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Conditional Distance Correlation Test For Gene Expression Level, Dna Methylation Level And Copy Number, Shanshan Zhang 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Conditional Distance Correlation Test For Gene Expression Level, Dna Methylation Level And Copy Number, Shanshan Zhang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Over the past years, efforts have been devoted to the genome-wide analysis of genetic and epigenetic profiles to better understand the underlying biological mechanisms of complex diseases such as cancer. It is of great importance to unravel the complex dependence structure between biological factors, and many conditional dependence tests have been developed to meet this need. The traditional partial correlation method can only capture the linear partial correlation, but not the nonlinear correlation. To overcome this limitation, we propose to use the innovative conditional distance correlation (CDC), which measures the conditional dependence between random vectors and detect nonlinear relations. In ...


A Functional Three-Dimensional Microphysiological Model Of Myeloma Bone Disease, Richard Visconti 2020 Seton Hall University

A Functional Three-Dimensional Microphysiological Model Of Myeloma Bone Disease, Richard Visconti

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic cancer caused by a mature B cell neoplasm, or plasmacytoma, that infiltrates the skeleton at several sites. The disease is characterized by uninhibited transformed plasma cell proliferation that disrupts skeletal homeostasis leading to decreased bone modeling and increased bone resorption. Osteolytic lesions (OL) or voids left in the bone, remain long after the treatment of the cancer and indicate disease progression to myeloma bone disease (MBD). Current combinatorial MM therapies inhibit malignant plasma cell proliferation, slow the progression towards MBD, and increase the mean five-year survival rate, but do little to improve osteoblastic function ...


Immunohistochemical Localization Of Prolactin Receptor (Prlr) To Hodgkin's And Reed-Sternberg Cells Of Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Rajendra Gharbaran, Onyekwere Onwumere, Naomi Codrington, Latchman Somenarian, Stephen Redenti 2020 CUNY Bronx Community College

Immunohistochemical Localization Of Prolactin Receptor (Prlr) To Hodgkin's And Reed-Sternberg Cells Of Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Rajendra Gharbaran, Onyekwere Onwumere, Naomi Codrington, Latchman Somenarian, Stephen Redenti

Publications and Research

Prolactin receptor (PRLR), a type-1 cytokine receptor, is overexpressed in a number of cancer types. It has attracted much attention for putative pro-oncogenic roles, which however, remains controversial in some malignancies. In this study, we reported the localization of PRLR to the Hodgkin's and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), a neoplasm of predominantly B cell origin. Immunohistochemistry performed on 5-μm thick FFPE sections revealed expression of PRLR in HRS cells. Cellular immunofluorescence experiments showed that the HL-derived cell lines, Hs445, KMH2 and L428 overexpressed PRLR. The PRLR immunofluorescent signal was depleted after treating the cell lines ...


Hitting The Bullseye: Are Extracellular Vesicles On Target?, Nicole Noren Hooten, María Yáñez-Mó, Rachel M. DeRita, Ashley Russell, Peter Quesenberry, Bharat Ramratnam, Paul D Robbins, Dolores Di Vizio, Sicheng Wen, Kenneth W Witwer, Lucia R Languino 2020 National Institute on Aging

Hitting The Bullseye: Are Extracellular Vesicles On Target?, Nicole Noren Hooten, María Yáñez-Mó, Rachel M. Derita, Ashley Russell, Peter Quesenberry, Bharat Ramratnam, Paul D Robbins, Dolores Di Vizio, Sicheng Wen, Kenneth W Witwer, Lucia R Languino

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Biomechanical And Biophysical Properties Of Breast Cancer Cells Under Varying Glycemic Regimens, Diganta Dutta, Xavier-Lewis Palmer, Jose Ortega-Rodas, Vasundhara Balraj, Indrani Ghosh Dastider, Surabhi Chandra 2020 Old Dominion University

Biomechanical And Biophysical Properties Of Breast Cancer Cells Under Varying Glycemic Regimens, Diganta Dutta, Xavier-Lewis Palmer, Jose Ortega-Rodas, Vasundhara Balraj, Indrani Ghosh Dastider, Surabhi Chandra

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Diabetes accelerates cancer cell proliferation and metastasis, particularly for cancers of the pancreas, liver, breast, colon, and skin. While pathways linking the 2 disease conditions have been explored extensively, there is a lack of information on whether there could be cytoarchitectural changes induced by glucose which predispose cancer cells to aggressive phenotypes. It was thus hypothesized that exposure to diabetes/high glucose alters the biomechanical and biophysical properties of cancer cells more than the normal cells, which aids in advancing the cancer. For this study, atomic force microscopy indentation was used through microscale probing of multiple human breast cancer cells ...


Harnessing Cellular Senescence For Cancer Immunotherapy, Marcus Ruscetti 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Harnessing Cellular Senescence For Cancer Immunotherapy, Marcus Ruscetti

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

Presented virtually during the "New Faculty Talks" session at the 25th Annual University of Massachusetts Medical School Research Retreat 2020 on October 26, 2020.


Pan-Cancer Analysis Of Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (Tert) Isoforms, Mathushan Subasri 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Pan-Cancer Analysis Of Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (Tert) Isoforms, Mathushan Subasri

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Reactivation of the multi-subunit ribonucleoprotein telomerase is the primary telomere maintenance mechanism in cancer, but it is rate-limited by the enzymatic component, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). While regulatory in nature, TERT alternative splice variant/isoform regulation and functions are not fully elucidated and are further complicated by their highly diverse expression. In this thesis, I characterized TERT expression across normal and neoplastic tissues using TCGA and GTEx RNA-sequencing data. In doing so, I demonstrated the global overexpression and splicing shift towards full-length TERT in neoplastic tissue. Furthermore, my studies identified tumour subtype expression differences possibly regulated by subtype-specific characteristics, detailed ...


Therapeutic Inhibition Of Fcgammariib Signaling Targets Leukemic Stem Cells In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Oliver Parting, Samantha Langer, Maja Kim Kuepper, Caroline Wessling, Shaoguang Li, Till Braunschweig, Nicolas Chatain, Tiago Maie, Ivan G. Costa, Martina Crysandt, Michael Huber, Tim H. Brummendorf, Steffen Koschmieder, Mirle Schemionek 2020 University Hospital RWTH Aachen

Therapeutic Inhibition Of Fcgammariib Signaling Targets Leukemic Stem Cells In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Oliver Parting, Samantha Langer, Maja Kim Kuepper, Caroline Wessling, Shaoguang Li, Till Braunschweig, Nicolas Chatain, Tiago Maie, Ivan G. Costa, Martina Crysandt, Michael Huber, Tim H. Brummendorf, Steffen Koschmieder, Mirle Schemionek

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Despite the successes achieved with molecular targeted inhibition of the oncogenic driver Bcr-Abl in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), the majority of patients still require lifelong tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. This is primarily caused by resisting leukemic stem cells (LSCs), which prevent achievement of treatment-free remission in all patients. Here we describe the ITIM (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif)-containing Fc gamma receptor IIb (FcgammaRIIb, CD32b) for being critical in LSC resistance and show that targeting FcgammaRIIb downstream signaling, by using a Food and Drug Administration-approved BTK inhibitor, provides a successful therapeutic approach. First, we identified FcgammaRIIb upregulation in primary CML ...


Effects Of Germline And Somatic Events In Candidate Brca-Like Genes On Breast-Tumor Signatures, Weston R. Bodily, Brian H. Shirts, Tom Walsh, Suleyman Gulsuner, Mary-Claire King, Alyssa Parker, Moom Roosan, Stephen R. Piccolo 2020 Brigham Young University

Effects Of Germline And Somatic Events In Candidate Brca-Like Genes On Breast-Tumor Signatures, Weston R. Bodily, Brian H. Shirts, Tom Walsh, Suleyman Gulsuner, Mary-Claire King, Alyssa Parker, Moom Roosan, Stephen R. Piccolo

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 cause deficiencies in homologous recombination repair (HR), resulting in repair of DNA double-strand breaks by the alternative non-homologous end-joining pathway, which is more error prone. HR deficiency of breast tumors is important because it is associated with better responses to platinum salt therapies and PARP inhibitors. Among other consequences of HR deficiency are characteristic somatic-mutation signatures and gene-expression patterns. The term “BRCA-like” (or “BRCAness”) describes tumors that harbor an HR defect but have no detectable germline mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. A better understanding of the genes and molecular events associated with tumors being BRCA-like ...


Rho Gtpases: Big Players In Breast Cancer Initiation, Metastasis And Therapeutic Responses, Brock Humphries, Zhishan Wang, Chengfeng Yang 2020 University of Michigan

Rho Gtpases: Big Players In Breast Cancer Initiation, Metastasis And Therapeutic Responses, Brock Humphries, Zhishan Wang, Chengfeng Yang

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Rho GTPases, a family of the Ras GTPase superfamily, are key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. They were originally thought to primarily affect cell migration and invasion; however, recent advances in our understanding of the biology and function of Rho GTPases have demonstrated their diverse roles within the cell, including membrane trafficking, gene transcription, migration, invasion, adhesion, survival and growth. As these processes are critically involved in cancer initiation, metastasis and therapeutic responses, it is not surprising that studies have demonstrated important roles of Rho GTPases in cancer. Although the majority of data indicates an oncogenic role of Rho GTPases ...


Fancj Compensates For Rap80 Deficiency And Suppresses Genomic Instability Induced By Interstrand Cross-Links, Sanket Awate, Joshua A. Sommers, Arindam Datta, Sumeet Nayak, Marina A. Bellani, Olivia Yang, Christopher A. Dunn, Claudia M. Nicolae, George-Lucian Moldovan, Michael M. Seidman, Sharon B. Cantor, Robert M. Brosh 2020 National Institute on Aging, NIH

Fancj Compensates For Rap80 Deficiency And Suppresses Genomic Instability Induced By Interstrand Cross-Links, Sanket Awate, Joshua A. Sommers, Arindam Datta, Sumeet Nayak, Marina A. Bellani, Olivia Yang, Christopher A. Dunn, Claudia M. Nicolae, George-Lucian Moldovan, Michael M. Seidman, Sharon B. Cantor, Robert M. Brosh

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

FANCJ, a DNA helicase and interacting partner of the tumor suppressor BRCA1, is crucial for the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICL), a highly toxic lesion that leads to chromosomal instability and perturbs normal transcription. In diploid cells, FANCJ is believed to operate in homologous recombination (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB); however, its precise role and molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Moreover, compensatory mechanisms of ICL resistance when FANCJ is deficient have not been explored. In this work, we conducted a siRNA screen to identify genes of the DNA damage response/DNA repair regime that when acutely depleted ...


Develop A High-Throughput Screening Method To Identify C-P4h1 (Collagen Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase 1) Inhibitors From Fda-Approved Chemicals, Shike Wang, Kuo-Hao Lee, Nathália Victoria Araujo, Chang-Guo Zhan, Vivek M. Rangnekar, Ren Xu 2020 University of Kentucky

Develop A High-Throughput Screening Method To Identify C-P4h1 (Collagen Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase 1) Inhibitors From Fda-Approved Chemicals, Shike Wang, Kuo-Hao Lee, Nathália Victoria Araujo, Chang-Guo Zhan, Vivek M. Rangnekar, Ren Xu

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase 1 (C-P4H1) is an α-ketoglutarate (α-KG)-dependent dioxygenase that catalyzes 4-hydroxylation of proline on collagen. C-P4H1-induced prolyl hydroxylation is required for proper collagen deposition and cancer metastasis. Therefore, targeting C-P4H1 is considered a potential therapeutic strategy for collagen-related cancer progression and metastasis. However, no C-P4H1 inhibitors are available for clinical testing, and the high content assay is currently not available for C-P4H1 inhibitor screening. In the present study, we developed a high-throughput screening assay by quantifying succinate, a byproduct of C-P4H-catalyzed hydroxylation. C-P4H1 is the major isoform of collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylases (CP4Hs) that contributes the majority prolyl ...


Upregulation Of Cpt1a Is Essential For The Tumor-Promoting Effect Of Adipocytes In Colon Cancer, Xiaopeng Xiong, Yang-An Wen, Rachelle Fairchild, Yekaterina Y. Zaytseva, Heidi L. Weiss, B. Mark Evers, Tianyan Gao 2020 University of Kentucky

Upregulation Of Cpt1a Is Essential For The Tumor-Promoting Effect Of Adipocytes In Colon Cancer, Xiaopeng Xiong, Yang-An Wen, Rachelle Fairchild, Yekaterina Y. Zaytseva, Heidi L. Weiss, B. Mark Evers, Tianyan Gao

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Colon tumors grow in an adipose tissue-enriched microenvironment. Locally advanced colon cancers often invade into surrounding adipose tissue with a direct contact with adipocytes. We have previously shown that adipocytes promote tumor growth by modulating cellular metabolism. Here we demonstrate that carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT1A), a key enzyme controlling fatty acid oxidation (FAO), was upregulated in colon cancer cells upon exposure to adipocytes or fatty acids. In addition, CPT1A expression was increased in invasive tumor cells within the adipose tissue compared to tumors without direct contact with adipocytes. Silencing CPT1A abolished the protective effect provided by fatty acids against nutrient ...


Expression And Localization Of The 14-3-3 (Ywha) Protein Family Within Mammals, Neha Kumrah, Santanu De 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Expression And Localization Of The 14-3-3 (Ywha) Protein Family Within Mammals, Neha Kumrah, Santanu De

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

The 14-3-3 (YWHA) are a family of homologous, acidic, and highly conserved proteins expressed abundantly and ubiquitously in a wide array of organisms ranging from plants to animals, including humans, which regulate important cellular events. Within mammals, seven isoforms of 14-3-3 exist: β, γ, ε, ζ, η, τ, and σ (stratifin), each of which is encoded by a unique gene. Studies have shown similar expression patterns among mammalian species. The 14-3-3 proteins are commonly expressed and have proven to play critical roles in proper cellular localization, function, and homeostatic regulation. Numerous researchers have investigated the expression and localization patterns of ...


Investigating The Role Of The C-Jun Nh2-Terminal Kinase Pathway In Erbb2-Driven Breast Cancer And Macrophage Polarization, Lola Yu 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Investigating The Role Of The C-Jun Nh2-Terminal Kinase Pathway In Erbb2-Driven Breast Cancer And Macrophage Polarization, Lola Yu

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Breast cancer is the second most common malignancy in the world, accounting for over 1.7 million new diagnoses and an estimated 500,000 deaths per year (1). Overexpression of the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2, also known as Her2 or Neu, occurs in over 30% of breast cancers and correlates with metastasis, poor prognosis, and decreased survival (1, 2). Although therapeutics targeting ErbB2 show clinical efficacy, many patients display no initial response or develop drug resistance over time (2). A deeper understanding of the molecular basis of ErbB2-driven tumorigenesis is thus required for the development of improved therapeutic strategies.

In ...


Dietary Suppression Of Mhc-Ii Expression In Intestinal Stem Cells Enhances Intestinal Tumorigenesis [Preprint], Semir Beyaz, Deniz M. Ozata, Alper Kucukural, Stuart H. Orkin, Omer H. Yilmaz 2020 Harvard Medical School

Dietary Suppression Of Mhc-Ii Expression In Intestinal Stem Cells Enhances Intestinal Tumorigenesis [Preprint], Semir Beyaz, Deniz M. Ozata, Alper Kucukural, Stuart H. Orkin, Omer H. Yilmaz

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Little is known about how interactions between diet, immune recognition, and intestinal stem cells (ISCs) impact the early steps of intestinal tumorigenesis. Here, we show that a high fat diet (HFD) reduces the expression of the major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) genes in ISCs. This decline in ISC MHC-II expression in a HFD correlates with an altered intestinal microbiome composition and is recapitulated in antibiotic treated and germ-free mice on a control diet. Mechanistically, pattern recognition receptor and IFNg signaling regulate MHC-II expression in ISCs. Although MHC-II expression on ISCs is dispensable for stem cell function in organoid cultures in ...


Luteolin Induces Cytotoxicity In Mix Cellularity Classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma Via Caspase Activated-Cell Death, Rajendra Gharbaran, Enyuan Shang, Onyekwere Onwumere, Naomi Codrington, Evangelina Dankwa Sarpong, Stephen M. Redenti 2020 CUNY Bronx Community College

Luteolin Induces Cytotoxicity In Mix Cellularity Classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma Via Caspase Activated-Cell Death, Rajendra Gharbaran, Enyuan Shang, Onyekwere Onwumere, Naomi Codrington, Evangelina Dankwa Sarpong, Stephen M. Redenti

Publications and Research

Background/aim: We investigated the effects of luteolin (LUT) on classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL), since such studies in malignant lymphomas are lacking.

Materials and methods: Effect of LUT on cell growth was assessed with water-soluble tetrazolium 1 (WST-1) cell proliferation assay and automated hemocytometry on trypan blue-exclusion assay. Cell death was investigated with acridine orange/ethidium bromide live-dead assay, propidium iodide (PI) flow cytometry, and Annexin-V-PI microscopy. Caspase activation was studied using CellEvent Caspase-3/7 Green detection reagent. High resolution immunofluorescence microscopy was used to detect cleaved-PARP-1.

Results: LUT induced a dose-dependent decrease in the growth of KMH2 and ...


Eating Broccoli: Can It Protect Cancer Patients From Radiation Skin Damage?, Huong Pham 2020 Purdue University

Eating Broccoli: Can It Protect Cancer Patients From Radiation Skin Damage?, Huong Pham

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Igf-1r Inhibition Induces Mek Phosphorylation To Promote Survival In Colon Carcinomas, Qing Wang, Yan Zhang, Jiang Zhu, Honggang Zheng, Shuntai Chen, Li Chen, Hsin-Sheng Yang 2020 University of Kentucky

Igf-1r Inhibition Induces Mek Phosphorylation To Promote Survival In Colon Carcinomas, Qing Wang, Yan Zhang, Jiang Zhu, Honggang Zheng, Shuntai Chen, Li Chen, Hsin-Sheng Yang

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) governs several signaling pathways for cell proliferation, survival, and anti-apoptosis. Thus, targeting IGF-1R appears as a reasonable rationale for tumor treatment. However, clinical studies showed that inhibition of IGF-1R has very limited efficacy due to the development of resistance to IGF-1R blockade in tumor cells. Here, we discovered that prolonged treatment of colon cancer cells with IGF-1R inhibitors (BMS-754807 and GSK1838705A) stimulates p70 KDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1) activation, a well-known kinase signaling for cell survival. We also found that p70S6K1 activation by IGF-1R inhibition is independent of K-Ras and PIK3CA ...


Cyclic Peptide-Gadolinium Nanoparticles For Enhanced Intracellular Delivery, Amir Nasrolahi Shirazi, Shang Eun Park, Shirin Rad, Luiza Baloyan, Dindyal Mandal, Muhammad Imran Sajid, Ryley Hall, Sandeep Lohan, Khalid Zoghebi, Keykavous Parang, Rakesh Tiwari 2020 Marshall B. Ketchum University

Cyclic Peptide-Gadolinium Nanoparticles For Enhanced Intracellular Delivery, Amir Nasrolahi Shirazi, Shang Eun Park, Shirin Rad, Luiza Baloyan, Dindyal Mandal, Muhammad Imran Sajid, Ryley Hall, Sandeep Lohan, Khalid Zoghebi, Keykavous Parang, Rakesh Tiwari

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

A cyclic peptide containing one cysteine and five alternating tryptophan and arginine amino acids [(WR)5C] was synthesized using Fmoc/tBu solid-phase methodology. The ability of the synthesized cyclic peptide to produce gadolinium nanoparticles through an in situ one-pot mixing of an aqueous solution of GdCl3 with [(WR)5C] peptide solution was evaluated. Transmission electron microscopy showed the formed peptide-Gd nanoparticles in star-shape morphology with a size of ~250 nm. Flow cytometry investigation showed that the cellular uptake of a cell-impermeable fluorescence-labeled phosphopeptide (F′-GpYEEI, where F′ = fluorescein) was approximately six times higher in the presence of ...


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