Search For Palladin, An Actin-Associated Protein, In Pig Retinal Pigmented Epithelium And Its Role In Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Katrina Powell
This study investigates the expression of Palladin, a phosphoprotein product of the PALLD gene, in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). Palladin is an actin cross-linking protein and plays a role in cell adhesion and motility. Published reports have demonstrated that a down regulation of Palladin in colon cancer cells results in a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, causing the cells to lose their typical shape, become proliferative and migratory. This process is otherwise known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). A similar EMT phenomenon is observed when the RPE is exposed to the vitreous humor in patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). In ...
Purification Of Pcbp2 And Its Effect On The Formation Of Dna I-Motifs And Secondary Structures, 2021 University of Mississippi
Purification Of Pcbp2 And Its Effect On The Formation Of Dna I-Motifs And Secondary Structures, Nathan Redden
Several secondary, non-B forms of DNA are associated with the promoter regions of many oncogenes, including the intensely studied c-MYC gene that codes for a transcription factor. Two such secondary structures, G-quadruplexes, and i-motifs, have become topics of interest due to their prevalence within oncogenic promoters, as well as their potential accessibility for drug targeting. B-form DNA can adopt alternative structures under certain conditions. These alternative structures are favored when there is an asymmetric distribution of guanosine and cytosine on complimentary DNA strands. The strand rich in guanosine is able to form a quadruple stranded DNA complex termed a G-quadruplex ...
Involvement Of The Ino80 Chromatin Remodeling Complex In Cell Division And Genomic Stability, 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Involvement Of The Ino80 Chromatin Remodeling Complex In Cell Division And Genomic Stability, Ethan Chen
Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses
Cell division is a vital biological process for growth and development in both single and multi-cellular organisms—whereby the cell must duplicate its organelles and genome in entirety and appropriately distribute the copied contents to the daughter cells. Cells undergo a cycle of two distinct phases: interphase and mitosis. During interphase, the cell replicates its genomic DNA (in the form of chromosomes) located within the nucleus. DNA replication is carried out in a euchromatin state, where the chromosome structure is loose and easily accessible by DNA polymerase and other replication enzymes. Upon the completion of replication, chromatin is condensed into ...
Effects Of Heme Oxygenase 1 Inducer, T-Bhq On Growth Of Multiple Myeloma Cell Lines, And On Osteoblast And Osteoclast Differention, 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Effects Of Heme Oxygenase 1 Inducer, T-Bhq On Growth Of Multiple Myeloma Cell Lines, And On Osteoblast And Osteoclast Differention, Alyaa Alansari
Theses and Dissertations
Expansion of plasma cells within the bone marrow constitutes the onset of multiple myeloma (MM). This disease manifests clinically primarily through the formation of osteolytic bone lesions that can lead to osteoporosis. The reason for the development of such lesions is the disruption of the equilibrium between bone resorption and bone formation as a result of proliferation of osteoclasts and reduction in the number of osteoblasts in the process of differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The maintenance of bone architecture is critically dependent on osteoblasts and osteoclasts, the activity of which is underpinned by a range of soluble factors ...
Translational Fidelity And Its Role In Neuronal Homeostasis, 2021 University of Maine
Translational Fidelity And Its Role In Neuronal Homeostasis, Markus Terrey
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The process of translation, which refers to decoding genetic information from mRNA to protein, is vital for all cellular function. Translational fidelity starts at the level of aminoacylation of transfer RNAs (tRNA). This reaction is catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetases where each amino acid is transferred to its corresponding cognate tRNA. Because tRNAs harbor the anticodon sequence to decodes a particular mRNA codon, the specific aminoacylation of the tRNA with a cognate amino acid establishes the rules of decoding genetic code into proteins. Aminoacylated tRNAs are then delivered to ribosomes, where ribosomes in a highly organized manner need to accurately ...
Biomedical Applications And Syntheses Of Selected Anthraquinone Dyes, 2021 Liberty University
Biomedical Applications And Syntheses Of Selected Anthraquinone Dyes, Richard Sirard
Senior Honors Theses
Anthraquinones are aromatic organic compounds that have multiple applications in the biomedical field. Some anthraquinone-based compounds are used as fluorophores to contrast cell nuclei while others act as chemotherapeutic agents. However, there are not many fluorescent anthraquinone cell stains currently available. In this study, commercially available anthraquinone dyes, in addition to other dye families and compounds, were reviewed for their unique properties, advantages, and drawbacks. The development and characterization of three novel anthraquinone fluorophores revealed promising photophysical characteristics, like large Stokes shifts. One of the compounds, RBS3, was chosen for fixed and live cell staining and exhibited desirable biomedical properties ...
Determining The Effect Of A Cbc-Based Oxime On Cell Viability And Apoptosis In Sea Urchin Embryos, 2021 Susquehanna University
Determining The Effect Of A Cbc-Based Oxime On Cell Viability And Apoptosis In Sea Urchin Embryos, Nevin B. Hoenninger, Jack Preston
Senior Scholars Day
Natural products are an important source of existing and potential new anti-cancer drugs. We have previously shown that cannabichromene (CBC) oxime and several CBC oxime esters have potent anti-mitotic activity when used in bioassays with sea urchin embryos. In this study we explored the effect of the CBC oxime on cell viability and apoptosis in sea urchin embryos. Newly fertilized or gastrula stage embryos were combined with 10µM or 50uM CBC oxime as well as a DMSO only control. At various timepoints, samples of the embryos were removed from the cultures and stained with three different fluorescent dyes. NucBlue (ThermoFisher ...
Ciliary Extracellular Vesicles Are Distinct From The Cytosolic Extracellular Vesicles, 2021 Chapman University
Ciliary Extracellular Vesicles Are Distinct From The Cytosolic Extracellular Vesicles, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Richard Beuttler, James J. Moresco, John R. Yates Iii, Surya M. Nauli
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell‐derived membrane vesicles that are released into the extracellular space. EVs encapsulate key proteins and mediate intercellular signalling pathways. Recently, primary cilia have been shown to release EVs under fluid‐shear flow, but many proteins encapsulated in these vesicles have never been identified. Primary cilia are ubiquitous mechanosensory organelles that protrude from the apical surface of almost all human cells. Primary cilia also serve as compartments for signalling pathways, and their defects have been associated with a wide range of human genetic diseases called ciliopathies. To better understand the mechanism of ciliopathies, it is imperative ...
The Analysis Of Folate-Dependent Transcription Factor Zinc Finger Protein 410, 2021 Liberty University
The Analysis Of Folate-Dependent Transcription Factor Zinc Finger Protein 410, Feifan Xu
Senior Honors Theses
A previous study that introduced dietary folate to mice in the form of folic acid to determine if gene activity would be altered based on this biological molecule demonstrated that mice without folic acid had cognition deficits, and this phenomenon was correlated with altered gene expression in their brains. The included bioinformatic analysis revealed two main transcription factors that bind to proteins in the nucleus, and one is known as the Zinc Finger Protein 410 (Zfp410). Due to the lack of literature explaining the function of this transcription factor, this project is intended to analyze Zfp410 in detail from scratch ...
022— Examining P27 Expression And Quiescence In Clobetasol-Exposed Umscv-4 Vulvar Cancer Cells, Nina Mustico, Vincent Scalcione, Jani E. Lewis
Vulvar cancer is rare, mostly afflicting women aged 60 and older . The cancer is often preceded by a common vulvar rash, lichen sclerosus, that is usually treated with the ultra-potent corticosteroid, clobetasol propionate. This treatment may, in turn, be associated with vulvar carcinogenesis. Our previous findings suggest that clobetasol is causing UMSCV-4 vulvar carcinoma cells to enter a state of quiescence. Quiescence is temporary removal from the cell cycle and can be thought of as a dormant state in which cells are not actively dividing . There is growing evidence suggesting that quiescence may play a role in allowing ...
216— Loss Of Function Mutation For Tp53 Does Not Rescue The Chaf1bNt2 Small-Eye Phenotype In Danio Rerio, Alex Parks
In Zebrafish, the chromosome assembly factor 1b (chaf1b) gene is in part responsible for the development of the eye. In homozygous chaf1bt24412 mutants retinal cell death is promoted through cell-death promoting activity of the gene, tumor suppressor protein p53 (tp53), resulting in a small-eye phenotype. Another allele chaf1bnt2, was found to also result in the small-eye phenotype when in a homozygous state. We found that knockdown of Tp53 protein via morpholino antisense oligonucleotide injection of 1-2 cell stage embryos failed to rescue retinal cell death of chaf1bnt2 homozygous mutants as detected by TUNEL labeling. Because morpholinos may fail to fully ...
The Effects Of A Survivorship Care Plan On Hospital Readmission Rates In Allogenic Stem Cell Transplant Patients, 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
The Effects Of A Survivorship Care Plan On Hospital Readmission Rates In Allogenic Stem Cell Transplant Patients, Chantaney Williams
The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing Student Works
Stem cell transplants (SCTs) are complicated treatments utilized to treat hematologic malignancies and other disorders, such as multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, acute myeloid leukemia, neuroblastomas, germ cell tumors, amyloidosis, and autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis. The complex care of patients undergoing SCTs place them at high risk for adverse outcomes, including infection, cytomegalovirus, graft vs host disease, secondary new cancers, infertility, and sexual dysfunction (American Cancer Society, 2020). Survivorship care plans (SCPs) are a vital part of the discharge process to educate allogenic SCT patients about post-transplantation care. SCPs are implemented ...
Substrate Selection In Endoplasmic Reticulum Protein Quality Control, 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst
Substrate Selection In Endoplasmic Reticulum Protein Quality Control, Ben Adams
Protein folding and maturation is a complex and error-prone process. Errors in this process may lead to deleterious effects ranging from non-functional single proteins to large-scale protein aggregation leading to cell death. It is essential for cellular function that protein misfolding does not occur unchecked, and therefore numerous chaperone systems exist within the cell. For the thousands of proteins which traffic through the secretory pathway, the primary site of folding and maturation is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Multiple chaperone pathways within the ER, generally termed ER protein quality control, must support the proper maturation process of these thousands of substrates ...
The Ssdna Theory Of Brcaness And Genotoxic Agents, 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School
The Ssdna Theory Of Brcaness And Genotoxic Agents, Nicholas J. Panzarino
GSBS Dissertations and Theses
Cancers that are deficient in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are thought to be hypersensitive to genotoxic agents because they cannot prevent or repair DNA double strand breaks, but observations in patients suggest this dogma may no longer agree with experiment. Here, we propose that single stranded DNA underlies the hypersensitivity of BRCA deficient cancers, and that defects in double strand break repair and prevention do not. Specifically, in BRCA deficient cells, ssDNA gaps developed because replication was not effectively restrained in response to stress. In addition, we observed gaps could be suppressed by either restored fork restraint or by gap filling ...
Toward The Discovery Of Biological Functions Associated With The Mechanosensor Mtl1p Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Via Integrative Multi-Omics Analysis, Nelson Martínez-Matías, Nataliya Chorna, Sahily González-Crespo, Lilliam Villanueva, Ingrid Montes-Rodríguez, Loyda M. Melendez-Aponte, Abiel Roche-Lima, Kelvin Carrasquillo-Carrión, Ednalise Santiago-Cartagena, Brian C. Rymond, Mohan Babu, Igor Stagljar, José R. Rodríguez-Medina
Biology Faculty Publications
Functional analysis of the Mtl1 protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has revealed that this transmembrane sensor endows yeast cells with resistance to oxidative stress through a signaling mechanism called the cell wall integrity pathway (CWI). We observed upregulation of multiple heat shock proteins (HSPs), proteins associated with the formation of stress granules, and the phosphatase subunit of trehalose 6-phosphate synthase which suggests that mtl1Δ strains undergo intrinsic activation of a non-lethal heat stress response. Furthermore, quantitative global proteomic analysis conducted on TMT-labeled proteins combined with metabolome analysis revealed that mtl1Δ strains exhibit decreased levels of metabolites of carboxylic acid metabolism, decreased ...
Cyclophilin D Is A Sensor Of Nano-Pulse Stimulation, 2021 Old Dominion University
Cyclophilin D Is A Sensor Of Nano-Pulse Stimulation, Brittney Ruedlinger, Bani Hani Maisoun, Lucas Potter, Nicola Lai, Stephen J. Beebe
The Graduate School Posters
Nano-Pulse Stimulation (NPS), a pulsed power-derived technology, stimulates structural and functional changes in plasma membranes and cellular organelles. NPS induces a Ca2+ influx and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) that dissipates the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and, when sustained, induces regulated cell death. Here we show that in rat cardiomyoblasts (H9C2) cyclophilin D (CypD) is a mitochondrial sensor for NPS as defined by observations that loss of ΔΨm is Ca2+ and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) dependent and cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive, which are diagnostic qualities for effects on CypD and the mPTP ...
Trials And Tribulations Of Humanizing Mice For Cancer Research, 2021 Old Dominion University
Trials And Tribulations Of Humanizing Mice For Cancer Research, Brittney Ruedlinger, Steven Warsof, Eric Feliberti, Mary Beth Hughes, Ayobami ‘Edwin’ Oshin, Chunqi Jiang, Brittany P. Lassiter, Siqi Guo, Stephen J. Beebe
The Graduate School Posters
Cancers are aggressive, evasive, and ruthless killers, claiming millions of lives every year. Cancers are heterogeneous and there is often no single, clearly defined problem as they harness and manipulate a multitude of fundamental mechanisms at the very essence of life. To investigate these mechanisms and vet potential interventive therapies, humanized mice offer a unique model as a prelude to the use of nanosecond pulse stimulation (NPS), a pulse power technology applying nanosecond duration, high electric field pulses, to ablate human tumors. Immunodeficient mouse strains, NSG and NSG-SGM3, were engrafted with human immune cells and human tumors, which would allow ...
Influence Of Monovalent And Divalent Ions In The Conformational Change Of Caspase-Cleaved Par-4 (Cl-Par-4) Tumor Suppressor Protein, Krishna K. Raut, Komala Ponniah, Steven M. Pascal
College of Sciences Posters
Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a pro-apoptotic tumor suppressor protein. We have shown that this 38 kDa full-length Par-4 (Fl-Par-4) protein is predominantly intrinsically disordered in vitro. In vivo, Par-4 is cleaved by caspase-3 at Asp-131 to generate a 24 kDa functionally active cleaved Par-4 (cl-Par-4) fragment. The cl-Par-4 protein inhibits the NF-κB-mediated cell survival pathway and causes selective apoptosis in various tumor cells. Our laboratory is interested in how the disorder-order balance within Fl-Par-4 and cl-Par-4 may be related to the balance between cell survival and cell death. Currently, we are using biophysical techniques such as circular dichroism ...
Early Satellite Cell Communication Creates A Permissive Environment For Long-Term Muscle Growth, 2021 University of Kentucky
Early Satellite Cell Communication Creates A Permissive Environment For Long-Term Muscle Growth, Kevin A. Murach, Bailey D. Peck, Robert A. Policastro, Ivan J. Vechetti Jr., Douglas W. Van Pelt, Cory M. Dungan, Lance T. Denes, Xu Fu, Camille R. Brightwell, Gabriel E. Zentner, Esther E. Dupont-Versteegden, Christopher I. Richards, Jeramiah J. Smith, Christopher S. Fry, John J. Mccarthy, Charlotte A. Peterson
Center for Muscle Biology Faculty Publications
Using in vivo muscle stem cell (satellite cell)-specific extracellular vesicle (EV) tracking, satellite cell depletion, in vitro cell culture, and single-cell RNA sequencing, we show satellite cells communicate with other cells in skeletal muscle during mechanical overload. Early satellite cell EV communication primes the muscle milieu for proper long-term extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and is sufficient to support sustained hypertrophy in adult mice, even in the absence of fusion to muscle fibers. Satellite cells modulate chemokine gene expression across cell types within the first few days of loading, and EV delivery of miR-206 to fibrogenic cells represses Wisp1 expression ...
Lung Epithelial Cell Transcriptional Regulation As A Factor In Covid-19 Associated Coagulopathies, Ethan S. Fitzgerald, Yongzhi Chen, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Amanda M. Jamieson
COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors
SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly become a global pandemic. In addition to the acute pulmonary symptoms of COVID-19 (the disease associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection), pulmonary and distal coagulopathies have caused morbidity and mortality in many patients. Currently, the molecular pathogenesis underlying COVID-19 associated coagulopathies are unknown. Identifying the molecular basis of how SARS-CoV-2 drives coagulation is essential to mitigating short and long term thrombotic risks of sick and recovered COVID-19 patients. We aimed to perform coagulation focused transcriptome analysis of in vitro infected primary respiratory epithelial cells, patient derived bronchial alveolar lavage (BALF) cells, and circulating immune cells during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our ...