Primary Cilia Of The Cardiac Neural Crest & Hedgehog-Mediated Mechanisms Of Congenital Heart Disease, 2022 University of Maine
Primary Cilia Of The Cardiac Neural Crest & Hedgehog-Mediated Mechanisms Of Congenital Heart Disease, Lindsey A. Fitzsimons
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Elimination of primary cilia in cardiac neural crest cell (CNCC) progenitors is hypothesized to cause a variety of congenital heart defects (CHDs), including atrioventricular septal defects, and malformations of the developing cardiac outflow tract. We present an in vivo model of CHD resulting from the conditional elimination of primary cilia from CNCC using multiple, Wnt1:Cre-loxP, neural crest-specific systems, targeting two distinctive, but critical, primary cilia structural genes: Intraflagellar transport protein 88 (Ift88) or kinesin family member 3A (Kif3a). CNCC loss of primary cilia leads to widespread CHD, where homozygous mutant embryos (MUT) display a variety of outflow tract malformations ...
The Effects Of Paclitaxel On Cellular Migration And The Cytoskeleton, 2022 University of Southern Maine
The Effects Of Paclitaxel On Cellular Migration And The Cytoskeleton, Ashley Salguero-Gonzalez
Thinking Matters Symposium
In a clinical setting, some patients are exposed to an anti-cancer chemotherapy agent, paclitaxel. Cancerous cells undergo rapid, continuous cell division without control. Chemotherapy treatments try to slow and stop the uncontrollable cell division cycles and eliminate cancerous cells in the process. Paclitaxel serves as a treatment for some types of cancers, including lung, melanoma, bladder, and esophageal. Because it targets the cytoskeleton, paclitaxel can also influence cell migration. This project utilizes a cellular migration assay and an immunohistochemistry assay to analyze the effects of paclitaxel on the movement of cells and on the cytoskeleton of neuroglia rat cells with ...
Utilization Of Bioinformatics And Immunocytochemistry To Examine Gap Junction Expression In Breast Cancers Cells, 2022 Kennesaw State University - Dept of Molecular and Cellular Biology
Utilization Of Bioinformatics And Immunocytochemistry To Examine Gap Junction Expression In Breast Cancers Cells, Jasmine D. Carter, Giovanni Reyes, Abeeha K. Choudhary, Eric A. Albrecht
Symposium of Student Scholars
Utilization of Bioinformatics and Immunocytochemistry to Examine Gap Junction Expression in Breast Cancers Cells.
Jasmine D. Carter1, Giovanni Reyes1, Abeeha Choudhary2 and Eric A. Albrecht1
Breast cancer is known for its diverse clinical classifications and expressing different levels of membrane proteins such as ion channels and gap junctions. This diversity allows more variations in cell polarization, which can lead to enhanced directional ion fluxes in certain breast cancer subtypes. We utilized the interactive web portal UALCAN to evaluate the gene expression data of gap junctions, ion exchange channels and cytoskeletal proteins in breast cancer tissues. Our ...
Feasibility Of Tubulin As A Control For Gene Expression Following Transfection In Mouse Monocyte/Macrophage-Like Cells, Ankita Chabra
St. Mary's University Honors Theses and Projects
Transfection, which is the ability to modify host cells’ genetic content, has broad application in studying normal cellular processes, molecular mechanism of disease and gene therapy. There are several transfection techniques, and all require either a control or a reference gene. Commonly used controls for transfection experiments are housekeeping genes, which maintain expression for a given cell/tissue, experimental conditions, and treatment. However, recent research has uncovered that expression levels of housekeeping genes may vary depending on the gene, cell type and experimental conditions. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that housekeeping genes are inadequate internal standards for measuring gene ...
Cilia Proteins Are Biomarkers Of Altered Flow In The Vasculature, 2022 Medical College of Wisconsin
Cilia Proteins Are Biomarkers Of Altered Flow In The Vasculature, Ankan Gupta, Karthikeyan Thirugnanam, Madhan Thamilarasan, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Hadeel T. Zedan, Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Meghan R. Griffin, Andrew D. Spearman, Amy Pan, Sean P. Palecek, Huseyin C. Yalcin, Surya M. Nauli, Kevin R. Rarick, Rahima Zennadi, Ramani Ramchandran
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Cilia, microtubule-based organelles that project from the apical luminal surface of endothelial cells (ECs), are widely regarded as low-flow sensors. Previous reports suggest that upon high shear stress, cilia on the EC surface are lost, and more recent evidence suggests that deciliation—the physical removal of cilia from the cell surface—is a predominant mechanism for cilia loss in mammalian cells. Thus, we hypothesized that EC deciliation facilitated by changes in shear stress would manifest in increased abundance of cilia-related proteins in circulation. To test this hypothesis, we performed shear stress experiments that mimicked flow conditions from low to high ...
The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, 2022 Wright State University
The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole
Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works
The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is an essential cellular protein that is involved in cell adhesion, cell signaling, and viral infection. The 8-exon encoded isoform (CAREx8) resides at the apical surface of polarized epithelia, where it is accessible as a receptor for adenovirus entering the airway lumen. Given its pivotal role in viral infection, it is a target for antiviral strategies. To understand the regulation of CAREx8 and determine the feasibility of receptor down regulation, the half-life of total and apical localized CAREx8 was determined and correlated with adenovirus transduction. Total and apical CAREx8 has a relatively short half-life ...
Novel Biomarkers Of Ciliary Extracellular Vesicles Interact With Ciliopathy And Alzheimer’S Associated Proteins, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Amal Alachkar, John R. Yates Iii, Surya M. Nauli
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Ciliary extracellular vesicles (ciEVs), released from primary cilia, contain functional proteins that play an important role in cilia structure and functions. We have recently shown that ciEVs and cytosolic extracellular vesicles (cyEVs) have unique and distinct biomarkers. While ciEV biomarkers have shown some interactions with known ciliary proteins, little is known about the interaction of ciEV proteins with proteins involved in ciliopathy and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we reveal for the first time the protein-protein interaction (PPI) between the top five ciEVs biomarkers with ciliopathy and Alzheimer disease (AD) proteins. These results support the growing evidence of the critical physiological roles ...
Cryo-Em Structure Of Mechanosensitive Channel Ynai Using Sma2000: Challenges And Opportunities, 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University
Cryo-Em Structure Of Mechanosensitive Channel Ynai Using Sma2000: Challenges And Opportunities, Claudio Catalano, Danya Ben-Hail, Weihua Qiu, Paul Blount, Amedee Des Georges, Youzhong Guo
Publications and Research
Mechanosensitive channels respond to mechanical forces exerted on the cell membrane and play vital roles in regulating the chemical equilibrium within cells and their environment. Highresolution structural information is required to understand the gating mechanisms of mechanosensitive channels. Protein-lipid interactions are essential for the structural and functional integrity of mechanosensitive channels, but detergents cannot maintain the crucial native lipid environment for purified mechanosensitive channels. Recently, detergent-free systems have emerged as alternatives for membrane protein structural biology. This report shows that while membrane-active polymer, SMA2000, could retain some native cell membrane lipids on the transmembrane domain of the mechanosensitive-like YnaI channel ...
Utilizing Fluorescence Microscopy To Characterize The Subcellular Distribution Of The Novel Protein Acheron, 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst
Utilizing Fluorescence Microscopy To Characterize The Subcellular Distribution Of The Novel Protein Acheron, Varun Sheel
All cells carry the genetic machinery required to commit cell suicide; a process known as programmed cell death (PCD). While the ability to initiate PCD serves a number of useful purposes during development and homeostasis, misregulation of PCD is the underlying basis of most human diseases, including cancer, autoimmunity disorders and neurodegeneration. Using the tobacco hawkmoth Manduca sexta as a model organism, the Schwartz lab at UMass has demonstrated that PCD requires de novo gene expression and has cloned many death-associated genes. One of these genes encodes a novel protein that was named Acheron after one of the rivers of ...
Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), 2021 Bronx Community College
Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky
Open Educational Resources
The goal of this preparatory textbook is to give students a chance to become familiar with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later on in the Anatomy and Physiology course, especially during the first few weeks of the course.
Organization and functioning of the human organism are generally presented starting from the simplest building blocks, and then moving into levels of increasing complexity. This textbook follows the same presentation. It begins introducing the concept of homeostasis, then covers the chemical level, and later on a basic introduction to cellular level, organ level, and organ system level. This ...
The Regulation Of Chemokinesis By The Soil Amoeba, Dictyostelium Discoideum, 2021 University of Connecticut - Storrs
The Regulation Of Chemokinesis By The Soil Amoeba, Dictyostelium Discoideum, Julia Horan
Honors Scholar Theses
Many types of cells crawl on solid surfaces by amoeboid locomotion. Membrane protrusions, such as pseudopods, are generated by outward directed forces and the cell body retracts to allow the cell to migrate on the surface. The movement can be random, or can be directional in response to diffusible (chemotaxis) or surface associated signals (haptotaxis). It has been known for some time that chemotactic signals also lead to an increase in overall cell speed (chemokinesis), however the mechanism of this speed increase is unknown. This project investigates the cellular signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cell speed by ligands ...
Search For Palladin, An Actin-Associated Protein, In Pig Retinal Pigmented Epithelium And Its Role In Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Katrina Powell
This study investigates the expression of Palladin, a phosphoprotein product of the PALLD gene, in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). Palladin is an actin cross-linking protein and plays a role in cell adhesion and motility. Published reports have demonstrated that a down regulation of Palladin in colon cancer cells results in a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, causing the cells to lose their typical shape, become proliferative and migratory. This process is otherwise known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). A similar EMT phenomenon is observed when the RPE is exposed to the vitreous humor in patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). In ...
Mitochondrial Distribution Of Glycine Receptors In Motor Neuron Cell Lines, 2021 City University of New York (CUNY)
Mitochondrial Distribution Of Glycine Receptors In Motor Neuron Cell Lines, Katsiaryna Milashevich
Student Theses and Dissertations
Although non-essential, glycine plays an important role in major metabolic reactions and is most known for its anti-inflammatory effects. An accumulation of contemporary research has shown that glycine is able to stabilize membrane potential using glycine receptors at the cellular level and to protect mitochondrial function directly, whether it is from inflammation, heavy metal poisoning, or ischemia-induced neuroinflammation. In this research, the existence of a hypothetical mitochondrial glycine receptor is examined. Immunofluorescence imaging was used to examine the presence of the glycine receptor subunits alpha 1 and alpha 2 in both non- differentiated and differentiated neuroblastoma cell lines. The preliminary ...
Histology Of Psoriasis, 2021 Southern Adventist University
Histology Of Psoriasis, Allan Roy Sison
Campus Research Day
I will be presenting a research study on the comparison of the histology of normal skin versus the histology of individuals with Psoriasis.
Modulation Of Bacterial Fitness And Virulence Through Antisense Rnas, 2021 University of Michigan
Modulation Of Bacterial Fitness And Virulence Through Antisense Rnas, Jess A. Millar, Rahul Raghavan
Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations
Regulatory RNAs contribute to gene expression control in bacteria. Antisense RNAs (asRNA) are a class of regulatory RNAs that are transcribed from opposite strands of their target genes. Typically, these untranslated transcripts bind to cognate mRNAs and rapidly regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In this article, we review asRNAs that modulate bacterial fitness and increase virulence. We chose examples that underscore the variety observed in nature including, plasmid- and chromosome-encoded asRNAs, a riboswitch-regulated as RNA, and as RNAs that require other RNAs or RNA binding proteins for stability and activity. We explore how as RNAs improve bacterial fitness ...
Patterns Of Cilia Gene Dysregulations In Major Psychiatric Disorders, 2021 University of California, Irvine
Patterns Of Cilia Gene Dysregulations In Major Psychiatric Disorders, Wedad Alhassen, Siwei Chen, Marquis Vawter, Brianna Kay Robbins, Henry Nguyen, Thant Nyi Myint, Yumiko Saito, Anton Schulmann, Surya M. Nauli, Olivier Civelli, Pierre Baldi, Amal Alachkar
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Primary cilia function as cells' antennas to detect and transduce external stimuli and play crucial roles in cell signaling and communication. The vast majority of cilia genes that are causally linked with ciliopathies are also associated with neurological deficits, such as cognitive impairments. Yet, the roles of cilia dysfunctions in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders have not been studied. Our aim is to identify patterns of cilia gene dysregulation in the four major psychiatric disorders: schizophrenia (SCZ), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder (BP), and major depressive disorder (MDD). For this purpose, we acquired differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from the ...
Npgreat: Assembly Of The Human Subtelomere Regions With The Use Of Ultralong Nanopore Reads And Linked Reads, 2021 Old Dominion University
Npgreat: Assembly Of The Human Subtelomere Regions With The Use Of Ultralong Nanopore Reads And Linked Reads, Eleni Adam, Desh Ranjan, Harold Riethman
Computer Science Faculty Publications
Background: Human subtelomeric DNA regulates the length and stability of adjacent telomeres that are critical for cellular function, and contains many gene/pseudogene families. Large evolutionarily recent segmental duplications and associated structural variation in human subtelomeres has made complete sequencing and assembly of these regions difficult to impossible for many loci, complicating or precluding a wide range of genetic analyses to investigate their function.
Results: We present a hybrid assembly method, NanoPore Guided REgional Assembly Tool (NPGREAT), which combines Linked-Read data with ultralong nanopore reads spanning subtelomeric segmental duplications to potentially overcome these difficulties. Linked-Read sets identified by matches with ...
Unconventional Constituents And Shared Molecular Architecture Of The Melanized Cell Wall Of C. Neoformans And Spore Wall Of S. Cerevisiae, Christine Chrissian, Coney Pei-Chin Lin, Emma Camacho, Arturo Casadevall, Aaron M. Neiman, Ruth E. Stark
Publications and Research
The fungal cell wall serves as the interface between the cell and the environment. Fungal cell walls are composed largely of polysaccharides, primarily glucans and chitin, though in many fungi stress-resistant cell types elaborate additional cell wall structures. Here, we use solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to compare the architecture of cell wall fractions isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae spores and Cryptococcus neoformans melanized cells. The specialized cell walls of these two divergent fungi are highly similar in composition. Both use chitosan, the deacetylated derivative of chitin, as a scaffold on which a polyaromatic polymer, dityrosine and melanin, respectively, is assembled ...
Overcoming Barriers For Sirna Therapeutics: From Bench To Bedside, 2020 Chapman University
Overcoming Barriers For Sirna Therapeutics: From Bench To Bedside, Muhammad Imran Sajid, Muhammad Moazzam, Shun Kato, Kayley Yeseom Cho, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway possesses immense potential in silencing any gene in human cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) can efficiently trigger RNAi silencing of specific genes. FDA Approval of siRNA therapeutics in recent years garnered a new hope in siRNA therapeutics. However, their therapeutic use is limited by several challenges. siRNAs, being negatively charged, are membrane-impermeable and highly unstable in the systemic circulation. In this review, we have comprehensively discussed the extracellular barriers, including enzymatic degradation of siRNAs by serum endonucleases and RNAases, rapid renal clearance, membrane impermeability, and activation of the immune system. Besides, we have thoroughly described ...
Expression And Localization Of The 14-3-3 (Ywha) Protein Family Within Mammals, 2020 Nova Southeastern University
Expression And Localization Of The 14-3-3 (Ywha) Protein Family Within Mammals, Neha Kumrah, Santanu De
Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal
The 14-3-3 (YWHA) are a family of homologous, acidic, and highly conserved proteins expressed abundantly and ubiquitously in a wide array of organisms ranging from plants to animals, including humans, which regulate important cellular events. Within mammals, seven isoforms of 14-3-3 exist: β, γ, ε, ζ, η, τ, and σ (stratifin), each of which is encoded by a unique gene. Studies have shown similar expression patterns among mammalian species. The 14-3-3 proteins are commonly expressed and have proven to play critical roles in proper cellular localization, function, and homeostatic regulation. Numerous researchers have investigated the expression and localization patterns of ...