana Maldonado-Contreras 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Intestinal And Oral Microbiomes Are Robust Predictors Of Covid-19 Severity The Main Predictor Of Covid-19-Related Fatality [Preprint], Doyle V. Ward, Shakti Bhattarai, Mayra Rojas-Correa, Ayan Purkayastha, Devon Holler, Ming Da Qu, William G. Mitchell, Jason D. Yang, Samuel Fountain, Abigail Zeamer, Catherine Forconi, Gavin Fujimori, Boaz Odwar, Caitlin Cawley, Beth A. Mccormick, Ann M. Moormann, Mireya Wessolossky, Vanni Bucci, Ana Maldonado-Contreras

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The reason for the striking differences in clinical outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients is still poorly understood. While most recover, a subset of people become critically ill and succumb to the disease. Thus, identification of biomarkers that can predict the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 disease is key to help prioritize patients needing urgent treatment. Given that an unbalanced gut microbiome is a reflection of poor health, we aim to identify indicator species that could predict COVID-19 disease clinical outcomes. Here, for the first time and with the largest COVID-19 patient cohort reported for microbiome studies, we demonstrated that the intestinal ...


T Cells In The Brain Enhance Neonatal Mortality During Peripheral Lcmv Infection, Laurie L. Kenney, Erik P. Carter, Anna Gil, Liisa K. Selin 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

T Cells In The Brain Enhance Neonatal Mortality During Peripheral Lcmv Infection, Laurie L. Kenney, Erik P. Carter, Anna Gil, Liisa K. Selin

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

In adult mice the severity of disease from viral infections is determined by the balance between the efficiency of the immune response and the magnitude of viral load. Here, the impact of this dynamic is examined in neonates. Newborns are highly susceptible to infections due to poor innate responses, lower numbers of T cells and Th2-prone immune responses. Eighty-percent of 7-day old mice, immunologically equivalent to human neonates, succumbed to extremely low doses (5 PFU) of the essentially non-lethal lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV-Armstrong) given intraperitoneally. This increased lethality was determined to be dependent upon poor early viral control, as well ...


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