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A Novel Transmembrane Ligand Inhibits T Cell Receptor Activation, Yujie Ye 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Novel Transmembrane Ligand Inhibits T Cell Receptor Activation, Yujie Ye

Doctoral Dissertations

T lymphocytes (T cells) play essential roles in the adaptive immune system. Each mature T cell expresses one type of functional T cell receptor (TCR). The TCR recognizes antigens bound to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in antigen presenting cells. The resulting stimulation signal crosses the transmembrane domain of TCR and initiates downstream signaling cascades. The human immune system relies on TCRs to recognize a variety of pathogens. Normally, TCR can distinguish the self-antigens from pathogenic antigens. However, dysfunction or aberrant expression of TCRs causes different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, which afflict millions of people annually (Chapter I). Current treatments …


Danio Rerio: A Past, Present, And Future Hallmark For Immunological Studies, Michael Solomon Chembars Jr. 2022 Liberty University

Danio Rerio: A Past, Present, And Future Hallmark For Immunological Studies, Michael Solomon Chembars Jr.

Senior Honors Theses

An emerging species that is slowly gaining reputation as a common model organism is Danio rerio. Due to its similarities to our own immune response and its general ease of use, hundreds of studies have been conducted which have increased our understanding of how chemicals or pathogens can affect both our own health, and the health of the environment.

This study aims to briefly describe a brief history of D. rerio, as well as discuss key experiments that have been performed using D. rerio. A comparison will also be made between the human and zebrafish immune responses, and …


A Field Synopsis, Systematic Review, And Meta-Analyses Of Cophylogenetic Studies: What Is Affecting Congruence Between Phylogenies?, Valeria Trivellone, Bernd Panassiti 2022 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

A Field Synopsis, Systematic Review, And Meta-Analyses Of Cophylogenetic Studies: What Is Affecting Congruence Between Phylogenies?, Valeria Trivellone, Bernd Panassiti

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

We conducted a field synopsis and systematic meta-analysis of studies that carried out cophylogenetic analyses using algorithms and available software. We evaluated the influence of three factors—namely, cophylogenetic method, association, and ecosystem type—on the outcome of the analyses, that is, the degree of congruence between phylogenies of interacting species.

The published papers were identified using 4 different databases and 13 keywords; we included all studies for which statistical approaches to compare phylogenies (cophylogenetic analyses) of interacting lineages were used. After the initial screening, 296 studies were selected to extract response variable (outcome of the cophylogenetic analyses, i.e., congruent, incongruent, or …


Modeling The Impact Of Hospitalization On The Death Rate Of An Ebola Outbreak, Erin N. Bodine, Jana V. Turner 2022 Rhodes College

Modeling The Impact Of Hospitalization On The Death Rate Of An Ebola Outbreak, Erin N. Bodine, Jana V. Turner

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


The Stockholm Paradigm: Lessons For The Emerging Infectious Disease Crisis, Daniel R. Brooks, Walter A. Boeger, Eric P. Hoberg 2022 Centre for Ecological Research, Budapest

The Stockholm Paradigm: Lessons For The Emerging Infectious Disease Crisis, Daniel R. Brooks, Walter A. Boeger, Eric P. Hoberg

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

The emerging infectious disease (EID) crisis represents an immediate existential threat to modern humanity. Current policies aimed at coping with the EID crisis are ineffective and unsustainably expensive. They have failed because they are based on a scientific paradigm that produced the parasite paradox. The Stockholm paradigm (SP) resolves the paradox by integrating four elements of evolutionary biology: ecological fitting, sloppy fitness space, coevolution, and responses to environmental perturbations. It explains why and how the EID crisis occurs and is expanding and what happens after an EID emerges that sets the stage for future EIDs. The SP provides a number …


The Dama Protocol, An Introduction: Finding Pathogens Before They Find Us, Eric P. Hoberg, Walter A. Boeger, Orsolya Molnár, Gábor Földvári, Scott Gardner, Alicia Juarrero, Vitaliy A. Kharchenko, Eloy Ortiz, Valeria Trivellone, Daniel R. Brooks 2022 University of New Mexico

The Dama Protocol, An Introduction: Finding Pathogens Before They Find Us, Eric P. Hoberg, Walter A. Boeger, Orsolya Molnár, Gábor Földvári, Scott Gardner, Alicia Juarrero, Vitaliy A. Kharchenko, Eloy Ortiz, Valeria Trivellone, Daniel R. Brooks

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

Globally, humanity is coming to recognize the magnitude of the interactive crisis for emerging infectious disease (EID). Strategies for coping with EID have been largely in the form of reactive measures for crisis response. The DAMA protocol (Document, Assess, Monitor, Act), the operational policy extension of the Stockholm paradigm, constitutes a preventive/proactive dimension to those efforts. DAMA is aimed at focusing and extending human and material resources devoted to coping with the accelerating wave of EID. DAMA is integrative, combining efforts to strategically document the distribution of complex pathogen and host assemblages in the biosphere in the context of dynamic …


Louis Pasteur Signature Saying: Science Brings Men Closer To God Bicentenary Year: 200 Years After His Birth, Alan L. Gillen, Justin A. Ambrose 2022 Liberty University

Louis Pasteur Signature Saying: Science Brings Men Closer To God Bicentenary Year: 200 Years After His Birth, Alan L. Gillen, Justin A. Ambrose

Faculty Publications and Presentations

This year (2022) marks the bicentenary birth (December 27, 1822) of Louis Pasteur. He has a global reputation. His contributions can be seen in our homes, in the "pasteurized" products derived from one of his discoveries and in disease prevention. It was in his discovery of gently heating beverages and food for what we today call pasteurization that he first said: “Man's first look at the universe discovers only variety, diversity, multiplicity of phenomena. Let this gaze be enlightened by science — by science which brings man closer to God — and simplicity and unity shine everywhere.” Louis Pasteur (Vallery-Radot, …


Comparison Of The Humoral Immune Response Following Both Bacterial Challenge And Rnai Of Major Factors On Proliferation Of Bartonella Quintana In The Human Louse, Jake Zina 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Comparison Of The Humoral Immune Response Following Both Bacterial Challenge And Rnai Of Major Factors On Proliferation Of Bartonella Quintana In The Human Louse, Jake Zina

Masters Theses

Human body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus, and head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, have been hematophagous ectoparasites of humans for thousands of years. Despite being ecotypes, only body lice are known to transmit bacterial diseases to humans, and it appears that lower humoral and cellular immune responses allow body lice to possess a higher vector competence. We previously observed that the transcription level of the defensin 1 gene was up-regulated only in head lice following oral challenge of Bartonella quintana, a causative agent of trench fever, and also that body lice excreted more viable B. quintana in their …


The 3p Framework: A Comprehensive Approach To Coping With The Emerging Infectious Disease Crisis, Orsolya Molnár, Eric Hoberg, Valeria Trivellone, Gábor Földvári, Daniel R. Brooks 2022 Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research, Vienna

The 3p Framework: A Comprehensive Approach To Coping With The Emerging Infectious Disease Crisis, Orsolya Molnár, Eric Hoberg, Valeria Trivellone, Gábor Földvári, Daniel R. Brooks

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

The COVID-19 pandemic is the latest example of the profound socioeconomic impact of the emerging infectious disease (EID) crisis. Current health security measures are based on a failed evolutionary paradigm that presumes EID is rare and cannot be predicted because emergence requires the prior evolution of novel genetic capacities for colonizing a new host. Consequently, crisis response through preparation for previously emerged diseases and palliation following outbreaks have been the only health security options, which have become unsustainably expensive and unsuccessful. The Stockholm paradigm (SP) is an alternative evolutionary framework that suggests host changes are the result of changing conditions …


Chemical Biology Approaches For Tracking And Manipulation Of Macrophage Phenotypes, Javier A. Mas Rosario 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Chemical Biology Approaches For Tracking And Manipulation Of Macrophage Phenotypes, Javier A. Mas Rosario

Doctoral Dissertations

Macrophages are white blood cells of the innate immune system that have the ability to change phenotypically depending on the stimuli present in their surroundings through a process commonly referred to as polarization. Macrophage phenotypes broadly range from pro-inflammatory, anti-tumor (M1) to immune-suppressing (M2). Of particular interest to this work, breast cancer progression and metastasis rely on the presence of M2-like tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). While many studies have shown the involvement of macrophages in tumor progression and metastasis, there remains a need to further explore these interactions and the polarization process, including tracking of macrophage subtypes. Toward this end, I …


Using The Embl-Ebi Clustal Omega Tool To Calculate Diversity Of Heavy Chain Phage-Display Libraries, Michael Bodri, Shane A. Webb 2022 University of North Georgia

Using The Embl-Ebi Clustal Omega Tool To Calculate Diversity Of Heavy Chain Phage-Display Libraries, Michael Bodri, Shane A. Webb

Georgia Journal of Science

Here we show that traditional Sanger sequencing combined with analysis tools available from the European Molecular Biology Laboratory-European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), specifically EMBOSS Transeq and Clustal Omega, is extremely effective in the analysis of naïve phage display antibody libraries for the determination of library size and diversity. The free tools are easy to use and require little manipulation of reads by hand, allowing analysis to be performed on a standard personal computer. Utilization of this technique has applicability to researchers with limited access to deep sequencing. The primary drawback to this analysis methodology is that antibodies with particular molecular or …


Whole Genome Sequencing Of Moraxella Bovis Strains From North America Reveals Two Genotypes With Different Genetic Determinants, Emily L. Wynn, Matthew M. Hille, John Dustin Loy, Gennie Schuller, Kristen L. Kuhn, Aaron M. Dickey, James L. Bono, Michael L. Clawson 2022 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Whole Genome Sequencing Of Moraxella Bovis Strains From North America Reveals Two Genotypes With Different Genetic Determinants, Emily L. Wynn, Matthew M. Hille, John Dustin Loy, Gennie Schuller, Kristen L. Kuhn, Aaron M. Dickey, James L. Bono, Michael L. Clawson

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background: Moraxella bovis and Moraxella bovoculi both associate with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), an economically significant and painful ocular disease that affects cattle worldwide. There are two genotypes of M. bovoculi (genotypes 1 and 2) that differ in their gene content and potential virulence factors, although neither have been experimentally shown to cause IBK. M. bovis is a causative IBK agent, however, not all strains carry a complete assortment of known virulence factors. The goals of this study were to determine the population structure and depth of M. bovis genomic diversity, and to compare core and accessory genes and …


Poliovirus Immunity Among Children Aged 6-11 And 36-48 Months In 14 Polio High-Risk Provinces Of Afghanistan: A Health-Facility-Based Study, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Maureen Martinez, Noha H. Farag, William S. Hendley, Derek Ehrhardt, Imran Ahmed, Imtiaz Hussain, William Weldon, Ahmed M. Kassem 2022 Aga Khan University

Poliovirus Immunity Among Children Aged 6-11 And 36-48 Months In 14 Polio High-Risk Provinces Of Afghanistan: A Health-Facility-Based Study, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Maureen Martinez, Noha H. Farag, William S. Hendley, Derek Ehrhardt, Imran Ahmed, Imtiaz Hussain, William Weldon, Ahmed M. Kassem

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Afghanistan is one of two countries where wild poliovirus (WPV) type 1 remains endemic. We conducted a facility-based cross-sectional survey of antipoliovirus antibodies in children in 14 provinces of Afghanistan. The provinces were selected based on programmatic priorities for polio eradication. Children aged 6-11 and 36-48 months attending outpatient clinics were enrolled in the study. We collected venous blood, isolated serum, and conducted neutralization assays to detect poliovirus neutralizing antibodies. A total of 2086 children from the 14 provinces were enrolled. Among the enrolled children, 44.3% were girls; the median age in the 6-11-month group was 9.4 months, and in …


Activity Of The Lactate Dehydrogenase Inhibitor Oxamic Acid Against The Fermentative Bacterium Streptococcus Mitis/Oralis: Bactericidal Effects And Prevention Of Daptomycin Resistance In Vitro And In An Ex Vivo Model, Razieh Kebriaei, Arnold S. Bayer, Christian K. Lapitan, Michael J. Rybak, Greg A. Somerville, Nagendra N. Mishra 2022 Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences

Activity Of The Lactate Dehydrogenase Inhibitor Oxamic Acid Against The Fermentative Bacterium Streptococcus Mitis/Oralis: Bactericidal Effects And Prevention Of Daptomycin Resistance In Vitro And In An Ex Vivo Model, Razieh Kebriaei, Arnold S. Bayer, Christian K. Lapitan, Michael J. Rybak, Greg A. Somerville, Nagendra N. Mishra

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Streptococcus mitis/oralis is a fermentative bacterium that relies on lactate dehydrogenase to balance its redox poise and keep glycolysis active. Metabolomic analysis of an in vitro– derived daptomycin-resistant (DAP-R) S. mitis/oralis strain (351-D10) revealed differences in glucose catabolism relative to its DAP-susceptible (DAP-S) parental strain, 351. Metabolic changes associated with the transition to this DAP-R phenotype suggested that inhibiting glycolysis could alter DAP susceptibility. In addition, the strong reliance of S. mitis/oralis on glycolysis for energy and biosynthetic intermediates suggested that inhibiting glycolysis would adversely affect growth and biomass accumulation. To test these hypotheses, we used the lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor …


Glutathione And Glutaredoxin In Redox Regulation And Cell Signaling Of The Lens, Marjorie F. Lou 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln,University of Nebraska Medical Center, University of North Texas Health Science Center

Glutathione And Glutaredoxin In Redox Regulation And Cell Signaling Of The Lens, Marjorie F. Lou

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

The ocular lens has a very high content of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and the enzymes that can recycle its oxidized form, glutathione disulfide (GSSG), for further use. It can be synthesized in the lens and, in part, transported from the neighboring anterior aqueous humor and posterior vitreous body. GSH is known to protect the thiols of the structural lens crystallin proteins from oxidation by reactive oxygen species (ROS) so the lens can maintain its transparency for proper visual function. Age-related lens opacity or senile cataract is the major visual impairment in the general population, and its cause is closely …


Elucidating The Mechanisms Underlying How Vmp1 Regulates Inflammatory Responses, Stephanie Zack 2022 Loyola University Chicago

Elucidating The Mechanisms Underlying How Vmp1 Regulates Inflammatory Responses, Stephanie Zack

Dissertations

autophagy, inflammation, mitochondria, NLRP3 inflammasome, SERCA, VMP1


The Ecology And Epidemiology Of Malaria Parasitism In Wild Chimpanzee Reservoirs, Erik J. Scully, Weimin Liu, Yingying Li, Jean-Bosco N. Ndjango, Martine Peeters, Shadrack Kamenya, Anne E. Pusey, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Crickette M. Sanz, David B. Morgan, Alex K. Piel, Fiona A. Stewart, Mary K. Gonder, Nicole Simmons, Caroline Asiimwe, Klaus Zuberbuehler, Kathelijne Koops, Colin A. Chapman, Rebecca Chancellor, Aaron S. Rundus, Michael A. Huffman, Nathan D. Wolfe, Manoj T. Duraisingh, Beatrice H. Hahn, Richard W. Wrangham 2022 Harvard University

The Ecology And Epidemiology Of Malaria Parasitism In Wild Chimpanzee Reservoirs, Erik J. Scully, Weimin Liu, Yingying Li, Jean-Bosco N. Ndjango, Martine Peeters, Shadrack Kamenya, Anne E. Pusey, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Crickette M. Sanz, David B. Morgan, Alex K. Piel, Fiona A. Stewart, Mary K. Gonder, Nicole Simmons, Caroline Asiimwe, Klaus Zuberbuehler, Kathelijne Koops, Colin A. Chapman, Rebecca Chancellor, Aaron S. Rundus, Michael A. Huffman, Nathan D. Wolfe, Manoj T. Duraisingh, Beatrice H. Hahn, Richard W. Wrangham

Anthropology & Sociology Faculty Publications

Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) harbor rich assemblages of malaria parasites, including three species closely related to P. falciparum (sub-genus Laverania), the most malignant human malaria parasite. Here, we characterize the ecology and epidemiology of malaria infection in wild chimpanzee reservoirs. We used molecular assays to screen chimpanzee fecal samples, collected longitudinally and cross-sectionally from wild populations, for malaria parasite mitochondrial DNA. We found that chimpanzee malaria parasitism has an early age of onset and varies seasonally in prevalence. A subset of samples revealed Hepatocystis mitochondrial DNA, with phylogenetic analyses suggesting that Hepatocystis appears to cross species barriers more easily than Laverania. …


Recent Emergence Of Bovine Coronavirus Variants With Mutations In The Hemagglutinin-Esterase Receptor Binding Domain In U.S. Cattle, Aspen M. Workman, Tara G. McDaneld, Gregory P. Harhay, Subha Das, John Dustin Loy, Benjamin M. Hause 2022 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Recent Emergence Of Bovine Coronavirus Variants With Mutations In The Hemagglutinin-Esterase Receptor Binding Domain In U.S. Cattle, Aspen M. Workman, Tara G. Mcdaneld, Gregory P. Harhay, Subha Das, John Dustin Loy, Benjamin M. Hause

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) has spilled over to many species, including humans, where the host range variant coronavirus OC43 is endemic. The balance of the opposing activities of the surface spike (S) and hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) glycoproteins controls BCoV avidity, which is critical for interspecies transmission and host adaptation. Here, 78 genomes were sequenced directly from clinical samples collected between 2013 and 2022 from cattle in 12 states, primarily in the Midwestern U.S. Relatively little genetic diversity was observed, with genomes having >98% nucleotide identity. Eleven isolates collected between 2020 and 2022 from four states (Nebraska, Colorado, California, and Wisconsin) contained a …


Exploring The Relationships Between South Texas Northern Bobwhite Populations And Cecal Worms Via System Dynamics, Nicole J. Traub, Benjamin L. Turner, Leonard A. Brennan, Alan M. Fedynich 2022 Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute, Texas A&M University–Kingsville, Kingsville, TX

Exploring The Relationships Between South Texas Northern Bobwhite Populations And Cecal Worms Via System Dynamics, Nicole J. Traub, Benjamin L. Turner, Leonard A. Brennan, Alan M. Fedynich

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Community ecology historically focused on plants and free-living organisms; however, problems such as defining habitat boundaries and obtaining adequate sample sizes arise when evaluating such communities. The unique nature of host-helminth systems allows parasite community ecologists to avoid these problems when testing ecological hypotheses. Unlike free-living communities that have artificially constructed boundaries, parasite communities have well-defined unambiguous boundaries within host individuals. Due to the inherently complex and dynamic nature of ecological systems, traditional experimental methods often require expensive, long-term trials beyond investigators’ time and resource budgets. Conversely, a system dynamics approach facilitates learning about such systems via simulation of ecosystem …


A Study Of Multiple Sclerosis, Christine Chen 2022 University of Louisville

A Study Of Multiple Sclerosis, Christine Chen

The Cardinal Edge

No abstract provided.


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