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The Potential Of Stem Cell Therapy In Multiple Sclerosis Treatment: A Review, Sorina Amarculesei, Ava O'Meara Cushen, Cathy Brougham 2023 Athlone Institute of Technology

The Potential Of Stem Cell Therapy In Multiple Sclerosis Treatment: A Review, Sorina Amarculesei, Ava O'Meara Cushen, Cathy Brougham

SURE Journal: Science Undergraduate Research Experience Journal

Multiple Sclerosis is an autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. There are currently 2.8 million people living with Multiple Sclerosis worldwide, including 9000 people in Ireland, with a prevalence of 193 per 100,000 people. Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis include sensory loss, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, spasticity, depression, optic neuritis, gait ataxia, diplopia, and loss of bladder control. Currently, there is no standardised treatment or cure for Multiple Sclerosis with many strategies focusing on symptoms. Stem cells have emerged as promising approaches for Multiple Sclerosis therapeutics. Clinical trials primarily focus on mesenchymal stem cell-based therapies for Multiple Sclerosis. Furthermore, …


Treatment Response Of Gingival Squamous-Cell Carcinoma To Palliative Intent Immunotherapy, Natalia Trehan, Angelina Debbas, Mykaihla Sternick, Jennifer Johnson, James Gates 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Treatment Response Of Gingival Squamous-Cell Carcinoma To Palliative Intent Immunotherapy, Natalia Trehan, Angelina Debbas, Mykaihla Sternick, Jennifer Johnson, James Gates

Department of Medical Oncology Faculty Papers

The use of PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor medications has become a common practice in the treatment of recurrent and metastatic head and neck squamous-cell carcinomas. Success in this setting has led to the investigation of their efficacy in locally advanced cases as a part of first-line therapy. In this report, we detail the treatment response to palliative intent immunotherapy of three geriatric patients with mandibular gingival squamous-cell carcinoma who decided against surgical intervention. Patient #1 was treated with pembrolizumab, a PD-1 inhibitor, and displayed complete clinical and radiologic response of the gingival mass after three months of treatment, which is …


Resolution Of The Tetrabothrius Jagerskioeldi Cryptic Species Complex Among Holarctic Alcidae (Charadriiformes): Cestodes Among Fraterculinae—Exploring Marine Diversity, Host Range, And Dynamic Oceanography In The Greater North Pacific, Eric P. Hoberg, Kaylen Marie Soudachanh, Svetlana K. Bondarenko 2023 University of New Mexico

Resolution Of The Tetrabothrius Jagerskioeldi Cryptic Species Complex Among Holarctic Alcidae (Charadriiformes): Cestodes Among Fraterculinae—Exploring Marine Diversity, Host Range, And Dynamic Oceanography In The Greater North Pacific, Eric P. Hoberg, Kaylen Marie Soudachanh, Svetlana K. Bondarenko

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

In the biosphere, limits for diversity among species, communities, and biomes are revealed through intensive and extensive field-based inventory and assembly of voucher specimens and associated informatics examined in a phylogenetic, historical, ecological, and biogeographic arena. Archival resources for specimens and information contribute to a cumulative view of faunal structure and assembly under a comparative umbrella. Ultimately, species definitions, and inclusive partitions among populations and lineages, are fundamental in articulating hypotheses that examine interactions about evolution, the nature of organisms, and the condition of environments across space and time. We conclude our proposals establishing species limits for tapeworms of the …


Effect Of Macrophage Expressed Α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (Α7nachr) On Migration Of Macrophages During Inflammation, Kasey Keever 2023 East Tennessee State University

Effect Of Macrophage Expressed Α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (Α7nachr) On Migration Of Macrophages During Inflammation, Kasey Keever

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition characterized by overwhelming inflammation, resulting in organ system damage, leading to a high mortality rate. Care in the clinical setting is supportive, and there are no approved sepsis-specific treatments. In septic mice, activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway decreases cytokine secretion by leukocytes and improves survival. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is a reflex of the parasympathetic nervous system, converging on the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (α7nAChR) at the surface of macrophages. Signaling through the receptor blocks NF-kB activation, thus cytokine secretion. Receptor activation has other effects on macrophages, including modulating their migration to …


Cellular Mechanism Of Pentagalloyl Gucose-Mediated Prevention And Reversal Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Greg Halsey 2023 Clemson University

Cellular Mechanism Of Pentagalloyl Gucose-Mediated Prevention And Reversal Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Greg Halsey

All Dissertations

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has been the 15th leading cause of death in persons older than 55 for the past ten years in several Western countries, with rupture resulting in an almost 100% mortality rate. AAA is a focal dilation of the aorta characterized by progressive loss of elastin and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), as well as persistent inflammatory response [1]. The only treatment for AAA is surgery; however, the mortality post-procedure is still 1-4%, with a 15-30% chance of morbidity [2].

Pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) treatment is effective in the reversal of AAA. While its stabilizing interactions with extracellular …


Characterization Of The Effects Of The Pyrazolopyrimidine Inhibitor Grassofermata (Nav-2729) In The Eukaryotic Pathogen Trypanosoma Brucei, Kristina Marie Parman 2023 Clemson University

Characterization Of The Effects Of The Pyrazolopyrimidine Inhibitor Grassofermata (Nav-2729) In The Eukaryotic Pathogen Trypanosoma Brucei, Kristina Marie Parman

All Dissertations

The protozoan pathogen, Trypanosoma brucei, is the causative agent of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. T. brucei cycles between tsetse fly and mammalian hosts, and it is adapted to survive in diverse host tissues. Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) plays a key role in immune evasion in the mammalian host. The VSG membrane anchor requires two myristates, 14-carbon saturated fatty acids (FAs) that are scarce in the host. T. brucei can synthesize FAs de novo, but also readily takes up exogenous FAs, despite lacking homologs to fatty acid uptake proteins found in other …


Development Of Novel Methods To Study Host-Microbe Interactions In The Larval Zebrafish Gastrointestinal Tract, Anh K. Trinh Nguyen 2023 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Development Of Novel Methods To Study Host-Microbe Interactions In The Larval Zebrafish Gastrointestinal Tract, Anh K. Trinh Nguyen

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

The dynamic nature and inaccessible location of the intestine pose significant challenges to the study of intestinal physiology and pathology. Zebrafish larvae, possessing optical transparency and genetic tractability, offer an accessible and clinically relevant model for investigating dynamic events in the intestine via time-lapse imaging. In the first part of this work, I discuss our efforts to optimize the parameters of a foodborne infection assay using paramecia as a vehicle. This method provides an effective, high-throughput alternative to infection via immersion or oral gavage, and replicates the most common route of transmission of gastrointestinal (GI) infection in humans. The foodborne …


Human-Bat Interactions In A Disease Emergence Hotspot: Implications For Human Health And Bat Conservation, Reilly Tempest Jackson 2023 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

Human-Bat Interactions In A Disease Emergence Hotspot: Implications For Human Health And Bat Conservation, Reilly Tempest Jackson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bats are an ecologically important taxon that can host zoonotic pathogens. Globally, many bat species are synanthropic and live closely with humans, often roosting in man-made structures. The spatial overlap between humans and bats creates opportunities for human-bat contact, which can lead to human exposure to bat-borne pathogens and conflicts that cause bat mortality. Despite this risk, little is known about the drivers and characteristics of these human-bat interactions in buildings and work is needed to understand this aspect of the wildlife-urban interface. In Chapter I, I present a literature review that identifies the geographic and taxonomic trends in reported …


Behavioral Interactions Between Spotted-Wing Drosophila (Drosophila Suzukii) And It's Parasitoid The Samba Wasp (Ganaspis Brasiliensis), Dominic Crowley 2023 University of Maine - Main

Behavioral Interactions Between Spotted-Wing Drosophila (Drosophila Suzukii) And It's Parasitoid The Samba Wasp (Ganaspis Brasiliensis), Dominic Crowley

Honors College

Past research has found that female Drosophila generally decrease their reproductive output in response to exposure to predators, including parasitoid wasps. However, no studies on behavioral changes induced by the endoparasitic wasp Ganaspis brasiliensis have been documented in the literature. G. brasiliensis has been identified as a biocontrol agent candidate against D. suzukii, with field trials currently underway across the contiguous United States. In this thesis, two experiments were performed: a behavioral observation assay measuring reproductive behaviors and an oviposition assay, a measure of reproductive activity. Female D. suzukii exposed to G. brasiliensis were observed to have depressed oviposition, producing …


Evaluation Of The Efficacy Of Synthetic Glycovaccines Against Both Murine Acute Chagas Disease And Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Colin D. Knight 2023 University of Texas at El Paso

Evaluation Of The Efficacy Of Synthetic Glycovaccines Against Both Murine Acute Chagas Disease And Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Colin D. Knight

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Chagas disease (CD) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are neglected tropical diseases caused by the protozoan trypanosomatids, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp., respectively. There are approximately 6-8 million people infected with T. cruzi worldwide and ~300,000 people in the US. Between 700,000 and 1.2 million new cases of CL occur worldwide yearly. The approved chemotherapies for both diseases are partially effective and may cause serious adverse events, resulting in premature treatment interruption. Moreover, no effective vaccine for either disease is available. Therefore, developing a vaccine that would provide effective cross-protection against both diseases would provide a cost-effective alternative to the existing …


Phylogenomics Reveals The History Of Host Use In Mosquitoes, John Soghigan, Charles Sither, Silvia Andrade Justi, Gen Morinaga, Brian K. Cassel, Christopher J. Vitek, Todd P. Livdahl, Siyang Xia, Andrea Gloria-Soria, Jeffrey R. Powell, Thomas Zavortink, Christopher M. Hardy, Nathan D. Burkett-Cadena, Lawrence E. Reeves, Richard C. Wilkerson, Robert R. Dunn, David K. Yeates, Maria Anice Sallum, Brian D. Byrd, Michelle D. Trautwein, Yvonne-Marie Linton, Michael H. Reiskind, Brian M. Wiegmann 2023 North Carolina State University

Phylogenomics Reveals The History Of Host Use In Mosquitoes, John Soghigan, Charles Sither, Silvia Andrade Justi, Gen Morinaga, Brian K. Cassel, Christopher J. Vitek, Todd P. Livdahl, Siyang Xia, Andrea Gloria-Soria, Jeffrey R. Powell, Thomas Zavortink, Christopher M. Hardy, Nathan D. Burkett-Cadena, Lawrence E. Reeves, Richard C. Wilkerson, Robert R. Dunn, David K. Yeates, Maria Anice Sallum, Brian D. Byrd, Michelle D. Trautwein, Yvonne-Marie Linton, Michael H. Reiskind, Brian M. Wiegmann

Biology

Mosquitoes have profoundly affected human history and continue to threaten human health through the transmission of a diverse array of pathogens. The phylogeny of mosquitoes has remained poorly characterized due to difficulty in taxonomic sampling and limited availability of genomic data beyond the most important vector species. Here, we used phylogenomic analysis of 709 single copy ortholog groups from 256 mosquito species to produce a strongly supported phylogeny that resolves the position of the major disease vector species and the major mosquito lineages. Our analyses support an origin of mosquitoes in the early Triassic (217 MYA [highest posterior density region: …


Exploration Of The Implementation Of An Integrated Electronic Laboratory Information Management System On Quality Diagnostics Service Indicators At A County Level Public Hospital In Western Kenya., Kelly Allen 2023 SIT Graduate Institute/SIT Study Abroad

Exploration Of The Implementation Of An Integrated Electronic Laboratory Information Management System On Quality Diagnostics Service Indicators At A County Level Public Hospital In Western Kenya., Kelly Allen

Capstone Collection

Underinvestment in pathology and laboratory capacity caused by low visibility in research and in prioritization by public health leaders results in limited effective healthcare coverage and an estimated 1.1 million premature deaths annually in Low-and-Middle-Income Countries. Kenya’s public health laboratories provide a median 41% of the Essential Diagnostic List to their patients and in Kisumu County, as much as 44.2% of the population has little to no access to essential diagnostics. The government of Kisumu implemented the county Health Laboratory Strategic Plan 2018-2022 to address this public health challenge. Little information exists on the effectiveness of these initiatives and the …


Saving The Devils Is In The Details, Megan O. Powell 2023 University of North Carolina at Asheville

Saving The Devils Is In The Details, Megan O. Powell

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Incorporating Adaptive Human Behavior Into Epidemiological Models Using Equation Learning, Austin Barton, Jordan Klein, Jonathan Greer, Kevin Flores, Patrick Haughey 2023 Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus

Incorporating Adaptive Human Behavior Into Epidemiological Models Using Equation Learning, Austin Barton, Jordan Klein, Jonathan Greer, Kevin Flores, Patrick Haughey

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Msis-Ledder: Empowering Future Physicians: Modeling Disease Transmission With Netlogo To Encourage Mathematical Reasoning, Anne E. Yust 2023 University of Pittsburgh

Msis-Ledder: Empowering Future Physicians: Modeling Disease Transmission With Netlogo To Encourage Mathematical Reasoning, Anne E. Yust

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


A Mathematical Model Of Acanthocephalan Parasite Infection In Gull-Billed Terns, Charlotte Moser 2023 Illinois State University

A Mathematical Model Of Acanthocephalan Parasite Infection In Gull-Billed Terns, Charlotte Moser

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Multicellular And Multiscale Models Of Microbes And Host Systems, Elebeoba May 2023 Illinois State University

Multicellular And Multiscale Models Of Microbes And Host Systems, Elebeoba May

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Advancements In Dendritic Cell Vaccination: Enhancing Efficacy And Optimizing Combinatorial Strategies For The Treatment Of Glioblastoma, Robert Subtirelu, Eric Teichner, Arjun Ashok, Chitra Parikh, Sahithi Talasila, Irina-Mihaela Matache, Ahab Alnemri, Victoria Anderson, Osmaan Shahid, Sricharvi Mannam, Andrew Lee, Thomas Werner, Mona-Elisabeth Revheim, Abass Alavi 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Advancements In Dendritic Cell Vaccination: Enhancing Efficacy And Optimizing Combinatorial Strategies For The Treatment Of Glioblastoma, Robert Subtirelu, Eric Teichner, Arjun Ashok, Chitra Parikh, Sahithi Talasila, Irina-Mihaela Matache, Ahab Alnemri, Victoria Anderson, Osmaan Shahid, Sricharvi Mannam, Andrew Lee, Thomas Werner, Mona-Elisabeth Revheim, Abass Alavi

Student Papers, Posters & Projects

Glioblastomas (GBM) are highly invasive, malignant primary brain tumors. The overall prognosis is poor, and management of GBMs remains a formidable challenge, necessitating novel therapeutic strategies such as dendritic cell vaccinations (DCVs). While many early clinical trials demonstrate an induction of an antitumoral immune response, outcomes are mixed and dependent on numerous factors that vary between trials. Optimization of DCVs is essential; the selection of GBM-specific antigens and the utilization of 18F-fludeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) may add significant value and ultimately improve outcomes for patients undergoing treatment for glioblastoma. This review provides an overview of the mechanism of …


Development Of Targeted Drug Delivery System To Improve Immunotherapy In Pancreatic Cancer, Poornima Devi Shaji, Ana Martinez Bulnes, Nirnoy Dan, Subhash C. Chauhan, Sheema Khan, Murali M. Yallapu 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Development Of Targeted Drug Delivery System To Improve Immunotherapy In Pancreatic Cancer, Poornima Devi Shaji, Ana Martinez Bulnes, Nirnoy Dan, Subhash C. Chauhan, Sheema Khan, Murali M. Yallapu

Research Colloquium

Introduction: About 95% of tumor arises from epithelial cell lining ducts known to be pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, with less than 5-7% survival rate. Unfortunately, little progress has been seen in the outcomes of patients with PDAC as tumor develops high desmoplasia and chemo-resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, such as gemcitabine (Gem). Immunotherapy has shown promising results in other cancers but limited response in pancreatic cancer due to desmoplasia and fibrotic tumor microenvironment. A recently identified mucin, MUC13 is aberrantly expressed in pancreatic tumors but not in normal pancreas. Due to its high membrane expression, MUC13 may serve as an excellent target …


D-Shaped Nematode Eggs In The Feces Of Rangifer Tarandus: A Story In Pictures, Olga A. Loginova 2023 A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

D-Shaped Nematode Eggs In The Feces Of Rangifer Tarandus: A Story In Pictures, Olga A. Loginova

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

D-shaped nematode eggs in the feces of Rangifer tarandus are expected to be oxyurid nematodes (Nemata: Oxyurida) of the genus Skrjabinema. The species S. tarandi is considered species-specific for this host. There is no consensus regarding the cross-infection of reindeer and sheep with S. ovis and S. tarandi. The drawings proposed by descriptors complicate differential diagnostics. Micrographs of S. tarandi eggs obtained via light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy as well as photographs of S. ovis eggs and drawings made on their basis are proposed to confidently distinguish between representatives of these two species, taking into account morphometric data. Thus, …


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