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Protocol For The Separation Of Extracellular Vesicles By Ultracentrifugation From In Vitro Cell Culture Models, Peter Chhoy, Caitlin W. Brown, John J. Amante, Arthur M. Mercurio 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Protocol For The Separation Of Extracellular Vesicles By Ultracentrifugation From In Vitro Cell Culture Models, Peter Chhoy, Caitlin W. Brown, John J. Amante, Arthur M. Mercurio

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play key roles in transporting key molecular constituents as cargo for extracellular trafficking. While several approaches have been developed to extract EVs from mammalian cells, the specific method of EV isolation can have a profound effect on membrane integrity and yield. Here, we describe a step-by-step procedure to separate EVs from adherent epithelial cells using differential ultracentrifugation. Separated EVs can be further analyzed by immunoblotting, mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy to derive EV yield and morphology. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Brown et al. (2019).


Differential Expression Of Αvβ3 And Αvβ6 Integrins In Prostate Cancer Progression, Fabio Quaglia, Shiv Ram Krishn, Yanqing Wang, David W Goodrich, Peter McCue, Andrew Kossenkov, Amy C Mandigo, Karen Knudsen, Paul H Weinreb, Eva Corey, William Kevin Kelly, Lucia R Languino 2021 Thomas Jefferson University

Differential Expression Of Αvβ3 And Αvβ6 Integrins In Prostate Cancer Progression, Fabio Quaglia, Shiv Ram Krishn, Yanqing Wang, David W Goodrich, Peter Mccue, Andrew Kossenkov, Amy C Mandigo, Karen Knudsen, Paul H Weinreb, Eva Corey, William Kevin Kelly, Lucia R Languino

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPrCa) arises de novo or after accumulation of genomic alterations in pre-existing adenocarcinoma tumors in response to androgen deprivation therapies. We have provided evidence that small extracellular vesicles released by PrCa cells and containing the αVβ3 integrin promote neuroendocrine differentiation of PrCa in vivo and in vitro. Here, we examined αVβ3 integrin expression in three murine models carrying a deletion of PTEN (SKO), PTEN and RB1 (DKO), or PTEN, RB1 and TRP53 (TKO) genes in the prostatic epithelium; of these three models, the DKO and TKO tumors develop NEPrCa with a gene signature comparable to those of ...


The Circadian Cryptochrome, Cry1, Is A Pro-Tumorigenic Factor That Rhythmically Modulates Dna Repair., Ayesha A Shafi, Chris M McNair, Jennifer J McCann, Mohammed Alshalalfa, Anton Shostak, Tesa M Severson, Yanyun Zhu, Andre Bergman, Nicolas Gordon, Amy C Mandigo, Saswati N Chand, Peter Gallagher, Emanuela Dylgjeri, Talya S Laufer, Irina A Vasilevskaya, Matthew J Schiewer, Michael Brunner, Felix Y Feng, Wilbert Zwart, Karen E Knudsen 2021 Thomas Jefferson University

The Circadian Cryptochrome, Cry1, Is A Pro-Tumorigenic Factor That Rhythmically Modulates Dna Repair., Ayesha A Shafi, Chris M Mcnair, Jennifer J Mccann, Mohammed Alshalalfa, Anton Shostak, Tesa M Severson, Yanyun Zhu, Andre Bergman, Nicolas Gordon, Amy C Mandigo, Saswati N Chand, Peter Gallagher, Emanuela Dylgjeri, Talya S Laufer, Irina A Vasilevskaya, Matthew J Schiewer, Michael Brunner, Felix Y Feng, Wilbert Zwart, Karen E Knudsen

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

Mechanisms regulating DNA repair processes remain incompletely defined. Here, the circadian factor CRY1, an evolutionally conserved transcriptional coregulator, is identified as a tumor specific regulator of DNA repair. Key findings demonstrate that CRY1 expression is androgen-responsive and associates with poor outcome in prostate cancer. Functional studies and first-in-field mapping of the CRY1 cistrome and transcriptome reveal that CRY1 regulates DNA repair and the G2/M transition. DNA damage stabilizes CRY1 in cancer (in vitro, in vivo, and human tumors ex vivo), which proves critical for efficient DNA repair. Further mechanistic investigation shows that stabilized CRY1 temporally regulates expression of genes ...


In Vivo Optical Metabolic Imaging Of Long-Chain Fatty Acid Uptake In Orthotopic Models Of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, Megan C. Madonna, Joy E. Duer, Joyce V. Lee, Jeremy Williams, Baris Avsaroglu, Caigang Zhu, Riley Deutsch, Roujia Wang, Brian T. Crouch, Matthew D. Hirschey, Andrei Goga, Nirmala Ramanujam 2021 Duke University

In Vivo Optical Metabolic Imaging Of Long-Chain Fatty Acid Uptake In Orthotopic Models Of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, Megan C. Madonna, Joy E. Duer, Joyce V. Lee, Jeremy Williams, Baris Avsaroglu, Caigang Zhu, Riley Deutsch, Roujia Wang, Brian T. Crouch, Matthew D. Hirschey, Andrei Goga, Nirmala Ramanujam

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Targeting a tumor’s metabolic dependencies is a clinically actionable therapeutic approach; however, identifying subtypes of tumors likely to respond remains difficult. The use of lipids as a nutrient source is of particular importance, especially in breast cancer. Imaging techniques offer the opportunity to quantify nutrient use in preclinical tumor models to guide development of new drugs that restrict uptake or utilization of these nutrients. We describe a fast and dynamic approach to image fatty acid uptake in vivo and demonstrate its relevance to study both tumor metabolic reprogramming directly, as well as the effectiveness of drugs targeting lipid metabolism ...


Prolactin Drives A Dynamic Stat5a/Hdac6/Hmgn2 Cis-Regulatory Landscape Exploitable In Er+ Breast Cancer, Justin M. Craig 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Prolactin Drives A Dynamic Stat5a/Hdac6/Hmgn2 Cis-Regulatory Landscape Exploitable In Er+ Breast Cancer, Justin M. Craig

Theses and Dissertations

The hormone prolactin has been implicated in breast cancer pathogenesis and regulates chromatin engagement by the transcription factor, STAT5A. STAT5A is known to inducibly bind promoters and cis-regulatory elements genome-wide, though the mechanisms by which it exerts specificity and regulation of target gene expression remain enigmatic. We previously identified HDAC6 and HMGN2 as cofactors that facilitate prolactin induced, STAT5A mediated gene expression. Here, multi-condition STAT5A, HDAC6, and HMGN2 ChIP-seq with parallel condition RNA-seq are utilized to reveal the cis-regulatory landscape and cofactor dynamics underlying prolactin stimulated gene expression in breast cancer. We find that prolactin regulated genes are ...


Vasculogenic Mimicry: Role Of Melanoma Differentiation Associated Gene-9/Syntenin, Jinkal Modi, Anjan Pradhan, Luni Emdad, Swadesh Das, Paul Fisher 2021 VCU

Vasculogenic Mimicry: Role Of Melanoma Differentiation Associated Gene-9/Syntenin, Jinkal Modi, Anjan Pradhan, Luni Emdad, Swadesh Das, Paul Fisher

Graduate Research Posters

Malignant melanoma (MM) is the most aggressive skin cancer and the most frequent skin disorder in Caucasians. MM is associated with aggressive and progressive disease states, leading to major cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Recent investigations identify a new non-angiogenesis-dependent pathway vasculogenic mimicry (VM), which is considered a cancer hallmark that can independently facilitate tumor neovascularization by the formation of fluid-conducting and vascular endothelial cells. MM cells undergoing VM can dedifferentiate into numerous cellular phenotypes and acquire endothelial-like features, resulting in the formation of the de novo matrix-rich vascular-like network, such as plasma and red blood cells. The co-generation of endothelial ...


The Effects Of Rolipram, A Selective Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor, On Immortalized Schwann Cell Proliferation, Akap95 And Cyclin D3 Expression, Kyle P. Kenney, Mary Pistack, Angela Asirvatham 2021 Misericordia University

The Effects Of Rolipram, A Selective Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor, On Immortalized Schwann Cell Proliferation, Akap95 And Cyclin D3 Expression, Kyle P. Kenney, Mary Pistack, Angela Asirvatham

Student Research Poster Presentations 2021

Schwann cells are a vital component of the Peripheral Nervous System and aid in the repair of axons following injury. The regulation of Schwann cell growth in vitro is facilitated by heregulin, a neuron-secreted growth factor, and an unknown mitogen that activates the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway. The abundance of intracellular cAMP is regulated by a family of enzymes called phosphodiesterases (PDEs). PDE inhibitors such as rolipram have therapeutic potential in various disorders and function by increasing the levels of intracellular cAMP. A-Kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), a family of scaffolding proteins that belong to the cAMP/Protein Kinase A ...


The Role Of Autophagy And Senescence In The Responses Of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells To Chemotherapy And Radiation, Nipa H. Patel 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Role Of Autophagy And Senescence In The Responses Of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells To Chemotherapy And Radiation, Nipa H. Patel

Theses and Dissertations

Cancer-associated deaths account for the second-highest mortality rates in the United States. Primary modalities of treatment often include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, and may also incorporate targeted therapy and immunotherapy. However, resistance to these treatments remains high, resulting in disease reoccurrence and poor survival rates. While apoptosis or cell death of tumor cells is the ideal outcome for anti-cancer therapy, this is often not the case, and in fact cancer cells may upregulate several pathways, such as autophagy and senescence, as a means to undergo alternative cell fate and evade apoptotic cell death. An essential tumor suppressor gene, TP53, regulates ...


Therapeutic Targeting Of Leukemia Stem Cells To Prevent T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Relapse, Meghan G. Haney 2021 University of Kentucky

Therapeutic Targeting Of Leukemia Stem Cells To Prevent T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Relapse, Meghan G. Haney

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

The survival rate of T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL) relapse is a dismal 10% of affected adults and 30% of children, largely due to the relapsed disease being more aggressive and treatment resistant than the initial disease. Relapse is thought to occur because conventional chemotherapies are unable to reliably eliminate a unique cell type known as leukemia stem (or propagating) cells (LSCs). LSCs are the only cells within the leukemia with the ability to self-renew and remake or replenish the ALL from a single cell. Currently, the pathways governing self-renewal in LSCs are largely unknown, precluding our ability to successfully ...


A Forward Genetic Screen To Identify Human Genes Of Interest And Their Roles In Ovarian Cancer, Susan A. Ihejirika 2021 Georgia Southern University

A Forward Genetic Screen To Identify Human Genes Of Interest And Their Roles In Ovarian Cancer, Susan A. Ihejirika

Honors College Theses

Drosophila melanogaster, fruit flies, are very important for modeling and studying human diseases. This study identifies human genes of interest and their contributions to epithelial ovarian carcinogenesis and progression as well as the roles orthologs of these genes play in Drosophila melanogaster. This is important because ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death among the gynecological cancers. This identification of genes was carried out using a forward genetic screen employing the widely used GMR-Gal4 driver/UAS-transgene system. The GMR-Gal4 driver is commonly utilized to express transgenes in the developing eye of the fruit fly. Transgenes that are expressed ...


Propranolol Sensitizes Vascular Sarcoma Cells To Doxorubicin By Altering Lysosomal Drug Sequestration And Drug Efflux, Jhuma Saha, Jong Hyuk Kim, Clarissa N. Amaya, Caleb M. Witcher, Ali Khammanivong, Derek M. Korpela, David R. Brown, Josephine Taylor, Brad A. Bryan, Erin B. Dickerson 2021 University of Minnesota - St. Paul

Propranolol Sensitizes Vascular Sarcoma Cells To Doxorubicin By Altering Lysosomal Drug Sequestration And Drug Efflux, Jhuma Saha, Jong Hyuk Kim, Clarissa N. Amaya, Caleb M. Witcher, Ali Khammanivong, Derek M. Korpela, David R. Brown, Josephine Taylor, Brad A. Bryan, Erin B. Dickerson

Faculty Publications

Angiosarcoma is a rare cancer of blood vessel–forming cells with a high patient mortality and few treatment options. Although chemotherapy often produces initial clinical responses, outcomes remain poor, largely due to the development of drug resistance. We previously identified a subset of doxorubicin-resistant cells in human angiosarcoma and canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines that exhibit high lysosomal accumulation of doxorubicin. Hydrophobic, weak base chemotherapeutics, like doxorubicin, are known to sequester within lysosomes, promoting resistance by limiting drug accessibility to cellular targets. Drug synergy between the beta adrenergic receptor (β-AR) antagonist, propranolol, and multiple chemotherapeutics has been documented in vitro, and ...


Photodynamic Therapy Of Inorganic Complexes For The Treatment Of Cancer, Chloe B. Smith, Lindsay C. Days, Duaa R. Alajroush, Khadija Faye, Yara Khodour, Stephen J. Beebe, Alvin Holder 2021 Old Dominion University

Photodynamic Therapy Of Inorganic Complexes For The Treatment Of Cancer, Chloe B. Smith, Lindsay C. Days, Duaa R. Alajroush, Khadija Faye, Yara Khodour, Stephen J. Beebe, Alvin Holder

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a medicinal tool that uses a photosensitiser and a light source to treat several conditions, including cancer. PDT uses reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as cytotoxic singlet oxygen 1O2 to induce cell death in cancer cells. Chemotherapy has historically utilized the cytotoxic effects of many metals, especially transition-metal complexes. However, chemotherapy is a systemic treatment so all cells in a patient's body are exposed to the same cytotoxic effects. Transition metal complexes have also shown high cytotoxicity as PDT agents. PDT is a potential localized method for treating several cancer types by using ...


Mechanisms By Which Mnte-2-Pyp Suppresses Prostate Cancer Cell Growth, Yuxiang Zhu 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Mechanisms By Which Mnte-2-Pyp Suppresses Prostate Cancer Cell Growth, Yuxiang Zhu

Theses & Dissertations

Prostate cancer patients are often treated with radiotherapy. MnTE-2-PyP, is a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic and a known radioprotector of normal tissues. Our recent work demonstrates that MnTE-2-PyP also inhibits prostate cancer progression with radiotherapy; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. In this thesis, we identified that MnTE-2-PyP-induced intracellular H2O2 levels are critical in inhibiting growth of prostate cancer cells. We found that MnTE-2-PyP induced protein oxidations in PC3 cells and one major group of oxidized protein targets were involved in energy metabolism. The oxidative phosphorylation rates were significantly enhanced in both PC3 and LNCaP cells with MnTE-2-PyP treatment, but mitochondrial ...


Improved Prime Editors Enable Pathogenic Allele Correction And Cancer Modelling In Adult Mice [Preprint], Pengpeng Liu, Shun-Qing Liang, Chunwei Zheng, Esther Mintzer, Yan G. Zhao, Karthikeyan Ponnienselvan, Aamir Mir, Erik J. Sontheimer, Guangping Gao, Terence R. Flotte, Scot A. Wolfe, Wen Xue 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Improved Prime Editors Enable Pathogenic Allele Correction And Cancer Modelling In Adult Mice [Preprint], Pengpeng Liu, Shun-Qing Liang, Chunwei Zheng, Esther Mintzer, Yan G. Zhao, Karthikeyan Ponnienselvan, Aamir Mir, Erik J. Sontheimer, Guangping Gao, Terence R. Flotte, Scot A. Wolfe, Wen Xue

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Prime editors (PEs) mediate genome modification without utilizing double-stranded DNA breaks or exogenous donor DNA as a template. PEs facilitate nucleotide substitutions or local insertions or deletions within the genome based on the template sequence encoded within the prime editing guide RNA (pegRNA). However, the efficacy of prime editing in adult mice has not been established. Here we report an NLS-optimized SpCas9-based prime editor that improves genome editing efficiency in both fluorescent reporter cells and at endogenous loci in cultured cell lines. Using this genome modification system, we could also seed tumor formation through somatic cell editing in the adult ...


Pd-L1 Expression On Circulating Tumor Cells May Be Predictive Of Response To Pembrolizumab In Advanced Melanoma: Results From A Pilot Study, Muhammad K. Khattak, Anna L. Reid, James Freeman, Michelle Pereira, Ashleigh McEvoy, Johnny Lo, Markus Frank, Tarek Meniawy, Ali Didan, Isaac Spencer, Benhur Amanuel, Michael Millward, Mel Ziman, Elin Gray 2020 Edith Cowan University

Pd-L1 Expression On Circulating Tumor Cells May Be Predictive Of Response To Pembrolizumab In Advanced Melanoma: Results From A Pilot Study, Muhammad K. Khattak, Anna L. Reid, James Freeman, Michelle Pereira, Ashleigh Mcevoy, Johnny Lo, Markus Frank, Tarek Meniawy, Ali Didan, Isaac Spencer, Benhur Amanuel, Michael Millward, Mel Ziman, Elin Gray

ECU Publications Post 2013

BACKGROUND: PD-1 inhibitors are routinely used for the treatment of advanced melanoma. This study sought to determine whether PD-L1 expression on circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can serve as a predictive biomarker of clinical benefit and response to treatment with the PD-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab.

METHODS: Blood samples were collected from patients with metastatic melanoma receiving pembrolizumab, prior to treatment and 6-12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Multiparametric flow cytometry was used to identify CTCs and evaluate the expression of PD-L1.

RESULTS: CTCs were detected in 25 of 40 patients (63%). Patients with detectable PD-L1

CONCLUSION: Our results reveal the potential of ...


Structural Characterization And In Vitro Lipid Binding Studies Of Non-Specific Lipid Transfer Protein 1 (Nsltp1) From Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare) Seeds, Mekdes Megeressa, Bushra Siraj, Shamshad Zarina, Aftab Ahmed 2020 Chapman University

Structural Characterization And In Vitro Lipid Binding Studies Of Non-Specific Lipid Transfer Protein 1 (Nsltp1) From Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare) Seeds, Mekdes Megeressa, Bushra Siraj, Shamshad Zarina, Aftab Ahmed

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are cationic proteins involved in intracellular lipid shuttling in growth and reproduction, as well as in defense against pathogenic microbes. Even though the primary and spatial structures of some nsLTPs from different plants indicate their similar features, they exhibit distinct lipid-binding specificities signifying their various biological roles that dictate further structural study. The present study determined the complete amino acid sequence, in silico 3D structure modeling, and the antiproliferative activity of nsLTP1 from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seeds. Fennel is a member of the family Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. It ...


Subclonal Evolution Of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia After Allogeneic T Cell Therapies, Haven Garber 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Subclonal Evolution Of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia After Allogeneic T Cell Therapies, Haven Garber

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Subclonal evolution of chronic lymphocytic leukemia after allogeneic T-cell therapies

Haven Garber, MD

Advisory Professor: Jeffrey Molldrem, MD

Intratumoral genetic heterogeneity describes the molecular differences among subclones within a tumor and is a major barrier to effective therapy in many solid and liquid cancers, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Rare, treatment-resistant subclones can expand to compose relapsed disease during tumor evolution. Examination of malignant evolution in the context of specific treatment provides insight into the molecular lesions that mediate therapeutic response and resistance. Both chemotherapy and targeted therapy were shown to precipitate CLL subclonal evolution. We hypothesized that allogeneic T-cell ...


P53 Drives A Transcriptional Program That Elicits A Non-Cell-Autonomous Response And Alters Cell State In Vivo, Sydney Moyer 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

P53 Drives A Transcriptional Program That Elicits A Non-Cell-Autonomous Response And Alters Cell State In Vivo, Sydney Moyer

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cell stress and DNA damage activate the tumor suppressor p53, triggering transcriptional activation of a myriad of target genes. The molecular, morphological, and physiological consequences of this activation remain poorly understood in vivo. We activated a p53 transcriptional program in mice by deletion of Mdm2, a gene which encodes the major p53 inhibitor. By overlaying tissue-specific RNA-sequencing data from pancreas, small intestine, ovary, kidney, and heart with existing p53 ChIP-sequencing, we identified a large repertoire of tissue-specific p53 genes and a common p53 transcriptional signature of seven genes which included Mdm2 but not p21. Global p53 activation caused a metaplastic ...


Micrornas Associated With Melanoma Inflammation And Response To Pd-1 Inhibition, Robert Szczepaniak Sloane 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Micrornas Associated With Melanoma Inflammation And Response To Pd-1 Inhibition, Robert Szczepaniak Sloane

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Melanoma is an aggressive malignancy of melanocytes with historically poor outcomes. Melanoma therapy has improved markedly over the past decade with advances in molecularly targeted agents and immunotherapies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors achieve T-cell mediated anti-tumor efficacy by blocking engagement of inhibitory checkpoints on T-cells to overcome immunosuppressive signals from tumor cells and the broader microenvironment. Despite these advances, there are a significant proportion of patients who do not benefit from existing immunotherapy strategies making it a priority to identify and target the mechanisms that confer resistance to therapy. We demonstrate that microRNAs are accurate markers of microenvironment composition with prognostic ...


Fibroblast Heterogeneity In Pancreatic Cancer Immunity, Josephine Darpolor 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Fibroblast Heterogeneity In Pancreatic Cancer Immunity, Josephine Darpolor

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Fibroblasts are a unique cell type defined by their mesenchymal phenotype and exclusion from epithelial, immune, and endothelial cell subsets. Although well studied in wound healing, cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are incredibly heterogeneous, leading to contradictions as to the roles CAFs play in the tumor microenvironment (TME). CAFs were thought to be a barrier to treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, general stromal targeting strategies have largely failed in the clinic likely due to the heterogeneity of CAFs in the TME. Therefore, our groups and others have worked to unravel the heterogeneity of CAFs in PDAC. In the works ...


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