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Familial Emberger Syndrome With Autoimmunity, Hyper-Immunoglobulin E And Lymphatic Impairment Caused By A Novel Gata2 Mutation, Moneerah AlGassim, Ahad F. Al Seraihi, AlFadel AlShaibani, Walter Conca, Saleem AlShehri, Moheieldin Moustafa Abouzied, Issam Hamadah, Saleh AlReshoodi, Majed Dasouki, Farrukh Sheikh 2022 Department of Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Familial Emberger Syndrome With Autoimmunity, Hyper-Immunoglobulin E And Lymphatic Impairment Caused By A Novel Gata2 Mutation, Moneerah Algassim, Ahad F. Al Seraihi, Alfadel Alshaibani, Walter Conca, Saleem Alshehri, Moheieldin Moustafa Abouzied, Issam Hamadah, Saleh Alreshoodi, Majed Dasouki, Farrukh Sheikh

Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Therapy

No abstract provided.


Low-Salt Diet Reduces Anti-Ctla4 Mediated Systemic Immune-Related Adverse Events While Retaining Therapeutic Efficacy Against Breast Cancer, Durga Khandekar, Debolanle O. Dahunsi, Isaac V. Manzanera Esteve, Sonya Reid, Jeffrey C. Rathmell, Jens M. Titze, Venkataswarup Tiriveedhi 2022 Tennessee State University

Low-Salt Diet Reduces Anti-Ctla4 Mediated Systemic Immune-Related Adverse Events While Retaining Therapeutic Efficacy Against Breast Cancer, Durga Khandekar, Debolanle O. Dahunsi, Isaac V. Manzanera Esteve, Sonya Reid, Jeffrey C. Rathmell, Jens M. Titze, Venkataswarup Tiriveedhi

Biology Faculty Research

Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy has revolutionized the breast cancer treatment landscape. However, ICI-induced systemic inflammatory immune-related adverse events (irAE) remain a major clinical challenge. Previous studies in our laboratory and others have demonstrated that a high-salt (HS) diet induces inflammatory activation of CD4+T cells leading to anti-tumor responses. In our current communication, we analyzed the impact of dietary salt modification on therapeutic and systemic outcomes in breast-tumor-bearing mice following anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) monoclonal antibody (mAb) based ICI therapy. As HS diet and anti-CTLA4 mAb both exert pro-inflammatory activation of CD4+T cells, we hypothesized that a ...


Cytotoxic Activity Of Non-Specific Lipid Transfer Protein (Nsltp1) From Ajwain (Trachyspermum Ammi) Seeds, Saud O. Alshammari, Taibah Aldakhil, Qamar A. Alshammari, David Salehi, Aftab Ahmed 2022 Chapman University

Cytotoxic Activity Of Non-Specific Lipid Transfer Protein (Nsltp1) From Ajwain (Trachyspermum Ammi) Seeds, Saud O. Alshammari, Taibah Aldakhil, Qamar A. Alshammari, David Salehi, Aftab Ahmed

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Trachyspermum ammi, commonly known as Ajwain, is a member of the Apiaceae family. It is a therapeutic herbal spice with diverse pharmacological properties, used in traditional medicine for various ailments. However, all previous studies were conducted using small molecule extracts, leaving the protein’s bioactivity undiscovered.

Aim

The current study aimed to demonstrate the cytotoxic activity of Ajwain non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP1) in normal breast (MCF10A), breast cancer (MCF-7), and pancreatic cancer (AsPC-1) cell lines. Also, to evaluate its structural stability in human serum as well as at high temperature conditions.

Methods

The cytotoxic activity of Ajwain nsLTP1 ...


A Small Peptide Increases Drug Delivery In Human Melanoma Cells, Shirley Tong, Shaban Darwish, Hanieh Hossein Nejad Ariani, Kate Alison Lozada, David Salehi, Maris A. Cinelli, Richard B. Silverman, Kamaljit Kaur, Sun Yang 2022 Chapman University

A Small Peptide Increases Drug Delivery In Human Melanoma Cells, Shirley Tong, Shaban Darwish, Hanieh Hossein Nejad Ariani, Kate Alison Lozada, David Salehi, Maris A. Cinelli, Richard B. Silverman, Kamaljit Kaur, Sun Yang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Melanoma is the most fatal type of skin cancer and is notoriously resistant to chemotherapies. The response of melanoma to current treatments is difficult to predict. To combat these challenges, in this study, we utilize a small peptide to increase drug delivery to melanoma cells. A peptide library array was designed and screened using a peptide array-whole cell binding assay, which identified KK-11 as a novel human melanoma-targeting peptide. The peptide and its D-amino acid substituted analogue (VPWxEPAYQrFL or D-aa KK-11) were synthesized via a solid-phase strategy. Further studies using FITC-labeled KK-11 demonstrated dose-dependent uptake in human melanoma cells. D-aa ...


Visceral Adipose Tissue Remodeling In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cachexia: The Role Of Activin A Signaling, Pauline Xu 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Visceral Adipose Tissue Remodeling In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cachexia: The Role Of Activin A Signaling, Pauline Xu

Theses & Dissertations

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is currently the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States and is projected to become the second leading cause by the year 2030. Prognosis for patients with metastatic disease remains dismal, with cachexia as a main contributor to the low survival rate. Emerging reports indicate that PDAC patients display distinct phenotypes of cachexia development, with either adipose tissue loss preceding skeletal muscle wasting or loss of only adipose tissue. While muscle wasting has been the most frequently studied mechanism in cachexia research, changes in adipose tissue are increasingly understood as important components of ...


Metabolism In The Colonocyte: Where Bacteria And Diet Meet, Bohye Park 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Metabolism In The Colonocyte: Where Bacteria And Diet Meet, Bohye Park

Doctoral Dissertations

The host-microbiome interaction and the functions of microbial-derived metabolites, including butyrate, are important in colon health. Butyrate is the preferred energy source in colonocytes and has multiple physiological functions in the colon. A metabolic shift in colonocytes toward increased glucose utilization from butyrate oxidation is followed by several critical genetic modifications in cancerous colonocytes. Moreover, it has been suggested that the gut-microbiota composition is influenced by environmental factors, such as diets and the host's physiological status. Therefore, an understanding of the role of colonocyte metabolism toward impacting the host-microbiota commensal relationship would be an important step in understanding the ...


Characterization Of The Influence Of A Small Molecule Inhibitor On Ras-Related Proteins Interactions, Emilio Duverna 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of The Influence Of A Small Molecule Inhibitor On Ras-Related Proteins Interactions, Emilio Duverna

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Ras superfamily of small G proteins are involved in cell-signaling processes that, if not regulated, may lead to cell multiplication, apoptosis inhibition, and tumorigenesis. They function as molecular switches, which through GTP/GDP exchange cycle, switch on or off cellular activities. Overexpression and/or hyperactivity of these proteins have been linked to many diseases including various cancers. CDC42, a member of the Rho subfamily of the Ras superfamily of small G proteins, participates in the regulation of many cellular processes including cell adhesion, mitosis, and cytoskeletal rearrangements. CDC42 binds to and activates many effector proteins including CDC42-activated kinase (ACK ...


Headcase Regulates Growth In Response To Nutritional Status Downstream Of Insulin Signaling, Thomas George 2022 University of Connecticut

Headcase Regulates Growth In Response To Nutritional Status Downstream Of Insulin Signaling, Thomas George

Honors Scholar Theses

Cancer cells are notorious for growing in an unrestricted manner without regard for environmental cues. Recently, Li et al. (2019) discovered headcase (hdc) functions by binding to the mTORC1 complex in the mTOR signaling pathway and preventing further signaling. Interestingly, under nutrient restricted (NR) conditions, cells with mutated hdc proteins proliferated more than cells with normal functioning hdc. It is well known that insulin signaling is downregulated under NR conditions, so a potential signaling pathway with insulin, PI3K, PDK1, Akt, PTEN, and hdc was created as a way to explain the link between hdc function and nutritional status. A Drosophila ...


Investigation Of Microbe And Host Tissue Interactions Contributing To The Pathogenesis Of Colorectal Cancer, Ryan Chapman, Dhundy Bastola 2022 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Investigation Of Microbe And Host Tissue Interactions Contributing To The Pathogenesis Of Colorectal Cancer, Ryan Chapman, Dhundy Bastola

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. The pathogenesis of this disease can fall under broad categories; however, the specific precursory mechanism of CRC pathogenesis is still unknown. Dysregulations of the gut microbiome have been identified in the CRC tissue environment. Additionally, CRC tissue gene expression has been observed to differ from that of healthy tissue. Despite these noticeable changes, few studies have directly compared the microorganism composition to the gene expression of CRC tissue. Doing so may identify whether the differentially abundant microorganisms influence the changes in gene expression. The goal of this ...


Investigating The Impact Of Hypoxia On Reactive Oxygen Species Generation Within Murine Breast Cancer Cells, Jared McPeake 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigating The Impact Of Hypoxia On Reactive Oxygen Species Generation Within Murine Breast Cancer Cells, Jared Mcpeake

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

When cancer metastasizes from a primary tumor site to secondary site through the bloodstream or lymph, the cancer becomes more difficult to treat. For this reason, it is vital to study what indicates the metastatic potential of a tumor. Current research has shown that cell lines with high metastatic potential display increased levels of metabolic adaptability over their nonmetastatic counterparts after undergoing hypoxic conditions. One method of assessing this adaptability is to measure the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the cells while undergoing oxidative stress. In highly adaptable metastatic cells, an increase of ROS buildup within the ...


Exploiting Chemogenetic And Genetic Interactions In Human Cells As An Avenue For New Therapeutic Opportunities, Medina Colic 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

Exploiting Chemogenetic And Genetic Interactions In Human Cells As An Avenue For New Therapeutic Opportunities, Medina Colic

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The advent of CRISPR technology and its adaptation to the mammalian genome made whole-genome knockout screens possible directly in human cells. Gene knockout answers how essential that gene is for cell fitness and proliferation. Genes showing moderate to severe fitness defects are called essential genes and provide insights into disease-specific candidate therapeutic targets. Additionally, CRISPR offers other applications for genome editing. Two applications this dissertation is based on are 1) combination of gene knockout and drug treatment, which enables the identification of chemogenetic interactions, or gene mutations that enhance or suppress the activity of a drug, and 2) combinatorial editing ...


Integration Of Biomedical Imaging And Translational Approaches For Management Of Head And Neck Cancer, Abdallah Mohamed, Abdallah Mohamed 2022 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

Integration Of Biomedical Imaging And Translational Approaches For Management Of Head And Neck Cancer, Abdallah Mohamed, Abdallah Mohamed

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The aim of the clinical component of this work was to determine whether the currently available clinical imaging tools can be integrated with radiotherapy (RT) platforms for monitoring and adaptation of radiation dose, prediction of tumor response and disease outcomes, and characterization of patterns of failure and normal tissue toxicity in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients with potentially curable tumors. In Aim 1, we showed that the currently available clinical imaging modalities can be successfully used to adapt RT dose based-on dynamic tumor response, predict oncologic disease outcomes, characterize RT-induced toxicity, and identify the patterns of disease failure. We ...


Methods For Assessing Cellular Phenotypes Related To Aging And Longevity In Turtles, Stephanie E. Bulls 2022 University of South Alabama

Methods For Assessing Cellular Phenotypes Related To Aging And Longevity In Turtles, Stephanie E. Bulls

Theses and Dissertations

There are many costs associated with increased body size and longevity in animals, including the accumulation of genotoxic and cytotoxic damage that comes with having more cells and living longer. Yet, some species have overcome these barriers and have evolved remarkably large body sizes and long lifespans. Organisms with these unique phenotypes have come under recent genomic scrutiny to discover mechanisms of healthy aging and tumor suppression but little physiological work to validate these mechanisms has been conducted outside of mammals. Here I propose that reptiles, especially testudines (turtles), would be an excellent system to investigate the topics of size ...


The Roles Of Pon2 In Mitochondrial Physiology, Lung Tumor Cell Proliferation, And Lung Tumorigenesis., Aaron Whitt 2022 University of Louisville

The Roles Of Pon2 In Mitochondrial Physiology, Lung Tumor Cell Proliferation, And Lung Tumorigenesis., Aaron Whitt

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) is an intracellular, multifunctional enzyme with near-ubiquitous tissue distribution. Within cells, PON2 is localized to mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it mitigates the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PON2’s chief enzymatic function is its lactonase activity, through which it catalyzes the hydrolysis of a bacterial quorum-sensing molecule, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (C12), effectively disrupting bacterial intercellular communication and protecting against infection. C12 is produced by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and has been shown to disrupt various aspects of eukaryotic host cell physiology and evoke apoptotic cell death through the activity of PON2. Additionally ...


Utilizing Pharmacology To Target Transcription Factors Involved With Cancer Onset And Development, Tristan D. Sanders 2022 West Virginia University

Utilizing Pharmacology To Target Transcription Factors Involved With Cancer Onset And Development, Tristan D. Sanders

Mountaineer Undergraduate Research Review

Transcription factors (TFs) are a vital part of every living organism on earth, as they allow for the correct genes to be expressed while much of the genome is never used. They can fall victim to mutations or manipulations that lead to the deregulation of many genes within a cell. If specific genes are over/under-expressed, a cell may become cancerous and begin replicating into a tumor. It has been demonstrated that common TFs associated with cancer can be targeted using small molecule drugs, and a popular target of these drugs is the DNA binding site on the TF along ...


Zntppea As A Potential Photosensitizer In Photodynamic Therapy, Marly Welborn, Joseph E. Bradshaw 2022 Ouachita Baptist University

Zntppea As A Potential Photosensitizer In Photodynamic Therapy, Marly Welborn, Joseph E. Bradshaw

Scholars Day Conference

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging treatment that is used against certain types of cancer and other diseases. It functions using a photosensitizer in the presence of light that contributes to cell death in the desired tissues. This research centered on the development of a novel water-soluble porphyrin that could be utilized as a photosensitizer. Using ethanolamine the resulting compound, ZnTPP-EA, was created. Purification and characterization was carried out. The ZnTPP-EA was tested on the A549 lung cancer cell line using an MTT assay under light and dark conditions to assess the compound's effectiveness as a photosensitizer for PDT.


Identification Of Lipid Species: Potential Biomarkers For Early Detection Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Kit Yee Leung, KayLee Freitas 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Identification Of Lipid Species: Potential Biomarkers For Early Detection Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Kit Yee Leung, Kaylee Freitas

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. HCC is associated with cirrhosis. Poor survival rate of HCC is due to diagnosis of HCC at late stage.


Jag1 Role In The Extravasation Of Metastasized Tnbc Tumor Cells, Bhavya Vegesna '23 2022 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

Jag1 Role In The Extravasation Of Metastasized Tnbc Tumor Cells, Bhavya Vegesna '23

Student Publications & Research

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subclass defined by its lack of hormonal receptors and HER2 amplification. Although TNBC only accounts for 15% of all invasive breast cancers, there are limited therapeutic options for patients with TNBC. Although breast cancer patients have a favorable prognosis if their tumor is detected early, patients with TNBC are prone to earlier recurrence and local/distant metastasis. Consequently, patients with metastatic TNBC have <15% relative 5-year survival rate. The development of metastasis in TNBC is a complex and poorly understood process that includes multiple steps such as genetic and epigenetic alterations, angiogenesis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), intravasation, and extravasation. Expression of JAGGED-1 (JAG1), a Notch ligand, correlates with metastatic status and poor survival in clinical data. However, the exact mechanism in which JAG1 increases metastasis is unknown. We hypothesize that JAG1 increases metastasis by interacting with endothelial cells. In order to test this idea, we generated JAG1-knockout cells using CRISPR/Cas9 technologies and then modeled the extravasation of these cells compared to JAG1-positive cells. Specifically, we interrogated lung capillary extravasation after intravenous injection of TNBC cells. The lung was chosen due to the propensity of TNBC cells to invade the lung. Preliminary data demonstrates that JAG1 presented in tumor cells acts as a signaler to permit and promote extravasation and metastasis of the cancer cells. For further studies, the long term effects of tumor derived JAG1 will be studied to understand the consequences of JAG1 mediated extravasation on metastatic burden and survival.


Indispensable Role Of Immunophenotyping In Diagnosing Leukemic Phase Of Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm Without Cutaneous Manifestation, Hareem Alam, Nabiha Saeed, Anila Rashid 2022 Aga Khan University

Indispensable Role Of Immunophenotyping In Diagnosing Leukemic Phase Of Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm Without Cutaneous Manifestation, Hareem Alam, Nabiha Saeed, Anila Rashid

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm usually presents as skin lesions. Diagnostic error occurs when it primarily presents in leukemic phase without skin involvement. Triad of CD4, CD56 and CD123 immunophenotype expression is essential to avoid misdiagnosis of this rare hematological malignancy. Here we describe a patient who presented in overt leukemic phase of BPDCN highlighting diagnostic challenges encountered that resulted in delayed diagnosis and poor outcome


Bis-Cinnamamide Derivatives As Ape/Ref-1 Inhibitors For The Treatment Of Human Melanoma, Razan Alhazmi, Shirley Tong, Shaban Darwish, Elina Khanjani, Bharti Khungar, Swati Chawla, Zhonghui Zheng, Richard Chamberlain, Keykavous Parang, Sun Yang 2022 Chapman University

Bis-Cinnamamide Derivatives As Ape/Ref-1 Inhibitors For The Treatment Of Human Melanoma, Razan Alhazmi, Shirley Tong, Shaban Darwish, Elina Khanjani, Bharti Khungar, Swati Chawla, Zhonghui Zheng, Richard Chamberlain, Keykavous Parang, Sun Yang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Human malignant melanoma exhibits imbalances in redox status, leading to activation of many redox-sensitive signaling pathways. APE/Ref-1 is a multifunctional protein that serves as a redox chaperone that regulates many nuclear transcription factors and is an important mechanism in cancer cell survival of oxidative stress. Previous studies showed that APE/Ref-1 is a potential druggable target for melanoma therapy. In this study, we synthesized a novel APE/Ref-1 inhibitor, bis-cinnamoyl-1,12-dodecamethylenediamine (2). In a xenograft mouse model, compound 2 treatment (5 mg/kg) significantly inhibited tumor growth compared to the control group, with no significant systemic toxicity observed. We ...


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