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Translational Fidelity And Its Role In Neuronal Homeostasis, Markus Terrey 2021 University of Maine

Translational Fidelity And Its Role In Neuronal Homeostasis, Markus Terrey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The process of translation, which refers to decoding genetic information from mRNA to protein, is vital for all cellular function. Translational fidelity starts at the level of aminoacylation of transfer RNAs (tRNA). This reaction is catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetases where each amino acid is transferred to its corresponding cognate tRNA. Because tRNAs harbor the anticodon sequence to decodes a particular mRNA codon, the specific aminoacylation of the tRNA with a cognate amino acid establishes the rules of decoding genetic code into proteins. Aminoacylated tRNAs are then delivered to ribosomes, where ribosomes in a highly organized manner need to accurately ...


Determining The Effect Of A Cbc-Based Oxime On Cell Viability And Apoptosis In Sea Urchin Embryos, Nevin B. Hoenninger, Jack Preston 2021 Susquehanna University

Determining The Effect Of A Cbc-Based Oxime On Cell Viability And Apoptosis In Sea Urchin Embryos, Nevin B. Hoenninger, Jack Preston

Senior Scholars Day

Natural products are an important source of existing and potential new anti-cancer drugs. We have previously shown that cannabichromene (CBC) oxime and several CBC oxime esters have potent anti-mitotic activity when used in bioassays with sea urchin embryos. In this study we explored the effect of the CBC oxime on cell viability and apoptosis in sea urchin embryos. Newly fertilized or gastrula stage embryos were combined with 10µM or 50uM CBC oxime as well as a DMSO only control. At various timepoints, samples of the embryos were removed from the cultures and stained with three different fluorescent dyes. NucBlue (ThermoFisher ...


216— Loss Of Function Mutation For Tp53 Does Not Rescue The Chaf1bNt2 Small-Eye Phenotype In Danio Rerio, Alex Parks 2021 SUNY Geneseo

216— Loss Of Function Mutation For Tp53 Does Not Rescue The Chaf1bNt2 Small-Eye Phenotype In Danio Rerio, Alex Parks

GREAT Day

In Zebrafish, the chromosome assembly factor 1b (chaf1b) gene is in part responsible for the development of the eye. In homozygous chaf1bt24412 mutants retinal cell death is promoted through cell-death promoting activity of the gene, tumor suppressor protein p53 (tp53), resulting in a small-eye phenotype. Another allele chaf1bnt2, was found to also result in the small-eye phenotype when in a homozygous state. We found that knockdown of Tp53 protein via morpholino antisense oligonucleotide injection of 1-2 cell stage embryos failed to rescue retinal cell death of chaf1bnt2 homozygous mutants as detected by TUNEL labeling. Because morpholinos may fail to fully ...


Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Hoxb6: An Exploration Into The Divergence Of Genomic Dna Sequence And Gene Expression Across Teleost Fishes Post-Genome Duplication, Amber Lynn Rittgers, Pierre Le Pabic, Adam Davis 2021 University of Georgia

Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Hoxb6: An Exploration Into The Divergence Of Genomic Dna Sequence And Gene Expression Across Teleost Fishes Post-Genome Duplication, Amber Lynn Rittgers, Pierre Le Pabic, Adam Davis

Georgia Journal of Science

Hoxb6 is an evolutionarily conserved developmental regulatory gene that functions, in part, to pattern several organs and organ systems within the embryonic trunk during vertebrate embryogenesis. The cis-regulatory circuitry mediating trunk expression in mouse (Mus musculus) may be conserved across gnathostome vertebrates, as several other species show similar trunk expression patterns, including chicken (Gallus gallus), dogfish shark (Scyliorhinus canicula), and several teleost fishes. A whole genome duplication event that occurred in the lineage leading to teleost fishes has generated at least two Hoxb6 genes, hoxb6a and b6b. Two teleost fishes of the superorder Acanthopterygii, Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and ...


The Phoenix, Fernanda Perez-Alvarez 2021 College of the Holy Cross

The Phoenix, Fernanda Perez-Alvarez

Montserrat Annual Writing Prize

This article uses a mythical creature, the phoenix, to examine and illustrate the biological principles for generation of an adult body plan from a single cell. Using the study of developmental biology, it explores the cellular and molecular biology that underpins the massive complexity of creating an adult body plan. It also explores the similarities and differences between different embryos, and how nature and evolution have shaped the biology of those embryos to create different body plans.


Investigating The Role Of Alx4a In Mitfa Repression And Iridophore Fate Biasing, Melanie Cragan 2021 Rhode Island College

Investigating The Role Of Alx4a In Mitfa Repression And Iridophore Fate Biasing, Melanie Cragan

Honors Projects Overview

Investigating the role of the transcription factor alx4a on chromatophore fating in zebrafish.


Somatic Pirnas And Transposons Are Differentially Regulated During Skeletal Muscle Atrophy And Programmed Cell Death [Preprint], Junko Tsuji, Travis Thomson, Christine Brown, Subhanita Ghosh, William E. Theurkauf, Zhiping Weng, Lawrence M. Schwartz 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Somatic Pirnas And Transposons Are Differentially Regulated During Skeletal Muscle Atrophy And Programmed Cell Death [Preprint], Junko Tsuji, Travis Thomson, Christine Brown, Subhanita Ghosh, William E. Theurkauf, Zhiping Weng, Lawrence M. Schwartz

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

PiWi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are small single-stranded RNAs that can repress transposon expression via epigenetic silencing and transcript degradation. They have been identified predominantly in the ovary and testis, where they serve essential roles in transposon silencing in order to protect the integrity of the genome in the germline. The potential expression of piRNAs in somatic cells has been controversial. In the present study we demonstrate the expression of piRNAs derived from both genic and transposon RNAs in the intersegmental muscles (ISMs) from the tobacco hawkmoth Manduca sexta. These piRNAs are abundantly expressed, are ~27 nt long, map antisense to transposons ...


Deficient Spermiogenesis In Mice Lacking Rlim, Feng Wang, Maria Gracia Gervasi, Ana Boskovic, Fengyun Sun, Vera D. Rinaldi, Jun Yu, Mary C. Wallingford, Darya A. Tourzani, Jesse Mager, Lihua Julie Zhu, Oliver J. Rando, Pablo E. Visconti, Lara Strittmatter, Ingolf Bach 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Deficient Spermiogenesis In Mice Lacking Rlim, Feng Wang, Maria Gracia Gervasi, Ana Boskovic, Fengyun Sun, Vera D. Rinaldi, Jun Yu, Mary C. Wallingford, Darya A. Tourzani, Jesse Mager, Lihua Julie Zhu, Oliver J. Rando, Pablo E. Visconti, Lara Strittmatter, Ingolf Bach

Radiology Publications

The X-linked gene Rlim plays major roles in female mouse development and reproduction, where it is crucial for the maintenance of imprinted X chromosome inactivation in extraembryonic tissues of embryos. However, while females carrying a systemic Rlim knockout (KO) die around implantation, male Rlim KO mice appear healthy and are fertile. Here, we report an important role for Rlim in testis where it is highly expressed in post-meiotic round spermatids as well as in Sertoli cells. Systemic deletion of the Rlim gene results in lower numbers of mature sperm that contains excess cytoplasm, leading to decreased sperm motility and in ...


Annotation Of Chromatin States In 66 Complete Mouse Epigenomes During Development, Arjan van der Velde, Kaili Fan, Junko Tsuji, Jill E. Moore, Michael J. Purcaro, Henry E. Pratt, Zhiping Weng 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Annotation Of Chromatin States In 66 Complete Mouse Epigenomes During Development, Arjan Van Der Velde, Kaili Fan, Junko Tsuji, Jill E. Moore, Michael J. Purcaro, Henry E. Pratt, Zhiping Weng

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The morphologically and functionally distinct cell types of a multicellular organism are maintained by their unique epigenomes and gene expression programs. Phase III of the ENCODE Project profiled 66 mouse epigenomes across twelve tissues at daily intervals from embryonic day 11.5 to birth. Applying the ChromHMM algorithm to these epigenomes, we annotated eighteen chromatin states with characteristics of promoters, enhancers, transcribed regions, repressed regions, and quiescent regions. Our integrative analyses delineate the tissue specificity and developmental trajectory of the loci in these chromatin states. Approximately 0.3% of each epigenome is assigned to a bivalent chromatin state, which harbors ...


Non-Apoptotic Enteroblast-Specific Role Of The Initiator Caspase Dronc For Development And Homeostasis Of The Drosophila Intestine, Jillian L. Lindblad, Meghana Tare, Alla Amcheslavsky, Alicia Shields, Andreas Bergmann 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Non-Apoptotic Enteroblast-Specific Role Of The Initiator Caspase Dronc For Development And Homeostasis Of The Drosophila Intestine, Jillian L. Lindblad, Meghana Tare, Alla Amcheslavsky, Alicia Shields, Andreas Bergmann

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The initiator caspase Dronc is the only CARD-domain containing caspase in Drosophila and is essential for apoptosis. Here, we report that homozygous dronc mutant adult animals are short-lived due to the presence of a poorly developed, defective and leaky intestine. Interestingly, this mutant phenotype can be significantly rescued by enteroblast-specific expression of dronc(+) in dronc mutant animals, suggesting that proper Dronc function specifically in enteroblasts, one of four cell types in the intestine, is critical for normal development of the intestine. Furthermore, enteroblast-specific knockdown of dronc in adult intestines triggers hyperplasia and differentiation defects. These enteroblast-specific functions of Dronc do ...


Neuronal Post-Developmentally Acting Sax-7s/L1cam Can Function As Cleaved Fragments To Maintain Neuronal Architecture In C. Elegans [Preprint], Virginie E. Desse, Cassandra R. Blanchette, Paola N. Perrat, Claire Y. Benard 2021 Université du Québec à Montréal

Neuronal Post-Developmentally Acting Sax-7s/L1cam Can Function As Cleaved Fragments To Maintain Neuronal Architecture In C. Elegans [Preprint], Virginie E. Desse, Cassandra R. Blanchette, Paola N. Perrat, Claire Y. Benard

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Whereas remarkable advances have uncovered mechanisms that drive nervous system assembly, the processes responsible for the lifelong maintenance of nervous system architecture remain poorly understood. Subsequent to its establishment during embryogenesis, neuronal architecture is maintained throughout life in the face of the animal’s growth, maturation processes, the addition of new neurons, body movements, and aging. The C. elegans protein SAX-7, homologous to the vertebrate L1 protein family, is required for maintaining the organization of neuronal ganglia and fascicles after their successful initial embryonic development. To dissect the function of sax-7 in neuronal maintenance, we generated a null allele and ...


Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 1 And Aurora Kinase Choreograph Mitotic Storage And Redistribution Of A Growth Factor Receptor, C. D. Cota, M. S. Dreier , '20, W. Colgan, A. Cha, Twan Sia , '21, Bradley Justin Davidson , '91 2021 Swarthmore College

Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 1 And Aurora Kinase Choreograph Mitotic Storage And Redistribution Of A Growth Factor Receptor, C. D. Cota, M. S. Dreier , '20, W. Colgan, A. Cha, Twan Sia , '21, Bradley Justin Davidson , '91

Biology Faculty Works

Endosomal trafficking of receptors and associated proteins plays a critical role in signal processing. Until recently, it was thought that trafficking was shut down during cell division. Thus, remarkably, the regulation of trafficking during division remains poorly characterized. Here we delineate the role of mitotic kinases in receptor trafficking during asymmetric division. Targeted perturbations reveal that Cyclin-dependent Kinase 1 (CDK1) and Aurora Kinase promote storage of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors (FGFRs) by suppressing endosomal degradation and recycling pathways. As cells progress through metaphase, loss of CDK1 activity permits differential degradation and targeted recycling of stored receptors, leading to asymmetric induction ...


Long First Exons And Epigenetic Marks Distinguish Conserved Pachytene Pirna Clusters From Other Mammalian Genes, Tianxiong Yu, Kaili Fan, Deniz M. Ozata, Gen Zhang, Yu Fu, William E. Theurkauf, Phillip D. Zamore, Zhiping Weng 2021 Tongji University

Long First Exons And Epigenetic Marks Distinguish Conserved Pachytene Pirna Clusters From Other Mammalian Genes, Tianxiong Yu, Kaili Fan, Deniz M. Ozata, Gen Zhang, Yu Fu, William E. Theurkauf, Phillip D. Zamore, Zhiping Weng

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

In the male germ cells of placental mammals, 26-30-nt-long PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) emerge when spermatocytes enter the pachytene phase of meiosis. In mice, pachytene piRNAs derive from ~100 discrete autosomal loci that produce canonical RNA polymerase II transcripts. These piRNA clusters bear 5' caps and 3' poly(A) tails, and often contain introns that are removed before nuclear export and processing into piRNAs. What marks pachytene piRNA clusters to produce piRNAs, and what confines their expression to the germline? We report that an unusually long first exon ( > /= 10 kb) or a long, unspliced transcript correlates with germline-specific transcription and piRNA ...


Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Optic Fissure Fusion During Zebrafish Eye Development, Megan Weaver 2021 University of Kentucky

Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Optic Fissure Fusion During Zebrafish Eye Development, Megan Weaver

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Vertebrate retinal development requires timely and precise fusion of the optic fissure. Failure of this event leads to congenital vision impairment in the form of coloboma. Recent studies have suggested hyaloid vasculature to be involved in OF fusion. In order to examine this link, we analyzed optic fissure fusion and hyaloid vasculogenesis in the zebrafish pax2a noi mutant line. We first determined that pax2a-/- embryos fail to accumulate F-actin in the optic fissure prior to basement membrane (BM) degradation. Furthermore, using 3D and live imaging we observed reduced OF hyaloid vascularization in pax2a-/- embryos. When examining the connection between pax2a ...


Periocular Mesenchyme Heterogeneity During Morphogenesis Of The Vertebrate Ocular Anterior Segment, Kristyn L. Van Der Meulen 2021 University of Kentucky

Periocular Mesenchyme Heterogeneity During Morphogenesis Of The Vertebrate Ocular Anterior Segment, Kristyn L. Van Der Meulen

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

The vertebrate eye is a complex organ, responsible for the primary sense with which we interact with our environment: vision. Development of the eye is a tightly regulated process, controlled by a vast network of genes. This process begins with eye morphogenesis, when the eye structure is formed through a series of morphogenetic movements and culminates in the creation of the optic cup, lens, and presumptive optic stalk. Next, retinal differentiation creates the critical cell layers of the retina needed to process light waves that enter the eye, including rod and cone photoreceptors, interneurons, and support cells. Failure in either ...


Protocadherin-17 Expression And Function In Vertebrate Brain: A Literature Review, Mathea McGuire 2021 The University of Akron

Protocadherin-17 Expression And Function In Vertebrate Brain: A Literature Review, Mathea Mcguire

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

For this project, I will be doing a systematic review on protocadherin-17 function in vertebrate brain development and function in the last 10 years. Protocadherins are members of cadherin superfamily. Cadherins are calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules that are implicated to play crucial roles in the information and maintenance of tissues and organs in vertebrate animals. This review will summarize major findings regarding protocadherin-17 expression and function in major model organisms such as zebrafish and mice, as well as results from human studies. It is hoped that this work will be a valuable source for background knowledge of protocadherin-17 function in ...


Global Community Effect: Large-Scale Cooperation Yields Collective Survival Of Differentiating Embryonic Stem Cells [Preprint], Hirad Daneshpour, Pim van den Bersselaar, Hyun Youk 2020 Delft University of Technology

Global Community Effect: Large-Scale Cooperation Yields Collective Survival Of Differentiating Embryonic Stem Cells [Preprint], Hirad Daneshpour, Pim Van Den Bersselaar, Hyun Youk

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

“Community effect” conventionally describes differentiation occurring only when enough cells help their local (micrometers-scale) neighbors differentiate. Although new community effects are being uncovered for myriad differentiations, macroscopic-scale community effects - fates of millions of cells all entangled across centimeters - remain elusive. We found that differentiating mouse Embryonic Stem (ES) cells that are scattered as individuals over many centimeters form one macroscopic entity via long-range communications. The macroscopic population avoids extinction only if its centimeter-scale density is above a threshold value. Single-cell-level measurements, transcriptomics, and mathematical modeling revealed that this “global community effect” occurs because differentiating ES-cell populations secrete, accumulate, and sense ...


Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Cleaves The Decoding Center Of Caenorhabditis Elegans Ribosomes, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Emiliano P. Ricci, Victor R. Ambros 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Cleaves The Decoding Center Of Caenorhabditis Elegans Ribosomes, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Emiliano P. Ricci, Victor R. Ambros

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa advantageously modify animal host physiology, for example, by inhibiting host protein synthesis. Translational inhibition of insects and mammalian hosts by P. aeruginosa utilizes the well-known exotoxin A effector. However, for the infection of Caenorhabditis elegans by P. aeruginosa, the precise pathways and mechanism(s) of translational inhibition are not well understood. We found that upon exposure to P. aeruginosa PA14, C. elegans undergoes a rapid loss of intact ribosomes accompanied by the accumulation of ribosomes cleaved at helix 69 (H69) of the 26S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a key part of ribosome decoding center. H69 cleavage ...


The Erythropoietin Receptor Stimulates Rapid Cycling And Formation Of Larger Red Cells During Mouse And Human Erythropoiesis [Preprint], Daniel Hidalgo, Jacob Bejder, Ramona Pop, Kyle Gellatly, S. Maxwell Scalf, Anna E. Eastman, Jane-Jane Chen, Lihua Julie Zhu, Jules A.A.C. Heuberger, Shangqin Guo, Mark J. Koury, Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg, Merav Socolovsky 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Erythropoietin Receptor Stimulates Rapid Cycling And Formation Of Larger Red Cells During Mouse And Human Erythropoiesis [Preprint], Daniel Hidalgo, Jacob Bejder, Ramona Pop, Kyle Gellatly, S. Maxwell Scalf, Anna E. Eastman, Jane-Jane Chen, Lihua Julie Zhu, Jules A.A.C. Heuberger, Shangqin Guo, Mark J. Koury, Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg, Merav Socolovsky

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Erythroid terminal differentiation entails cell divisions that are coupled to progressive decreases in cell size. EpoR signaling is essential for the survival of erythroid precursors, but it is unclear whether it has other functions in these cells. Here we endowed mouse precursors that lack the EpoR with survival signaling, finding that this was sufficient to support their differentiation into enucleated red cells, but that the process was abnormal. Precursors underwent fewer and slower cell cycles and yet differentiated into smaller red cells. Surprisingly, EpoR further accelerated cycling of early erythroblasts, the fastest cycling cells in the bone marrow, while simultaneously ...


The Encyclopedia Of North American Drosophilids Volume 2: Drosophilids Of The Southeast, Thomas Werner, Tessa E. Steenwinkel, John Jaenike 2020 Michigan Technological University

The Encyclopedia Of North American Drosophilids Volume 2: Drosophilids Of The Southeast, Thomas Werner, Tessa E. Steenwinkel, John Jaenike

Open Access Books

The Encyclopedia of North American Drosophilids Volume 2: Drosophilids of the Southeast provides an introduction to the flies of the family Drosophilidae of the Southeast of the United States. The book strives to facilitate identification of most of the drosophilid species in this region and provides remarks on interesting aspects of their biology and suggestions for future research on them. The book is intended for researchers, teachers, and students wishing to discover the diversity of these flies.

Access The Encyclopedia of North American Drosophilids Volume 1: Midwest and Northeast here: https://digitalcommons.mtu.edu/oabooks/1/


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