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Mitochondrial Roles In Developmentally Programmed Heart Disease, Eli John Louwagie 2023 University of South Dakota

Mitochondrial Roles In Developmentally Programmed Heart Disease, Eli John Louwagie

Dissertations and Theses

Offspring of diabetic and obese mothers (ODOM) have greater risks of heart disease at birth and later in life. However, prevention is hindered because underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Mounting studies in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease field suggest that mitochondria play key roles in developmentally programmed heart disease similar to the roles they play in cardiomyopathy in adults with diabetes and obesity. However, whether mitochondria are responsible for the short[1]and long-term cardiac disease seen in ODOM remains unknown. Here, we sought to delineate the roles of mitochondria in the hearts of ODOM, determine whether mitochondria are playing …


A Brief Overview Of Triple A Syndrome, Jamaal Khan 2023 Nova Southeastern University

A Brief Overview Of Triple A Syndrome, Jamaal Khan

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

Triple A Syndrome, also known as AAA Syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by any mutation in the AAAS gene on chromosome 12q13, whose main function is to code for the WD-repeat family regulatory protein, ALADIN. It typically occurs as a group of diseases that are characterized by alacrima, Addison's disease, and achalasia. Alacrima can be defined by a decrease in the amount of tears produced while achalasia is nerve damage in the esophagus that can cause difficulty swallowing. Lastly, Addison's disease is the insufficient production of cortisol and aldosterone produced by the adrenal cortex. There is no …


Methylene Blue Inhibits Cromakalim-Activated K+ Currents In Follicle-Enclosed Oocytes, Dmytro Isaev, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Georg Petroianu, Dietrich Ernst Lorke, Murat Oz 2023 Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology

Methylene Blue Inhibits Cromakalim-Activated K+ Currents In Follicle-Enclosed Oocytes, Dmytro Isaev, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Georg Petroianu, Dietrich Ernst Lorke, Murat Oz

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The effects of methylene blue (MB) on cromakalim-induced K+ currents were investigated in follicle-enclosed Xenopus oocytes. In concentrations ranging from 3–300 μM, MB inhibited K+ currents (IC50: 22.4 μM) activated by cromakalim, which activates KATP channels. MB inhibited cromakalim-activated K+ currents in a noncompetitive and voltage-independent manner. The respective EC50 and slope values for cromakalim-activation of K+ currents were 194 ± 21 µM and 0.91 for controls, and 206 ± 24 µM and 0.87 in the presence of 30 μM MB. The inhibition of cromakalim-induced K+ currents by MB was not …


Comparison Of In-Vitro 3d Human Embryoids With Current Models For Gastrulation, Jin Park 2023 Washington University in St. Louis

Comparison Of In-Vitro 3d Human Embryoids With Current Models For Gastrulation, Jin Park

McKelvey School of Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Gastrulation is an early morphogenetic process that is conserved across most metazoans and lays out the future body plan through the formation and shaping of the three germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Despite its importance, not much is known about the events surrounding human gastrulation that occurs in utero due to ethical and technical limitations on studying human embryos. Therefore, many researchers have devised protocols for creating in vitro models of gastrulation using embryonic stem cells. Initially starting with mouse embryonic stem cells, the field of in vitro embryo models has advanced rapidly, with protocols using human embryonic stem …


Therapies For Mitochondrial Disorders, Kayli Sousa Smyth, Anne Mulvihill 2022 Technological University of the Shannon: Midlands Midwest

Therapies For Mitochondrial Disorders, Kayli Sousa Smyth, Anne Mulvihill

SURE_J: Science Undergraduate Research Journal

Mitochondria are cytoplasmic, double-membrane organelles that synthesise adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria contain their own genome, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is maternally inherited from the oocyte. Mitochondrial proteins are encoded by either nuclear DNA (nDNA) or mtDNA, and both code for proteins forming the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes of the respiratory chain. These complexes form a chain that allows the passage of electrons down the electron transport chain (ETC) through a proton motive force, creating ATP from adenosine diphosphate (ADP). This study aims to explore current and prospective therapies for mitochondrial disorders (MTDS). MTDS are clinical syndromes coupled with abnormalities …


Developmental Effects Of Chronic Low-Level Arsenic Exposure In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells And In Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, M. Chiara Perego 2022 Clemson University

Developmental Effects Of Chronic Low-Level Arsenic Exposure In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells And In Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, M. Chiara Perego

All Dissertations

Arsenic is an environmental contaminant commonly found in food and drinking water. Exposure to arsenic during embryonic development has been linked to reduced muscle growth, disrupted muscle development and locomotor activity, impaired neurodevelopment, reduced IQ, impaired memory and learning deficits. While the mechanisms responsible for developmental changes following in utero exposure to arsenic are not well known, one possibility is that arsenic might disrupt proper cellular differentiation. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which arsenic exposure could alter stem cell differentiation into neurons.

First, we continuously exposed P19 mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to 0.1 μM (7.5 ppb) …


The Role Of Akirin/Nurd Interactions During Heart Development, Mia Jones 2022 Kennesaw State University

The Role Of Akirin/Nurd Interactions During Heart Development, Mia Jones

Symposium of Student Scholars

Congenital heart defects are often identified during pregnancy or infancy and are the most common birth defect presented in humans, affecting blood circulation resultant from small holes in a blood chamber to deformity-inducing missing structures. Recent advancements in medicine have allowed those affected to live healthier, longer lives. Gene combinations and chromosomal changes play pivotal roles in congenital heart defects, but the specific genes involved remain unknown. The Nowak Lab has discovered several novel regulatory proteins that are critical for embryonic heart development and is studying them for a potential link to congenital heart defects.

During embryogenesis, the heart of …


Regulation Of Hedgehog And Wnt Signaling In Neural Differentiation Of P19 Embryonal Carcinoma Cells, Danielle Margaret Spice 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Regulation Of Hedgehog And Wnt Signaling In Neural Differentiation Of P19 Embryonal Carcinoma Cells, Danielle Margaret Spice

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Hedgehog (Hh) and Wnt protein signaling pathways are essential in the differentiation of neurons and astrocytes. As there are many known and new players involved in regulating these pathways, the role of the regulators Suppressor of Fused (SUFU) and Never in Mitosis Kinase 2 (Nek2) have either not been previously reported or have not been thoroughly explored. To address this shortfall CRISPR gene editing was used to target SUFU and Nek2 in the mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma cell model of neural differentiation. Hh and Wnt signaling were explored in normal P19 neural differentiation, which occurs in the presence of …


Full Issue, Winthrop McNair Research Bulletin 2022 Winthrop University

Full Issue, Winthrop Mcnair Research Bulletin

The Winthrop McNair Research Bulletin

Winthrop McNair Research Bulletin Volume 5, Full Issue


Locating Mutagen-Sensitivity Gene Mus109 In The Drosophila Melanogaster Genome Using Deficiency Mapping, Chandani Mitchell 2022 Winthrop University

Locating Mutagen-Sensitivity Gene Mus109 In The Drosophila Melanogaster Genome Using Deficiency Mapping, Chandani Mitchell

The Winthrop McNair Research Bulletin

The complex processes involved in repairing damaged DNA are still being elucidated. Some genes that are known to have roles in the DNA repair process have been identified, such as the mutagen-sensitivity genes, or mus genes, in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the precise genomic location of some mus genes is still unknown, including mus109. It is known that mutations in mus109 cause chromosomal aberrations resulting in larval death, and previous research has mapped mus109 to a region of the X chromosome consisting of over 520,000 nucleotides and 41 genes. Therefore, this study aimed to locate mus109 using deficiency mapping. The mus109D2 …


Ngly1 Deficiency Affects Glycosaminoglycan Biosynthesis And Wnt Signaling Pathway In Mice, Amy Batten 2022 University of North Florida

Ngly1 Deficiency Affects Glycosaminoglycan Biosynthesis And Wnt Signaling Pathway In Mice, Amy Batten

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

Individuals affected by NGLY1 Deficiency cannot properly deglycosylate and recycle certain proteins. Even though less than 100 people worldwide have been diagnosed with this rare autosomal recessive condition, thousands are affected by similar glycosylation disorders. Common phenotypic manifestations of NGLY1 Deficiency include severe neural and intellectual delay, impaired muscle and liver function, and seizures that may become intractable. Very little is currently known about the various mechanisms through which NGLY1 deficiency affects the body and this has led to a lack of viable treatment options for those afflicted. This experiment uses a loss-of-function (LOF) mouse model of NGLY1 Deficiency homologous …


Investigation Of Zinc Chloride & Caffeine And Their Ects On Bone Homeostasis In A 3d Bone Model, Pooja Shah 2022 Seton Hall University

Investigation Of Zinc Chloride & Caffeine And Their Ects On Bone Homeostasis In A 3d Bone Model, Pooja Shah

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Approximately fourteen percent of the human body is composed of bone. The adult human skeleton is made of 206 bones, which make up the internal framework of the body. Osteoblast and Osteoclast cells are essential in maintaining the structure and function of bone, for bone homeostasis to occur. Previous data shows that caffeine can potentially have a negative effect on bone homeostasis. Whereas, ZnCl2 has been found to have a positive effect on bone homeostasis in controlled doses. Published data for treatments of caffeine and ZnCl2 are inadequate. The goal of this study was to determine the optimal …


Targeting Of The Hedgehog Signaling Pathway In Cancer Treatment, Andrew J. Hawes 2022 University of Louisville

Targeting Of The Hedgehog Signaling Pathway In Cancer Treatment, Andrew J. Hawes

The Cardinal Edge

The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is a developmental pathway that is highly conserved evolutionarily. While typically only displaying high activity during embryogenesis, overactivation of the Hh pathway in adults has been linked to multiple forms of cancer including acute myeloid leukemia, myelofibrosis, basal-cell carcinoma, pancreatic ductal adrenal carcinoma, and triple negative breast cancer. The prevalence of Hh activation in many different cancers has made it a prime target for inhibition of these cancers through novel therapies. This literature review sought to assess the current state of cancer treatment through inhibition of Hh signaling. Most current clinical trials involving the pathway …


The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen KW Wong 2022 Western University

The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen Kw Wong

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Clinical and preclinical studies indicate prenatal cannabis exposure (PCE) pathologically affects fetal brain development and may increase vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and mood/anxiety disorders. In review research from our lab suggests that fetal exposure to Δ9-THC sex-selectively impairs mesocorticolimbic (MCL) circuit function. However, there is a distinct lack of focus on PCE models on the BLA. The BLA plays a central role within the MCL where it directly interacts with the VTA, PFC and HIPP. Importantly, our model exhibits significant VTA hyperdopaminergic activity, and sex-specific alterations to PFC/HIPP glutamate firing, alongside region- and sex-specific changes in dopamine (DA), …


Constructing An In Vitro 3d Model Of The Human Placenta, Michael Zheng 2022 Western University

Constructing An In Vitro 3d Model Of The Human Placenta, Michael Zheng

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The placenta is critical for nurturing fetal growth and development, with dysregulated placentation associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The main fetal and maternal placental components consist of trophoblasts and modified endometrial stromal cells known as decidual cells, respectively. Since investigating in vivo placentas in humans through non-invasive methods is challenging, comprehensive in vitro placental models are needed for in-depth studies. However, in vitro 3D placental models that adequately represent and combine fetal and maternal components have been lacking. In this study, we achieved valuable progress in developing an in vitro 3D placental model inclusive of fetal and maternal constituents. We …


Determination Of The Functional Role Of Rab-Ggt In Physcomitrium Patens., Hyun Jin Jung 2022 University of Louisville

Determination Of The Functional Role Of Rab-Ggt In Physcomitrium Patens., Hyun Jin Jung

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Protein prenylation, a common lipid post-translational modification, is required for growth and development in eukaryotes. Rab geranylgeranylation involves the addition of one or two 20-carbon geranylgeranyl moieties to Rab-GTPase target proteins, which regulate intracellular vesicle trafficking. The reaction is carried out by heterodimeric Rab geranylgeranyltransferase (Rab-GGT), which is composed of two associated α- and β-subunits, with the assistance of an additional protein called Rab escort protein (REP). Loss of function of the Rab-GGT α subunit RGTA1 has not been reported in any plant. While knockout of either of the two β subunits RGTB1 or RGTB2 results in …


The Effect Of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva On The Tongue, Amy Backal, Amanda Harrop, David J. Goldhamer Dr. 2022 University of Connecticut - Storrs

The Effect Of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva On The Tongue, Amy Backal, Amanda Harrop, David J. Goldhamer Dr.

Honors Scholar Theses

FOP is a rare genetic disorder in which skeletal muscle and associated connective tissue progressively turn to bone through a process called heterotopic ossification (HO). The extra skeletal bone growth is cumulative, eventually trapping patients in a second skeleton that eventually leads to death by asphyxiation. The FOP mutation is autosomal dominant that can be inherited or acquired sporadically. Unfortunately, FOP is currently incurable with no therapeutic options to inhibit bone growth or reduce existing bone nodules. My project intends to further our understanding of the cellular mechanisms of the disease within the tongue muscle. A population of cells known …


Genetically Explicit Model May Explain Multigenerational Control Of Emergent Turing Patterns In Hybrid Mimulus, Emily Simmons 2022 William & Mary

Genetically Explicit Model May Explain Multigenerational Control Of Emergent Turing Patterns In Hybrid Mimulus, Emily Simmons

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


When Problems Become Solutions: Harnessing The Osteogenic Capacity Of Disease-Causing Stem Cells To Repair Bone Fractures, Mehreen Pasha 2022 University of Connecticut

When Problems Become Solutions: Harnessing The Osteogenic Capacity Of Disease-Causing Stem Cells To Repair Bone Fractures, Mehreen Pasha

University Scholar Projects

While we often perceive disease as negative, there is potential to engineer seemingly negative biological phenomena into therapeutics to treat a variety of human illnesses. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a genetic disorder involving uncontrolled, widespread, extraskeletal bone growth, or heterotopic ossification (HO). In FOP patients, stem cells called fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) follow an abnormal, osteogenic pathway. In the present study, we investigate whether we can adapt these Acvr1 mutant FAPs, which are exceptional at producing bone, to repair bone fractures in otherwise normal patients. The primary aims of this study are (1) to devise and optimize a novel method …


Exploring The Effects Of Varied Land Use On Elemental Concentrations Within Streams, Logan Jennings 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Exploring The Effects Of Varied Land Use On Elemental Concentrations Within Streams, Logan Jennings

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

It is well documented that human activity influences the chemistry of surrounding waters. As such, it is possible that there is a link between land use within a watershed and the chemical composition of the stream. The objectives of this study are to determine if varied land use does affect the concentrations of macronutrients and trace elements present in the streams of Northwest Arkansas, and if so, to determine what extent urban and agricultural development are responsible for these changes. Water samples were collected across 19 streams in the Northwest Arkansas region between January and March of 2022. Water samples …


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