Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cancer Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,740 Full-Text Articles 5,051 Authors 286,974 Downloads 130 Institutions

All Articles in Cancer Biology

Faceted Search

1,740 full-text articles. Page 5 of 77.

Exploiting The Immunomodulatory Potentials Of Inkt Cells In Sepsis And Cancer., Joshua Choi 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Exploiting The Immunomodulatory Potentials Of Inkt Cells In Sepsis And Cancer., Joshua Choi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a unique unconventional T cell subset that recognize glycolipids presented by CD1d expressing cells. The prototypical glycolipid agonist of iNKT cells, α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), can induce the rapid release of an arsenal of cytotoxic effector molecules and enormous amounts of immunomodulatory cytokines as early as two hours after activation. In addition to α-GalCer, various glycolipid agonists are available that allow for specific, in vivo targeting of iNKT cells, and can exert divergent T-helper (TH)1 and/or TH2 immune responses. Therefore, the type of response instigated by iNKT cells can profoundly ...


Effect Of Cannabidiol And ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Concentration On Breast Cancer Cell Viability, Dorothy Achiaa Agyemang 2020 University of Northern Colorado

Effect Of Cannabidiol And ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Concentration On Breast Cancer Cell Viability, Dorothy Achiaa Agyemang

Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado

-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are phytocannabinoids that have a potential impact in cancer treatments. Studies have shown that certain cannabinoids cause cancer cells to die, but only with selective concentrations, which have not been well documented. The first study of this thesis was to determine the exact concentration of CBD and THC needed to kill human MCF-7 breast cancer cells rather than create mass multiplication leading to more growth of the cancer. To conduct this experiment, cell culture was performed with a MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. The treatment groups were treated with CBD or THC at varying concentrations ...


Identification Of Esrrb And Sox2 As Novel Mediators Of The Glucocorticoid Response In Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Kayleigh M. Gallagher 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Identification Of Esrrb And Sox2 As Novel Mediators Of The Glucocorticoid Response In Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Kayleigh M. Gallagher

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Resistance to glucocorticoid (GC) therapy results in poor prognosis for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. Utilizing a whole genome shRNA screen our lab identified several novel mechanisms of GC resistance. My thesis work established that an orphan nuclear receptor, the Estrogen Related Receptor Beta (ESRRB), is critical for induction of apoptotic genes following treatment with the GC dexamethasone. ESRRB has mostly been implicated in maintenance of pluripotency in mouse embryonic stem cells. We find that repression of ESRRB results in GC resistance in ALL and define ESRRB as a novel cooperating transcription factor in GC-induced gene expression. We also show ...


Exploration Of The Relationship Between The Fractal Dimension Of Microcalcification Clusters And The Hurst Exponent Of Background Tissue Disruption In Mammograms, Betelhem Abay 2020 University of Maine

Exploration Of The Relationship Between The Fractal Dimension Of Microcalcification Clusters And The Hurst Exponent Of Background Tissue Disruption In Mammograms, Betelhem Abay

Honors College

Breast cancer is one of the most frequent cancers among women worldwide and holds the second place in cancer-related death. Mammography is the most commonly used screening technique, however, the dense nature of some breasts makes the analysis of mammograms challenging for radiologists. The 2D Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) is one mathematical approach that is used to for the analysis of mammograms. In 2014, a team from the CompuMAINE Lab characterized differences between benign microcalcification clusters (MC) from malignant MC by calculating their fractal dimension, D, with the aid of the 2D WTMM method. In a different implementation of ...


Longitudinal Clonal Lineage Dynamics And Functional Characterization Of Pancreatic Cancer Chemo-Resistance And Metastasization, Chieh-Yuan Li 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Longitudinal Clonal Lineage Dynamics And Functional Characterization Of Pancreatic Cancer Chemo-Resistance And Metastasization, Chieh-Yuan Li

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

In recent years, technological advancements, such as next-generation sequencing and single-cell interrogation techniques, have enriched our understanding in tumor heterogeneity. By dissecting tumors and characterizing clonal lineages, we are better understanding the intricacies of tumor evolution. Tumors are represented by the presence of and dynamic interactions amongst clonal lineages. Each lineage and each cell contributes to tumor dynamics through intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms, and the variable responses of clones to perturbations in the environment, especially therapeutics, underlie disease progression and relapse. Thus, there exists a pressing need to understand the molecular mechanisms that determine the functional heterogeneity of tumor sub-clones ...


Basement Membrane Damage By Ros- And Jnk-Mediated Mmp2 Activation Drives Macrophage Recruitment To Overgrown Tissue, Neha Diwanji, Andreas Bergmann 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Basement Membrane Damage By Ros- And Jnk-Mediated Mmp2 Activation Drives Macrophage Recruitment To Overgrown Tissue, Neha Diwanji, Andreas Bergmann

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Macrophages are a major immune cell type infiltrating tumors and promoting tumor growth and metastasis. To elucidate the mechanism of macrophage recruitment, we utilize an overgrowth tumor model ("undead" model) in larval Drosophila imaginal discs that are attached by numerous macrophages. Here we report that changes to the microenvironment of the overgrown tissue are important for recruiting macrophages. First, we describe a correlation between generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and damage of the basement membrane (BM) in all neoplastic, but not hyperplastic, models examined. ROS and the stress kinase JNK mediate the accumulation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2), damaging ...


Elucidating Mechanisms Of Metastasis With Implantable Biomaterial Niches, Ryan Adam Carpenter 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Elucidating Mechanisms Of Metastasis With Implantable Biomaterial Niches, Ryan Adam Carpenter

Doctoral Dissertations

Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer related deaths, yet it remains the most poorly understood aspect of tumor biology. This can be attributed to the lack of relevant experimental models that can recapitulate the complex and lengthy progression of metastatic relapse observed in patients. Mouse models have been widely used to study cancer, however they are critically limited to study metastasis. Most models generate aggressive metastases in the lung without the use of unique cell lines or specialized injection techniques. This limits the ability to study disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in other relevant metastasis prone tissues. Prolonged observation of ...


Jnk-Mediated Disruption Of Bile Acid Homeostasis Promotes Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma, Elisa Manieri, Tamera Barrett, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Roger J. Davis, Alfonso Mora, Guadalupe Sabio 2020 National Centre for Cardiovascular Research, Spain

Jnk-Mediated Disruption Of Bile Acid Homeostasis Promotes Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma, Elisa Manieri, Tamera Barrett, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Roger J. Davis, Alfonso Mora, Guadalupe Sabio

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Metabolic stress causes activation of the cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathway. It is established that one consequence of JNK activation is the development of insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis through inhibition of the transcription factor PPARalpha. Indeed, JNK1/2 deficiency in hepatocytes protects against the development of steatosis, suggesting that JNK inhibition represents a possible treatment for this disease. However, the long-term consequences of JNK inhibition have not been evaluated. Here we demonstrate that hepatic JNK controls bile acid production. We found that hepatic JNK deficiency alters cholesterol metabolism and bile acid synthesis, conjugation, and transport, resulting in ...


Esrrb Regulates Glucocorticoid Gene Expression In Mice And Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Kayleigh M. Gallagher, Justine E. Roderick, Shi Hao. Tan, Tze King Tan, Leonard Murphy, Jun Yu, Rui Li, Kevin O'Connor, Lihua Julie Zhu, Michael R. Green, Takaomi Sanda, Michelle A. Kelliher 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Esrrb Regulates Glucocorticoid Gene Expression In Mice And Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Kayleigh M. Gallagher, Justine E. Roderick, Shi Hao. Tan, Tze King Tan, Leonard Murphy, Jun Yu, Rui Li, Kevin O'Connor, Lihua Julie Zhu, Michael R. Green, Takaomi Sanda, Michelle A. Kelliher

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs), such as dexamethasone and prednisone, remain key components of therapy for patients with lymphoid malignancies. For pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), response to GCs remains the most reliable prognostic indicator; failure to respond to GC correlates with poor event-free survival. To uncover GC resistance mechanisms, we performed a genome-wide, survival-based short hairpin RNA screen and identified the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor-beta (ESRRB) as a critical transcription factor that cooperates with the GC receptor (GR) to mediate the GC gene expression signature in mouse and human ALL cells. Esrrb knockdown interfered with the expression of ...


A Prospective Study To Validate The Functional Assessment Of Cancer Therapy (Fact) For Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor (Egfri)-Induced Dermatologic Toxicities Fact-Egfri 18 Questionnaire: Swog S1013, Siu Fun Wong, Joseph M. Unger, James L. Wade III, Lynne I. Wagner, Mario E. Lacouture, Keisha C. Humphries, Anna Moseley, Kathryn Arnold, Mario R. Velasco Jr., Justin D. Floyd, Benjamin T. Esparaz, Afsaneh Barzi, Heinz-Josef Lenz, Marianna Koczywas, Shaker Dakhil, Gary V. Burton, Michael J. Fisch, N. Lynn Henry, Dawn L. Hershman, Carol M. Moinpour 2020 Chapman University

A Prospective Study To Validate The Functional Assessment Of Cancer Therapy (Fact) For Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor (Egfri)-Induced Dermatologic Toxicities Fact-Egfri 18 Questionnaire: Swog S1013, Siu Fun Wong, Joseph M. Unger, James L. Wade Iii, Lynne I. Wagner, Mario E. Lacouture, Keisha C. Humphries, Anna Moseley, Kathryn Arnold, Mario R. Velasco Jr., Justin D. Floyd, Benjamin T. Esparaz, Afsaneh Barzi, Heinz-Josef Lenz, Marianna Koczywas, Shaker Dakhil, Gary V. Burton, Michael J. Fisch, N. Lynn Henry, Dawn L. Hershman, Carol M. Moinpour

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Papulopustular rash is a common class effect of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRI) that can affect patients’ health-related quality of life and cause disruptions to treatment. SWOG S1013 (NCT01416688) is a multi-center study designed to validate the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy EGFRI 18 (FACT-EGFRI 18) using 7-items from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0 to assess EGFRI-induced skin-related toxicities and their impact on functional status.

Methods

Patients with a diagnosis of colorectal or lung cancer to receive EGFRI therapies for at least 6 weeks were enrolled. Patient self-assessments ...


Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 Mrna-Binding Protein 3 Modulates Aggressiveness Of Ewing Sarcoma By Regulating The Cd164-Cxcr4 Axis, Caterina Mancarella, Giulia Caldoni, Irene Ribolsi, Alessandro Parra, Maria Cristina Manara, Arthur M Mercurio, Andrea Morrione, Katia Scotlandi 2020 IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli

Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 Mrna-Binding Protein 3 Modulates Aggressiveness Of Ewing Sarcoma By Regulating The Cd164-Cxcr4 Axis, Caterina Mancarella, Giulia Caldoni, Irene Ribolsi, Alessandro Parra, Maria Cristina Manara, Arthur M Mercurio, Andrea Morrione, Katia Scotlandi

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is the second most common bone and soft tissue-associated malignancy in children and young adults. It is driven by the fusion oncogene EWS/FLI1 and characterized by rapid growth and early metastasis. We have previously discovered that the mRNA binding protein IGF2BP3 constitutes an important biomarker for EWS as high expression of IGF2BP3 in primary tumors predicts poor prognosis of EWS patients. We additionally demonstrated that IGF2BP3 enhances anchorage-independent growth and migration of EWS cells suggesting that IGF2BP3 might work as molecular driver and predictor of EWS progression. The aim of this study was to further define ...


Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 Mrna-Binding Protein 3 Modulates Aggressiveness Of Ewing Sarcoma By Regulating The Cd164-Cxcr4 Axis, Caterina Mancarella, Giulia Caldoni, Irene Ribolsi, Alessandro Parra, Maria Cristina Manara, Arthur M. Mercurio, Andrea Morrione, Katia Scotlandi 2020 IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli

Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 Mrna-Binding Protein 3 Modulates Aggressiveness Of Ewing Sarcoma By Regulating The Cd164-Cxcr4 Axis, Caterina Mancarella, Giulia Caldoni, Irene Ribolsi, Alessandro Parra, Maria Cristina Manara, Arthur M. Mercurio, Andrea Morrione, Katia Scotlandi

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is the second most common bone and soft tissue-associated malignancy in children and young adults. It is driven by the fusion oncogene EWS/FLI1 and characterized by rapid growth and early metastasis. We have previously discovered that the mRNA binding protein IGF2BP3 constitutes an important biomarker for EWS as high expression of IGF2BP3 in primary tumors predicts poor prognosis of EWS patients. We additionally demonstrated that IGF2BP3 enhances anchorage-independent growth and migration of EWS cells suggesting that IGF2BP3 might work as molecular driver and predictor of EWS progression. The aim of this study was to further define ...


Evaluating The Effects Of Fasting Conditions In Combination With Temozolomide For The Treatment Of Glioblastoma Multiforme, Joseph Duffy 2020 Northern Michigan University

Evaluating The Effects Of Fasting Conditions In Combination With Temozolomide For The Treatment Of Glioblastoma Multiforme, Joseph Duffy

All NMU Master's Theses

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal form of adult brain cancer. The standard of care for GBM is maximal surgical resection followed by adjuvant treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide (TMZ) and radiotherapy. O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a DNA repair protein involved in TMZ resistance. Known as the Warburg effect, cancer cells will preferentially oxidize glucose to lactate in glycolysis. This less effective pathway of energy production means cancer cells must uptake significantly greater amounts of glucose to sustain physiological needs. One method that directly targets the bioavailability of glucose is fasting. Among other adaptations, fasting lowers ...


Palbociclib Treatment Alters Nucleotide Biosynthesis And Glutamine Dependency In A549 Cells, Lindsey R. Conroy, Pawel Lorkiewicz, Liqing He, Xinmin Yin, Xiang Zhang, Shesh N. Rai, Brian F. Clem 2020 University of Kentucky

Palbociclib Treatment Alters Nucleotide Biosynthesis And Glutamine Dependency In A549 Cells, Lindsey R. Conroy, Pawel Lorkiewicz, Liqing He, Xinmin Yin, Xiang Zhang, Shesh N. Rai, Brian F. Clem

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

Background

Aberrant activity of cell cycle proteins is one of the key somatic events in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) pathogenesis. In most NSCLC cases, the retinoblastoma protein tumor suppressor (RB) becomes inactivated via constitutive phosphorylation by cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation. Palbociclib, a small molecule inhibitor of CDK4/6, has shown anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo, with recent studies demonstrating a functional role for palbociclib in reprogramming cellular metabolism. While palbociclib has shown efficacy in preclinical models of NSCLC, the metabolic consequences of CDK4/6 inhibition in this context are largely ...


Dgat1 Is A Lipid Metabolism Oncoprotein That Enables Cancer Cells To Accumulate Fatty Acid While Avoiding Lipotoxicity [Preprint], Daniel J. Wilcock, Melissa Kasheta, Craig J. Ceol 2020 University of Manchester

Dgat1 Is A Lipid Metabolism Oncoprotein That Enables Cancer Cells To Accumulate Fatty Acid While Avoiding Lipotoxicity [Preprint], Daniel J. Wilcock, Melissa Kasheta, Craig J. Ceol

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Dysregulated cellular metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. As yet, few druggable oncoproteins directly responsible for this hallmark have been identified. Increased fatty acid acquisition allows cancer cells to meet their membrane biogenesis, ATP, and signaling needs. Excess fatty acids suppress growth factor signaling and cause oxidative stress in non-transformed cells, but surprisingly not in cancer cells. Molecules underlying this cancer adaptation may provide new drug targets. Here, we identify Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), an enzyme integral to triacylglyceride synthesis and lipid droplet formation, as a frequently up-regulated oncoprotein allowing cancer cells to tolerate excess fatty acids. DGAT1 over-expression alone ...


Clinicopathologic Features Of Endometrial Cancer With Mismatch Repair Deficiency, Sushmita Gordhandas, Ryan M. Kahn, Charlotte Gamble, Nizam Talukdar, Brandon Maddy, Becky Baltich Nelson, Gulce Askin, Paul J. Christos, Kevin Holcomb, Thomas A. Caputo, Eloise Chapman-Davis, Melissa K. Frey 2020 Weill Cornell Medical College

Clinicopathologic Features Of Endometrial Cancer With Mismatch Repair Deficiency, Sushmita Gordhandas, Ryan M. Kahn, Charlotte Gamble, Nizam Talukdar, Brandon Maddy, Becky Baltich Nelson, Gulce Askin, Paul J. Christos, Kevin Holcomb, Thomas A. Caputo, Eloise Chapman-Davis, Melissa K. Frey

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The inclusion of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) evaluation as a standard of care for endometrial cancer management will result in a growing population of patients with MMR deficiency and negative germline Lynch syndrome testing (MMR-deficient). In this systematic review and study, the clinicopathologic features of endometrial cancer in patients with MMR-intact, MLH1 methylation positive, MMR-deficient or Lynch syndrome are evaluated. A systematic search of online databases between 1990 and 2018 identified studies of endometrial cancer patients with tumour testing (MMR protein immunohistochemistry or microsatellite instability) and germline assessment for Lynch syndrome. Extracted data included tumour testing, germline genetic testing, age ...


Profiling The Circulating Mrna Transcriptome In Human Liver Disease, Aejaz Sayeed, Brielle E Dalvano, David E Kaplan, Usha Viswanathan, John Kulp, Alhaji H Janneh, Lu-Yu Hwang, Adam Ertel, Cataldo Doria, Timothy Block 2020 Baruch S. Blumberg Institute

Profiling The Circulating Mrna Transcriptome In Human Liver Disease, Aejaz Sayeed, Brielle E Dalvano, David E Kaplan, Usha Viswanathan, John Kulp, Alhaji H Janneh, Lu-Yu Hwang, Adam Ertel, Cataldo Doria, Timothy Block

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

The human circulation contains cell-free DNA and non-coding microRNA (miRNA). Less is known about the presence of messenger RNA (mRNA). This report profiles the human circulating mRNA transcriptome in people with liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to determine whether mRNA analytes can be used as biomarkers of liver disease. Using RNAseq and RT-qPCR, we investigate circulating mRNA in plasma from HCC and LC patients and demonstrate detection of transcripts representing more than 19,000 different protein coding genes. Remarkably, the circulating mRNA expression levels were similar from person to person over the 21 individuals whose samples were analyzed ...


Comparative Molecular Transporter Properties Of Cyclic Peptides Containing Tryptophan And Arginine Residues Formed Through Disulfide Cyclization, Eman H. M. Mohammed, Dindyal Mandal, Saghar Mozaffari, Magdy Abdel-Hamied Zahran, Amany Mostafa Osman, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Keykavous Parang 2020 Chapman University

Comparative Molecular Transporter Properties Of Cyclic Peptides Containing Tryptophan And Arginine Residues Formed Through Disulfide Cyclization, Eman H. M. Mohammed, Dindyal Mandal, Saghar Mozaffari, Magdy Abdel-Hamied Zahran, Amany Mostafa Osman, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

We have previously reported cyclic cell-penetrating peptides [WR]5 and [WR]4 as molecular transporters. To optimize further the utility of our developed peptides for targeted therapy in cancer cells using the redox condition, we designed a new generation of peptides and evaluated their cytotoxicity as well as uptake behavior against different cancer cell lines. Thus, cyclic [C(WR)xC] and linear counterparts (C(WR)xC), where x = 4–5, were synthesized using Fmoc/tBu solid-phase peptide synthesis, purified, and characterized. The compounds did not show any significant cytotoxicity (at 25 µM) against ovarian (SK-OV-3), leukemia (CCRF-CEM), gastric ...


Epithelial-Mesenchymal Status Predics Tumor Agressivenss, Chemoresistance And Invasiveness In High Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer, Linda Sanderman 2020 California State University, San Bernardino

Epithelial-Mesenchymal Status Predics Tumor Agressivenss, Chemoresistance And Invasiveness In High Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer, Linda Sanderman

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

High Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer (HGSOC) is one of the deadliest gynecological diseases in the United States ranking fifth in cancer deaths among women. Approximately 22 thousand new cases are expected to occur in the year 2020, and unfortunately, it is estimated that 14 thousand women will succumb to the disease; the incidence to death ratio, 64%, remains high despite current research. Current treatment includes debulking surgery followed by combinatorial chemotherapeutics with platinum-based and taxol-based compounds. But despite aggressive surgery and standard-of-care chemotherapeutics, 80% of patients will experience a recurrence and only 15-30% of those with recurring disease will respond ...


Development Of Ligand Guided Selection (Ligs) To Identify Specific Dna Aptamers Against Cell Surface Proteins, Hasan Ekrem Zumrut 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Development Of Ligand Guided Selection (Ligs) To Identify Specific Dna Aptamers Against Cell Surface Proteins, Hasan Ekrem Zumrut

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Oligonucleotide aptamers (nucleic acid-based affinity reagents) are an emerging class of synthetic molecules that display high affinity and specificity towards their targets. Aptamer molecules for a target of interest are obtained using a combinatorial chemistry-based method termed systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). SELEX is an in vitro selection process in which a random oligonucleotide library is subjected to repeated cycles of target incubation, separation, and amplification until target-specific evolved sequences become prevalent in the library. Typically, SELEX is used against target molecules such as small molecules and proteins, in their purified state. However, aptamers selected against purified ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress