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Mitochondrial Roles In Developmentally Programmed Heart Disease, Eli John Louwagie 2023 University of South Dakota

Mitochondrial Roles In Developmentally Programmed Heart Disease, Eli John Louwagie

Dissertations and Theses

Offspring of diabetic and obese mothers (ODOM) have greater risks of heart disease at birth and later in life. However, prevention is hindered because underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Mounting studies in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease field suggest that mitochondria play key roles in developmentally programmed heart disease similar to the roles they play in cardiomyopathy in adults with diabetes and obesity. However, whether mitochondria are responsible for the short[1]and long-term cardiac disease seen in ODOM remains unknown. Here, we sought to delineate the roles of mitochondria in the hearts of ODOM, determine whether mitochondria ...


Constructing An In Vitro 3d Model Of The Human Placenta, Michael Zheng 2022 Western University

Constructing An In Vitro 3d Model Of The Human Placenta, Michael Zheng

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The placenta is critical for nurturing fetal growth and development, with dysregulated placentation associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The main fetal and maternal placental components consist of trophoblasts and modified endometrial stromal cells known as decidual cells, respectively. Since investigating in vivo placentas in humans through non-invasive methods is challenging, comprehensive in vitro placental models are needed for in-depth studies. However, in vitro 3D placental models that adequately represent and combine fetal and maternal components have been lacking. In this study, we achieved valuable progress in developing an in vitro 3D placental model inclusive of fetal and maternal constituents. We ...


The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen KW Wong 2022 Western University

The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen Kw Wong

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva On The Tongue, Amy Backal, Amanda Harrop, David J. Goldhamer Dr. 2022 University of Connecticut - Storrs

The Effect Of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva On The Tongue, Amy Backal, Amanda Harrop, David J. Goldhamer Dr.

Honors Scholar Theses

FOP is a rare genetic disorder in which skeletal muscle and associated connective tissue progressively turn to bone through a process called heterotopic ossification (HO). The extra skeletal bone growth is cumulative, eventually trapping patients in a second skeleton that eventually leads to death by asphyxiation. The FOP mutation is autosomal dominant that can be inherited or acquired sporadically. Unfortunately, FOP is currently incurable with no therapeutic options to inhibit bone growth or reduce existing bone nodules. My project intends to further our understanding of the cellular mechanisms of the disease within the tongue muscle. A population of cells known ...


Primary Cilia Of The Cardiac Neural Crest & Hedgehog-Mediated Mechanisms Of Congenital Heart Disease, Lindsey A. Fitzsimons 2022 University of Maine

Primary Cilia Of The Cardiac Neural Crest & Hedgehog-Mediated Mechanisms Of Congenital Heart Disease, Lindsey A. Fitzsimons

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Elimination of primary cilia in cardiac neural crest cell (CNCC) progenitors is hypothesized to cause a variety of congenital heart defects (CHDs), including atrioventricular septal defects, and malformations of the developing cardiac outflow tract. We present an in vivo model of CHD resulting from the conditional elimination of primary cilia from CNCC using multiple, Wnt1:Cre-loxP, neural crest-specific systems, targeting two distinctive, but critical, primary cilia structural genes: Intraflagellar transport protein 88 (Ift88) or kinesin family member 3A (Kif3a). CNCC loss of primary cilia leads to widespread CHD, where homozygous mutant embryos (MUT) display a variety of outflow tract malformations ...


Genetically Explicit Model May Explain Multigenerational Control Of Emergent Turing Patterns In Hybrid Mimulus, Emily Simmons 2022 William & Mary

Genetically Explicit Model May Explain Multigenerational Control Of Emergent Turing Patterns In Hybrid Mimulus, Emily Simmons

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


When Problems Become Solutions: Harnessing The Osteogenic Capacity Of Disease-Causing Stem Cells To Repair Bone Fractures, Mehreen Pasha 2022 University of Connecticut

When Problems Become Solutions: Harnessing The Osteogenic Capacity Of Disease-Causing Stem Cells To Repair Bone Fractures, Mehreen Pasha

Honors Scholar Theses

While we often perceive disease as negative, there is potential to engineer seemingly negative biological phenomena into therapeutics to treat a variety of human illnesses. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a genetic disorder involving uncontrolled, widespread, extraskeletal bone growth, or heterotopic ossification (HO). In FOP patients, stem cells called fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) follow an abnormal, osteogenic pathway. In the present study, we investigate whether we can adapt these Acvr1 mutant FAPs, which are exceptional at producing bone, to repair bone fractures in otherwise normal patients. The primary aims of this study are (1) to devise and optimize a novel ...


Exploring The Effects Of Varied Land Use On Elemental Concentrations Within Streams, Logan Jennings 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Exploring The Effects Of Varied Land Use On Elemental Concentrations Within Streams, Logan Jennings

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

It is well documented that human activity influences the chemistry of surrounding waters. As such, it is possible that there is a link between land use within a watershed and the chemical composition of the stream. The objectives of this study are to determine if varied land use does affect the concentrations of macronutrients and trace elements present in the streams of Northwest Arkansas, and if so, to determine what extent urban and agricultural development are responsible for these changes. Water samples were collected across 19 streams in the Northwest Arkansas region between January and March of 2022. Water samples ...


Investigating The Potential Role For The Nervous System In Controlling Regeneration In Nematostella Vectensis, Kristen Malir 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigating The Potential Role For The Nervous System In Controlling Regeneration In Nematostella Vectensis, Kristen Malir

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Nematostella vectensis is a marine sea animal that has become a model for developmental and evolutionary research. Included in the phylum Cnidaria, N. vectensis’ was chosen as the model for this research. Not only can this animal go through asexual and sexual reproduction, but it also has the ability to regenerate. Although much research has been put forth in an effort to understand regeneration better, much is still unknown. The underlying mechanisms of regeneration in Cnidaria are illusive; however, studies within vertebrates have shown the substantial role of the nervous system. The objective of this experiment is to test if ...


Structural Formation And Functionality Of The Spoiie Protein In Clostridium Difficile, Rachel Siebenmorgen 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Structural Formation And Functionality Of The Spoiie Protein In Clostridium Difficile, Rachel Siebenmorgen

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

My research efforts were directed toward the structure and functionality of a protein, designated SpoIIE [11], which previously has been shown to regulate C. difficile peptide utilization in addition to sporulation and toxin release. The SpoIIE protein is found in all spore-forming gram-positive bacteria and is a crucial component in activation of transcription factors and septum formation thus affecting the regulation and timing of spore development [11,12]. A truncated form of the SpoIIE protein named SpoIIE∆TM was used in an effort to determine the structure of an important but uncharacterized linker domain of the protein. If the structure ...


Spr-5; Met-2 Maternal Reprogramming Cooperates With The Dream Complex To Regulate Developmental Cell Fates, Jazmin Dozier, Sandra Nguyen, Brandon Carpenter 2022 Kennesaw State University

Spr-5; Met-2 Maternal Reprogramming Cooperates With The Dream Complex To Regulate Developmental Cell Fates, Jazmin Dozier, Sandra Nguyen, Brandon Carpenter

Symposium of Student Scholars

Histone methylation is a post-transcriptional modification to the N-terminal tails of histone core proteins that regulates DNA accessibility, and consequently, gene expression. Like DNA, histone methylation can be inherited between generations, and is highly regulated during embryonic development. At fertilization, histone methylation must undergo maternal reprogramming to reset the epigenetic landscape in the new zygote. During maternal reprogramming of histone methylation in the nematode, C. elegans, H3K4me (a modification associated with active transcription) is removed by the H3K4 demethylase, SPR-5, and H3K9me (a modification associated with transcriptional repression) is subsequently added by the histone methyltransferase, MET-2. Recently, it was demonstrated ...


The Roles Of Individual Proteins In De Novo Recruitment Of Pcg Repressive Complexes To Giant, Anni Kum 2022 Southern Methodist University

The Roles Of Individual Proteins In De Novo Recruitment Of Pcg Repressive Complexes To Giant, Anni Kum

Biological Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Epigenetic gene regulation is the process by which external factors regulate the genome. This research studies Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins which function as epigenetic agents that work together in complexes to maintain gene silencing for multiple cellular generations. Drosophila melanogaster PcG proteins can be organized into three canonical complexes: Pho-RC, PRC1, and PRC2. Though there are multiple proposed models for the order of recruitment, it is generally accepted that PhoRC, PRC1, and PRC2 interact with each other to stably recruit to a target gene. Since these proteins are highly conserved, this project studies PcG proteins in the model organism, Drosophila ...


An Analysis Of The Involvement Of Toll Receptors In Cell Movements During The Elongation Of Tribolium Castaneum, Kathryn Russell 2022 Trinity College

An Analysis Of The Involvement Of Toll Receptors In Cell Movements During The Elongation Of Tribolium Castaneum, Kathryn Russell

Senior Theses and Projects

Elongation of the anterior/posterior body axis is a critical part of embryonic development. Cell movements are known to play a significant role in embryo elongation in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. In the arthropod model organism, Drosophila, Toll receptors have a demonstrated role in the elongation of the embryo by driving convergent extension, in which rows of cells intercalate with one another in one direction to extend tissue in the other. In Drosophila, Toll receptors are a link between anterior-posterior patterning genes expressed in discrete stripes and effector molecules causing cell movements. This cell movement is caused by ...


Developmental Staging And Morphological Comparisons Of Four Fern Gametophyte Species From The Santa Monica Mountains, Tristan Furlong 2022 Pepperdine University

Developmental Staging And Morphological Comparisons Of Four Fern Gametophyte Species From The Santa Monica Mountains, Tristan Furlong

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

The fern life cycle alternates between two distinct phases: a diploid sporophyte phase consisting of the “adult” fern, and a haploid gametophyte phase. Early events and changes in gametophyte development can have considerable consequences in the morphologies of these different fern species and may facilitate the various adaptive strategies employed by the gametophytes in their different habitats. This study investigates early developmental events in the gametophytes of four different fern species found in the Santa Monica Mountains, Adiantum jordanii (chaparral understory, summer deciduous sporophyte), Woodwardia fimbriata (riparian stream), Dryopteris arguta (chaparral understory, evergreen), and Pentagramma triangularis (chaparral understory, resurrection sporophyte ...


Exendin‐4 Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation Of Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells Through The Receptor Activator Of Nuclear Factor‐Kappa B And Osteoprotegerin Signaling Pathway, Sarah A. Habib, Mohamed M. Kamal, Shohda A. El-Maraghy, Mahmoud A. Senousy 2022 The British University in Egypt

Exendin‐4 Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation Of Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells Through The Receptor Activator Of Nuclear Factor‐Kappa B And Osteoprotegerin Signaling Pathway, Sarah A. Habib, Mohamed M. Kamal, Shohda A. El-Maraghy, Mahmoud A. Senousy

Pharmacy

The capability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to repair bone damage and defects has long been investigated. The receptor activator of nuclear factorkappa B (RANK), its ligand (RANKL) and the decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) axis is crucial to keep the equilibrium between osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity. Exendin‐4 utilization increased bone formation and enhanced bone integrity. This study aimed to investigate the mentioned axis and determine the effect of exendin‐4 upon adipose mesenchymal stem cells (Ad‐MSCs) osteogenic differentiation. Ad‐MSCs were isolated from rat epididymal fat, followed by characterization and then differentiation into osteocytes both in the presence ...


A Facial Congenital Anomaly In A Mature Male White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), Travis Cunningham, Al Mead 2022 Georgia College & State University

A Facial Congenital Anomaly In A Mature Male White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), Travis Cunningham, Al Mead

Georgia Journal of Science

Congenital anomalies are rarely documented in wild ungulates. This study describes a congenital facial malformation in a mature male white-tailed deer harvested in central Georgia in 2020. The skull displays a mediolateral deflection of the rostrum, and the mandibles display similar deflection with posterior rotation at the mandibular symphysis, a maxillofacial malformation commonly called wry face. Based on physical examination and radiographic imagery, there were no signs of neoplasia or healed bone trauma on the skull or jaws, suggesting a congenital origin for the deformity. Studies of domestic horses displaying wry face conclude that the malformation arises from fetal mispositioning ...


Connexin 43 Contributes To Phenotypic Variability Of The Mouse Skull, Elizabeth Jewlal 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Connexin 43 Contributes To Phenotypic Variability Of The Mouse Skull, Elizabeth Jewlal

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study was to determine whether connexin 43 (Cx43) contributes to craniofacial phenotypic variability. Skull shape and variation were compared within and among two heterozygous mutant mouse models (G60S/+ and I130T/+) that exhibit different levels of Cx43 channel function when compared to their wildtype counterparts (~80% and ~50% reduction in function, respectively). Results indicated mutants have significant differences in skull shape compared to wildtype littermates. Similar patterns of shape difference were found in both mutants. Increased skull shape variation and a disruption in the covariation of skull structures were observed in G60S/+ mutants only. These results show ...


Spatiotemporal Characterization Of The Prr12 Paralogues In Zebrafish, Renee Jeannine Resendes 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Spatiotemporal Characterization Of The Prr12 Paralogues In Zebrafish, Renee Jeannine Resendes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pathogenic variants in the human PRR12 (Proline Rich 12) gene are associated with PRR12-related Neuroocular Syndrome. However, little is known about the gene/protein function. The zebrafish was utilized to address this, as its attributes place it as a premier model to study genes involved in human development and disease. In situ hybridization and RT-PCR of embryos and larvae, and qRT-PCR of adult tissues revealed the spatial and temporal distributions of the prr12 paralogues: prr12a and prr12b. Both paralogues were detected from the maternal and zygotic transcriptomes in a global and diffuse expression pattern, and there was enrichment of ...


The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole 2022 Wright State University

The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is an essential cellular protein that is involved in cell adhesion, cell signaling, and viral infection. The 8-exon encoded isoform (CAREx8) resides at the apical surface of polarized epithelia, where it is accessible as a receptor for adenovirus entering the airway lumen. Given its pivotal role in viral infection, it is a target for antiviral strategies. To understand the regulation of CAREx8 and determine the feasibility of receptor down regulation, the half-life of total and apical localized CAREx8 was determined and correlated with adenovirus transduction. Total and apical CAREx8 has a relatively short half-life ...


Imyoblasts For Ex Vivo And In Vivo Investigations Of Human Myogenesis And Disease Modeling, Dongsheng Guo, Katelyn Daman, Jennifer Jc Chen, Meng-Jiao Shi, Jing Yan, Zdenka Matijasevic, Rene Maehr, Oliver D. King, Lawrence J. Hayward, Charles P. Emerson Jr. 2022 UMass Chan Medical School

Imyoblasts For Ex Vivo And In Vivo Investigations Of Human Myogenesis And Disease Modeling, Dongsheng Guo, Katelyn Daman, Jennifer Jc Chen, Meng-Jiao Shi, Jing Yan, Zdenka Matijasevic, Rene Maehr, Oliver D. King, Lawrence J. Hayward, Charles P. Emerson Jr.

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

Skeletal muscle myoblasts (iMyoblasts) were generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using an efficient and reliable transgene-free induction and stem cell selection protocol. Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, qPCR, digital RNA expression profiling, and scRNA-Seq studies identify iMyoblasts as a PAX3+/MYOD1+ skeletal myogenic lineage with a fetal-like transcriptome signature, distinct from adult muscle biopsy myoblasts (bMyoblasts) and iPSC-induced muscle progenitors. iMyoblasts can be stably propagated for > 12 passages or 30 population doublings while retaining their dual commitment for myotube differentiation and regeneration of reserve cells. iMyoblasts also efficiently xenoengrafted into irradiated and injured mouse muscle where they undergo differentiation ...


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