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Study Of The Gain-Of-Function Mutant P53 And Parp1 In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, Devon Lundine 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Study Of The Gain-Of-Function Mutant P53 And Parp1 In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, Devon Lundine

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cancer cells often lose expression of the p53 protein or express mutant forms of p53. Some of these mutant p53 proteins, called gain-of-function mutant p53, have gained oncogenic functions. Previously, our group observed mutant p53 R273H interacts with replicating DNA and upregulates the chromatin localization of several DNA replication factors including PCNA, MCM2-7, and PARP1 (termed the mtp53-PARP-MCM axis). In this thesis, we explore the contribution of mutant p53 and PARP1 in castration-resistant prostate cancer (mutant p53 P223L and V274F) and triple-negative breast cancer (mutant p53 R273H). In the castration-resistant prostate cancer cell line DU145, we examine two mutant p53 ...


Determining Malignancy: Can Mammogram Results Help Predict The Diagnosis Of Breast Tumors?, Taylor Behrens 2021 Kennesaw State University

Determining Malignancy: Can Mammogram Results Help Predict The Diagnosis Of Breast Tumors?, Taylor Behrens

Symposium of Student Scholars

Even with advancements in treatment and preventative care, breast cancer remains an epidemic claiming more than 40,000 American male and female lives each year. The mammogram dataset that I am analyzing was initially complied in the early 1990s by a team from the University of Wisconsin - Madison. Past research diagnoses breast cancer from fine-needle aspirates. My research focuses on predicting whether we can determine breast cancer diagnoses without the use of invasive procedures and, in particular, whether we can predict breast cancer based on mammogram data. Do measures of gray-scale texture, radius, concavity, perimeter, compactness, area, and smoothness of ...


Association Of Oral Microbiota With Lung Cancer Risk In A Low-Income Population In The Southeastern Usa, Jiajun Shi, Yaohua Yang, Hua Xie, Xiaofei Wang, Jie Wu, Jirong Long, Regina Courtney, Xiao-Ou Shu, Wei Zheng, William J. Blot, Qiuyin Cai 2021 Vanderbilt University

Association Of Oral Microbiota With Lung Cancer Risk In A Low-Income Population In The Southeastern Usa, Jiajun Shi, Yaohua Yang, Hua Xie, Xiaofei Wang, Jie Wu, Jirong Long, Regina Courtney, Xiao-Ou Shu, Wei Zheng, William J. Blot, Qiuyin Cai

Biology Faculty Research

Purpose

Oral microbiome plays an important role in oral health and systemic diseases, including cancer. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association of oral microbiome with lung cancer risk.

Methods

We analyzed 156 incident lung cancer cases (73 European Americans and 83 African Americans) and 156 individually matched controls nested within the Southern Community Cohort Study. Oral microbiota were assessed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in pre-diagnostic mouth rinse samples. Paired t test and the permutational multivariate analysis of variance test were used to evaluate lung cancer risk association with alpha diversity or beta diversity, respectively. Conditional logistic regression models ...


Numerical Simulation Of Adaptive Metabolic Response To Anti-Angiogenic Treatment In Renal Cell Carcinoma, Saranya Varakunan 2021 Western University

Numerical Simulation Of Adaptive Metabolic Response To Anti-Angiogenic Treatment In Renal Cell Carcinoma, Saranya Varakunan

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Renal cell carcinoma, a malignant kidney cancer, is often treated using anti-angiogenic drugs to prevent the growth of blood vessels within the tumour. Although tumours initially respond to this treatment, they eventually develop resistance. This resistance is hypothesized to be caused by a switch to a symbiotic metabolism that allows cells to survive even with a low blood supply.

This project seeks to computationally model the transport of oxygen, lactate, and glucose within a tumour in order to examine how cancer metabolism adapts to changes in blood vessels.


Innate Immune Activation By Checkpoint Inhibition In Human Patient-Derived Lung Cancer Tissues, Teresa W. M. Fan, Richard M. Higashi, Huan Song, Saeed Daneshmandi, Angela L. Mahan, Matthew S. Purdom, Therese J. Bocklage, Thomas A. Pittman, Daheng He, Chi Wang, Andrew N. Lane 2021 University of Kentucky

Innate Immune Activation By Checkpoint Inhibition In Human Patient-Derived Lung Cancer Tissues, Teresa W. M. Fan, Richard M. Higashi, Huan Song, Saeed Daneshmandi, Angela L. Mahan, Matthew S. Purdom, Therese J. Bocklage, Thomas A. Pittman, Daheng He, Chi Wang, Andrew N. Lane

Center for Environmental and Systems Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Although Pembrolizumab-based immunotherapy has significantly improved lung cancer patient survival, many patients show variable efficacy and resistance development. A better understanding of the drug’s action is needed to improve patient outcomes. Functional heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment (TME) is crucial to modulating drug resistance; understanding of individual patients’ TME that impacts drug response is hampered by lack of appropriate models. Lung organotypic tissue slice cultures (OTC) with patients’ native TME procured from primary and brain-metastasized (BM) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were treated with Pembrolizumab and/or beta-glucan (WGP, an innate immune activator). Metabolic tracing with 13C ...


Investigation Of Β5 Integrin Function In Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cell Adhesion And Metastatic Properties Of Spheroids, Dolly Dhaliwal 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Investigation Of Β5 Integrin Function In Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cell Adhesion And Metastatic Properties Of Spheroids, Dolly Dhaliwal

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynaecological malignancy in the developed world. EOC metastasis is unique since malignant cells detach directly from the primary tumor site into the abdominal fluid and form multicellular aggregates, called spheroids, that possess enhanced survival mechanisms while in suspension. As such, altered cell adhesion properties are paramount to EOC metastasis with cell detachment from the primary tumor, dissemination as spheroids, and reattachment to peritoneal surfaces for secondary tumor formation. These interactions play a crucial role in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions, having implications in multiple steps of cancer progression. We previously showed that ...


Gene Expression Profiling Of Mapk Pathway Inhibitor Resistance In Cutaneous Melanoma: Can Bioinformatics Be Used To Select Better Melanoma Cell Lines?, Stephen Luebker 2021 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Gene Expression Profiling Of Mapk Pathway Inhibitor Resistance In Cutaneous Melanoma: Can Bioinformatics Be Used To Select Better Melanoma Cell Lines?, Stephen Luebker

Theses & Dissertations

Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer, and incidence has continued to increase. Half of all melanomas have a BRAF V600E mutation and respond to MAPK pathway inhibitors, including BRAF inhibitor therapy or BRAF/MEK inhibitor combination therapy, but nearly all patients develop treatment resistance. Melanoma cell lines produce variable results as models of MAPK pathway inhibitor resistance. To better understand how the genomic similarity of a melanoma cell line to patient-derived tumors affects resistance mechanisms, differences in DNA mutations and copy-number alterations were compared between melanoma cell lines profiled by the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and cutaneous melanoma ...


Fgfr4 Glycosylation And Processing In Cholangiocarcinoma Promote Cancer Signaling, Andrew J. Phillips 2021 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Fgfr4 Glycosylation And Processing In Cholangiocarcinoma Promote Cancer Signaling, Andrew J. Phillips

Theses & Dissertations

Cholangiocarcinoma is a cancer of cholangiocytes, or epithelial cells lining the biliary tract. It is associated with a poor prognosis and additional therapeutic treatments are needed to help patients affected by this disease. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is receptor tyrosine kinase that is involved in various physiologic and pathologic processes. TCGA analysis of thirty different tumor types showed the highest FGFR4 mRNA levels in cholangiocarcinoma. At the protein level, FGFR4 was observed in the majority of cholangiocarcinomas screened and, higher levels were associated with a poorer prognosis. FGFR4 is an N-linked glycosylated receptor tyrosine kinase that we show ...


Decoding The Roles Of Astrocytes And Hedgehog Signaling In Medulloblastoma, Terence Teixeira Duarte, Silvia Aparecida Teixeira, Luis Gonzalez-Reyes, Rui Manuel Reis 2021 Barretos Cancer Hospital

Decoding The Roles Of Astrocytes And Hedgehog Signaling In Medulloblastoma, Terence Teixeira Duarte, Silvia Aparecida Teixeira, Luis Gonzalez-Reyes, Rui Manuel Reis

Publications and Research

The molecular evolution of medulloblastoma is more complex than previously imagined, as emerging evidence suggests that multiple interactions between the tumor cells and components of the tumor microenvironment (TME) are important for tumor promotion and progression. The identification of several molecular networks within the TME, which interact with tumoral cells, has provided new clues to understand the tumorigenic roles of many TME components as well as potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss the most recent studies regarding the roles of astrocytes in supporting sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup medulloblastoma (MB) and provide an overview of MB progression through SHH ...


The Regulation Of Pannexin1 And Pannexin2 In The Skin In Health And Disease, Rafael E. Sanchez Pupo 2021 The University of Western Ontario

The Regulation Of Pannexin1 And Pannexin2 In The Skin In Health And Disease, Rafael E. Sanchez Pupo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pannexins (PANX1, 2, 3) are a family of channel-forming glycoproteins that mediate intracellular and paracrine signaling. In contrast to PANX2, PANX1 has been extensively investigated in the skin, modulating cell differentiation, wound healing, and melanoma development. PANX1 and PANX2 can co-exist in the same cell and form mixed channels where their glycosylation seems to regulate their intermixing. N-glycosylation and caspase cleavage have been proposed as modulators of the function of PANX1, but their effects on PANX2 are unknown. We explored the PANX2 expression in mouse skin and showed that a Panx2 splice variant (PANX2-202) is continuously expressed throughout aging skin ...


Understanding The Pathogenesis Of Renal Medullary Carcinoma, Melinda Soeung 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Understanding The Pathogenesis Of Renal Medullary Carcinoma, Melinda Soeung

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a lethal cancer that predominantly affects young individuals with sickle cell trait (SCT). It is not currently understood why RMC only affects certain individuals with SCT. We found that patients with RMC more frequently participated in high-intensity exercise than matched controls. Using mouse models of SCT, we demonstrated the significant increase of renal hypoxia in the right kidney following high- but not moderate-intensity exercise. We also demonstrated in cell culture studies that SMARCB1 is ubiquitinated for proteasome-mediated degradation in hypoxia, and the re-expression of SMARCB1 leads to compromised proliferation in renal cells specifically in the ...


Epithelial Memory Of Resolved Inflammation Limits Tissue Damage While Promoting Pancreatic Tumorigenesis, I-Lin Ho 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Epithelial Memory Of Resolved Inflammation Limits Tissue Damage While Promoting Pancreatic Tumorigenesis, I-Lin Ho

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Inflammation is a major risk factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. When occurring in the context of pancreatitis, mutations of KRAS accelerate tumor development. We discovered that long after its complete resolution, a transient inflammatory event primes pancreatic epithelial cells to subsequent transformation by oncogenic KRAS. Upon recovery from acute inflammation, epithelial cells of the pancreas display an enduring adaptive response associated with sustained transcriptional and epigenetic reprogramming. Such adaptation enables the prompt reactivation of acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) upon subsequent inflammatory events, thus efficiently limiting tissue damage via rapid decrease of zymogen production. We propose that since activating mutations of KRAS ...


Combination Of Oncolytic Adenoviruses, T-Cell Activation, And Blockade Of Ido Metabolic Circuitry For The Treatment Of Glioma, Teresa Nguyen 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Combination Of Oncolytic Adenoviruses, T-Cell Activation, And Blockade Of Ido Metabolic Circuitry For The Treatment Of Glioma, Teresa Nguyen

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Glioblastoma is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults; the current aggressive treatment results in a 5% five-year survival rate. More effective therapies should be developed. One promising alternative is oncolytic adenovirus, Delta-24-RGD, which elicits cancer cell lysis and immunogenic cell death. In fact, Delta-24-RGD produced complete responses in 20% of recurrent glioblastoma patients through immune mechanisms that activate anti-tumor cytotoxic properties of T-cells. This cytolytic effect can further be enhanced by adding immune agonists, namely OX40L, which engages the OX40 receptor to co-stimulate activated T cells for enhanced proliferation. Hence, we produced the next generation of Delta-24-RGD ...


Targeting Plasma Membrane Phosphatidylserine Content To Inhibit Oncogenic Kras Function, Walaa E. Kattan 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Targeting Plasma Membrane Phosphatidylserine Content To Inhibit Oncogenic Kras Function, Walaa E. Kattan

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The small GTPase KRAS, which is frequently mutated in human cancers, must be localized to the plasma membrane (PM) for biological activity. We recently showed that the KRAS C-terminal membrane anchor exhibits exquisite lipid-binding specificity for select species of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer). We therefore investigated whether reducing PM PtdSer content is sufficient to abrogate KRAS oncogenesis. Oxysterol-related binding proteins ORP5 and ORP8 exchange PtdSer synthesized in the ER for phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) synthesized in the PM. We show that depletion of ORP5 or ORP8 reduced PM PtdSer levels, resulting in extensive mislocalization of KRAS from the PM. Concordantly, ORP5 or ORP8 depletion ...


Suppression Of Dc-Sign And Gh Reveals Complex, Subset-Specific Mechanisms For Kshv Entry In Primary B Lymphocytes, Nancy Palmerin, Farizeh Aalam, Romina Nabiee, Murali Muniraju, Javier Gordon Ogembo, Jennifer Totonchy 2021 Chapman University

Suppression Of Dc-Sign And Gh Reveals Complex, Subset-Specific Mechanisms For Kshv Entry In Primary B Lymphocytes, Nancy Palmerin, Farizeh Aalam, Romina Nabiee, Murali Muniraju, Javier Gordon Ogembo, Jennifer Totonchy

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of multiple cancers in immunocompromised patients including two lymphoproliferative disorders associated with KSHV infection of B lymphocytes. Despite many years of research into the pathogenesis of KSHV associated diseases, basic questions related to KSHV molecular virology remain unresolved. One such unresolved question is the cellular receptors and viral glycoproteins needed for KSHV entry into primary B lymphocytes. In this study, we assess the contributions of KSHV glycoprotein H (gH) and the cellular receptor DC-SIGN to KSHV infection in tonsil-derived B lymphocytes. Our results show that (1) neither KSHV-gH nor DC-SIGN are essential ...


The Characterization Of Angiopoietin-Like Protein 4 Overexpression In Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Jodi Simeon 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Characterization Of Angiopoietin-Like Protein 4 Overexpression In Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Jodi Simeon

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is highly invasive and metastatic with approximately 15% of patients developing liver metastases. The primary treatment of metastatic TNBC is chemotherapy, however, there is an increased chance of resistance to this therapeutic technique. If Breast Cancer Liver Metastasis (BCLM) is left untreated most patients survive only 4 to 8 months with a very rare 5-year survival. Therefore, it is imperative to analyze markers and molecular pathways that TNBC cells use to progress, invade, and metastasize to the liver. The aim of this study was to examine the overexpression of angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) in TNBC cells ...


Experimental And Analysis Of Electromagnetic Characterization Of Biological And Non-Biological Materials In Microwave, Millimeter-Wave, And Terahertz Frequency Bands, Nagma Vohra 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Experimental And Analysis Of Electromagnetic Characterization Of Biological And Non-Biological Materials In Microwave, Millimeter-Wave, And Terahertz Frequency Bands, Nagma Vohra

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research is to characterize the electromagnetic properties of biological and non-biological materials at terahertz (THz), millimeter-wave, and microwave frequency bands. The biological specimens are measured using the THz imaging and spectroscopy system, whereas the non-biological materials are measured using the microwave and millimeter-wave free-space system. These facilities are located in the Engineering Research Center at the University of Arkansas. The THz imaging system (TPS 3000) uses a Ti-Sapphire laser directed on the photoconductive antennas to generate a THz time domain pulse. Upon using the Fourier Transform, the spectrum of the pulsed THz signal includes frequencies from ...


Rapid Cell Phenotyping Using Array-Based Sensors: Applications In Cancer Stem Cell Therapy And High-Content Screening, Yingying Geng 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Rapid Cell Phenotyping Using Array-Based Sensors: Applications In Cancer Stem Cell Therapy And High-Content Screening, Yingying Geng

Doctoral Dissertations

Cell surface harbors rich information regarding the status of cell health. Being able to monitor and detect its changes in response to stimuli will provide crucial information in drug discovery, disease diagnosis, and human health. Despite the efforts and breakthroughs made possible through the specific sensing approach, there are significant challenges in extracting the information on the cell surface in a quantitative and reliable way. To address this challenge, I took the approach of array-based, hypothesis-free sensing in which the engineered sensors selectively interact with target analytes, producing a distinct pattern of response that enables analyte identification. This signature-based pattern ...


The Effect Of Fluid Flow Shear Stress And Substrate Stiffness On Yes-Associated Protein (Yap) Activity And Osteogenesis In Murine Osteosarcoma Cells, Thomas R. Coughlin, Ali Sana, Kevin Voss, Abhilash Gadi, Upal Basu-Roy, Caroline M. Curtin, Alka Mansukhani, Oran D. Kennedy 2021 New York University School of Medicine

The Effect Of Fluid Flow Shear Stress And Substrate Stiffness On Yes-Associated Protein (Yap) Activity And Osteogenesis In Murine Osteosarcoma Cells, Thomas R. Coughlin, Ali Sana, Kevin Voss, Abhilash Gadi, Upal Basu-Roy, Caroline M. Curtin, Alka Mansukhani, Oran D. Kennedy

Publications and Research

Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive bone cancer originating in the mesenchymal lineage. Prognosis for metastatic disease is poor, with a mortality rate of approximately 40%; OS is an aggressive disease for which new treatments are needed. All bone cells are sensitive to their mechanical/ physical surroundings and changes in these surroundings can affect their behavior. However, it is not well understood how OS cells specifically respond to fluid movement, or substrate stiffness—two stimuli of relevance in the tumor microenvironment. We used cells from spontaneous OS tumors in a mouse engineered to have a bone-specific knockout of pRb-1 and p53 ...


Evaluation Of Somatic Mutations In Solid Metastatic Pan-Cancer Patients, Moom Roosan, Isa Mambetsariev, Rebecca Pharaon, Jeremy Fricke, Angel R. Baroz, Joseph Chao, Chen Chen, Mohd W. Nasser, Ramakanth Chirravuri-Venkata, Maneesh Jain, Lynette Smith, Susan E. Yost, Karen L. Reckamp, Raju Pillai, Leonidas Arvanitis, Michelle Afkhami, Edward W. Wang, Vincent Chung, Mihaela Cristea, Marwan Fakih, Marianna Koczywas, Erminia Massarelli, Joanne Mortimer, Yuan Yuan, Surinder K. Batra, Sumanta Pal, Ravi Salgia 2021 Chapman University

Evaluation Of Somatic Mutations In Solid Metastatic Pan-Cancer Patients, Moom Roosan, Isa Mambetsariev, Rebecca Pharaon, Jeremy Fricke, Angel R. Baroz, Joseph Chao, Chen Chen, Mohd W. Nasser, Ramakanth Chirravuri-Venkata, Maneesh Jain, Lynette Smith, Susan E. Yost, Karen L. Reckamp, Raju Pillai, Leonidas Arvanitis, Michelle Afkhami, Edward W. Wang, Vincent Chung, Mihaela Cristea, Marwan Fakih, Marianna Koczywas, Erminia Massarelli, Joanne Mortimer, Yuan Yuan, Surinder K. Batra, Sumanta Pal, Ravi Salgia

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Metastasis continues to be the primary cause of all cancer-related deaths despite the recent advancements in cancer treatments. To evaluate the role of mutations in overall survival (OS) and treatment outcomes, we analyzed 957 metastatic patients with seven major cancer types who had available molecular testing results with a FoundationOne CDx® panel. The most prevalent genes with somatic mutations were TP53, KRAS, APC, and LRP1B. In this analysis, these genes had mutation frequencies higher than in publicly available datasets. We identified that the somatic mutations were seven mutually exclusive gene pairs and an additional fifty-two co-occurring gene pairs. Mutations in ...


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