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B25: Generation And Characterization Of Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein-Pseudotyped Lentivirus Particles For Use In Neutralizing Antibody Titer Testing Of Human Serum, Luis Sanchez 2021 Roseman University of Health Sciences

B25: Generation And Characterization Of Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein-Pseudotyped Lentivirus Particles For Use In Neutralizing Antibody Titer Testing Of Human Serum, Luis Sanchez

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


The Age-Dependent Characterization Of The Er-Alpha Positive Breast Cancer Tumor Microenvironment, Katie Marie Hamel 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

The Age-Dependent Characterization Of The Er-Alpha Positive Breast Cancer Tumor Microenvironment, Katie Marie Hamel

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

In disease states such as cancer, endocrine and paracrine signals from adipose tissue contribute to cancer progression and drug resistance. Young individuals diagnosed with estrogen receptor-alpha positive (ER-a+) breast cancer have an observed increase in resistance to endocrine therapies. This suggests that an alternative estrogen signaling pathway is active within these tumors. Despite this, the effects of stromal age on the endocrine response in breast cancer is not well known. Here, we review and highlight the involvement of the stromal age in both tumorigenesis and physiological wound healing. To identify specific differences between young and aged ER-a+ breast tumors, RNA ...


Fine-Tuning Of Alanyl-Trna Synthetase Quality Control Alleviates Global Dysregulation Of The Proteome, Paul Kelly, Arundhati Kavoor, Michael Ibba 2020 The Ohio State University

Fine-Tuning Of Alanyl-Trna Synthetase Quality Control Alleviates Global Dysregulation Of The Proteome, Paul Kelly, Arundhati Kavoor, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

One integral step in the transition from a nucleic acid encoded-genome to functional proteins is the aminoacylation of tRNA molecules. To perform this activity, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) activate free amino acids in the cell forming an aminoacyl-adenylate before transferring the amino acid on to its cognate tRNA. These newly formed aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) can then be used by the ribosome during mRNA decoding. In Escherichia coli, there are twenty aaRSs encoded in the genome, each of which corresponds to one of the twenty proteinogenic amino acids used in translation. Given the shared chemicophysical properties of many amino acids, aaRSs have evolved ...


Overcoming Barriers For Sirna Therapeutics: From Bench To Bedside, Muhammad Imran Sajid, Muhammad Moazzam, Shun Kato, Kayley Yeseom Cho, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari 2020 Chapman University

Overcoming Barriers For Sirna Therapeutics: From Bench To Bedside, Muhammad Imran Sajid, Muhammad Moazzam, Shun Kato, Kayley Yeseom Cho, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway possesses immense potential in silencing any gene in human cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) can efficiently trigger RNAi silencing of specific genes. FDA Approval of siRNA therapeutics in recent years garnered a new hope in siRNA therapeutics. However, their therapeutic use is limited by several challenges. siRNAs, being negatively charged, are membrane-impermeable and highly unstable in the systemic circulation. In this review, we have comprehensively discussed the extracellular barriers, including enzymatic degradation of siRNAs by serum endonucleases and RNAases, rapid renal clearance, membrane impermeability, and activation of the immune system. Besides, we have thoroughly described ...


Two And Three-Dimensional Radiographic Imaging Of Contrast Agents In Heterogeneous Live Cell Media To Understand Contrast-Induced Toxicity, Fahaneda Hassan, Aldona Gjoni, Subhendra Sarkar 2020 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Two And Three-Dimensional Radiographic Imaging Of Contrast Agents In Heterogeneous Live Cell Media To Understand Contrast-Induced Toxicity, Fahaneda Hassan, Aldona Gjoni, Subhendra Sarkar

Publications and Research

Radiographic imaging was done using low and high energy radiography equipment. The test hypothesis that macromolecular aggregation changes sample noise in imaging samples for optical imaging methods. Inorganic complexes scatter radiation at the molecular level and may increase the sample noise locally. At high and low photon energies in various x-ray machines, sample and background noise were gathered and compared with those from mammography systems from mammography researchers. The samples with high macromolecular aggregates were prepared using various animal cell compositions and imaged under different conditions that produced different macromolecular dynamics within the samples and thus different image-based sample noise ...


Artificial Intron Technology To Generate Conditional Knock-Out Mice, Amber N. Thomas-Gordon 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Artificial Intron Technology To Generate Conditional Knock-Out Mice, Amber N. Thomas-Gordon

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Genetic engineering has been re-shaped by the invention of new tools in modern biotechnology in a way that offers precision and efficiency in modifying the genome at a single nucleotide level and/or allowing precise control of gene expression. Such gene manipulation brings about significant findings and revelations in comprehending more about embryonic development, cellular and physiological functions, and disease pathology. Current methods used to produce conditional knockouts have limitations on conditional allele placement and modification varies among genes in different organisms. Thus, a system for generating conditional alleles with fidelity remains a challenge. My goal was to examine an ...


Hedgehog Signaling (Hh/Gli) Regulates Neurogenesis In The Zebrafish Hypothalamus, Ira Male 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Hedgehog Signaling (Hh/Gli) Regulates Neurogenesis In The Zebrafish Hypothalamus, Ira Male

Doctoral Dissertations

The hypothalamus is the central regulator of a diverse homeostatic processes that are essential for the survival of the animal. Recently, the hypothalamus has been shown to be a neurogenic zone in many animal species including mice, zebrafish, sheep and potentially even humans with hypothalamic neurogenesis implicated in energy metabolism, stress, anxiety and reproduction. However, the identification of the cellular components and the signaling mechanisms regulating hypothalamic neurogenesis are only beginning to be elucidated. My dissertation research elucidates the role of Hh signaling in regulating hypothalamic neurogenesis throughout life. The first chapter of the dissertation offers a survey into the ...


Comparative Molecular Transporter Properties Of Cyclic Peptides Containing Tryptophan And Arginine Residues Formed Through Disulfide Cyclization, Eman H. M. Mohammed, Dindyal Mandal, Saghar Mozaffari, Magdy Abdel-Hamied Zahran, Amany Mostafa Osman, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Keykavous Parang 2020 Chapman University

Comparative Molecular Transporter Properties Of Cyclic Peptides Containing Tryptophan And Arginine Residues Formed Through Disulfide Cyclization, Eman H. M. Mohammed, Dindyal Mandal, Saghar Mozaffari, Magdy Abdel-Hamied Zahran, Amany Mostafa Osman, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

We have previously reported cyclic cell-penetrating peptides [WR]5 and [WR]4 as molecular transporters. To optimize further the utility of our developed peptides for targeted therapy in cancer cells using the redox condition, we designed a new generation of peptides and evaluated their cytotoxicity as well as uptake behavior against different cancer cell lines. Thus, cyclic [C(WR)xC] and linear counterparts (C(WR)xC), where x = 4–5, were synthesized using Fmoc/tBu solid-phase peptide synthesis, purified, and characterized. The compounds did not show any significant cytotoxicity (at 25 µM) against ovarian (SK-OV-3), leukemia (CCRF-CEM), gastric ...


Understanding Intercellular Signaling During Lung Injury-Repair, Margo Patricia Cain 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Understanding Intercellular Signaling During Lung Injury-Repair, Margo Patricia Cain

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The mammalian lung is a complex system of specialized cell types with precise spatial organization designed to cooperate to perform gas exchange. These cell types together coordinate organ development, homeostasis, and repair after injury through signals either presented or secreted, known as ligands, to be received by receptors on the surface of another, or in some cases, the same cell. The alveolar region of the lung, the primary region of gas exchange, responds to various types of injuries with different lung repair mechanisms. In order to explore how the various cell types in the lung communicate to drive tissue repair ...


Glutamine Antagonist 6-Diazo-5-Oxo-L-Norleucine, A Hyaluronan Synthesis Inhibitor, Slows Triple Negative Breast Cancer Growth, Le Gia Cat Pham 2020 University at Albany, State University of New York

Glutamine Antagonist 6-Diazo-5-Oxo-L-Norleucine, A Hyaluronan Synthesis Inhibitor, Slows Triple Negative Breast Cancer Growth, Le Gia Cat Pham

Biological Sciences

Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer with few treatment options and poor outcomes. TNBCs are characterized by elevations in hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) enzyme expression, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) expression and hyaluronan (HA) production. Glutamine is an important substrate for HA production via the HBP. 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) is a well-known glutamine antagonist with validated antitumoral efficacy. This project examined the effects of DON on HA production and energy metabolism in TNBC cells. We examined the effect of DON treatment on Hs578T cells, which represent the mesenchymal stem-like subtype of TNBC. We specifically analyzed the ...


The Bioethical Significance Of “The Origin Of Man’S Ethical Behavior” (October 1941, Unpublished) By Ernest Everett Just And Hedwig Anna Schnetzler Just, Theodore Walker Jr. 2020 Southern Methodist University

The Bioethical Significance Of “The Origin Of Man’S Ethical Behavior” (October 1941, Unpublished) By Ernest Everett Just And Hedwig Anna Schnetzler Just, Theodore Walker Jr.

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Abstract –

E. E. Just (1883-1941) is an acknowledged “pioneer” in cell biology, and he is perhaps the pioneer in study of egg cell fertilization. Here we discover that Just also made pioneering contributions to general biology and evolutionary bioethics.

Within Just’s published contributions to observational cell biology, there are substantial fragments of his theory of ethical behavior, a theory with roots in cell biology. In addition to such previously available fragments, Just’s fully developed theory is now available. This recently discovered unpublished book-length manuscript argues for the biological origins of ethical behavior (evolving from cells to humans, within ...


How Cellular Metabolic State And The Chaperone Protein Hsp104 Interact To Affect The Spontaneous Formation Of The Yeast Prion [Ure3], Demyia Graham 2020 Mississippi University for Women

How Cellular Metabolic State And The Chaperone Protein Hsp104 Interact To Affect The Spontaneous Formation Of The Yeast Prion [Ure3], Demyia Graham

Merge

No abstract provided.


Characterizing The Requirements For The Matricellular Protein, Dccn, In Nervous System Function, Elizabeth L. Catudio Garrett 2020 University of Montana

Characterizing The Requirements For The Matricellular Protein, Dccn, In Nervous System Function, Elizabeth L. Catudio Garrett

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The brain is organized as a complex network of specialized neurons that communicate via a combination of electrical and chemical signals. Our brains function to generate movement, control organ function, or direct complex behaviors; all of which requires the ability to regulate the flow of communication between circuits and networks. Work in this thesis addresses two areas of neuron communication: first, how does the release of more than one neurotransmitter from a single neuron impact behavior, and second, are matricellular proteins (MCPs) key contributors to synaptic transmission and neuron function? The conserved CCN family of MCPs have a unique mosaic ...


Peroxiredoxin 6 And Inflammation In Alzheimer's Disease, Jared Ferrell-Penniman 2019 Southern Methodist University

Peroxiredoxin 6 And Inflammation In Alzheimer's Disease, Jared Ferrell-Penniman

Biological Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is known for its debilitating symptoms and poor prognosis. However, despite intense research into neurodegenerative diseases, there are few therapies targeted at the underlying mechanisms of the disease. Oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation are cellular phenomena thought to be key to the progression of the disease. Critically, peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6), an antioxidant protein with multiple functions, has been identified from mammalian studies as a potential regulator of both OS and inflammation that may have a specific effect on AD. This project seeks to elucidate the role of Prx6 in AD as well as the underlying mechanisms ...


Towards A Mathematical Model Of Motility Using Dictyostelium Discoideum: Proteins And Geometric Features That Regulate Bleb-Based Motility, Zully Santiago 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Towards A Mathematical Model Of Motility Using Dictyostelium Discoideum: Proteins And Geometric Features That Regulate Bleb-Based Motility, Zully Santiago

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A variety of biological functions depend on actin organization. The organization of actin is tightly regulated by a plethora of extracellular and intracellular signaling, scaffolding, and actin-binding proteins. Dysfunctions in this regulation lead to immune diseases, increased susceptibility to pathogens, neurodegenerative diseases, developmental disorders, and cancer metastasis. A variety of actin-dependent processes, including cell motility, are regulated by several proteins of interest: Paxillin, a scaffolding protein; WASP, an actin nucleating protein; SCAR/WAVE, another WASP family actin nucleating protein; Talin, a cortex-to-membrane binding protein; Myosin II, an F-actin contracting motor protein; and Protein Kinase C, a protein kinase. D. discoideum ...


Embryonic Lethality Of Cranial Neural Crest Deletion Of Cdc73, Lilia Shen 2019 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Embryonic Lethality Of Cranial Neural Crest Deletion Of Cdc73, Lilia Shen

Honors Scholar Theses

Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome is a disease characterized by parathyroid tumors, renal cysts or tumors, uterine tumors, and ossifying jaw fibromas. The cause of this syndrome is linked to a tumor suppressor gene called Cdc73, which encodes the protein product parafibromin. The loss of proper expression of Cdc73/parafibromin is implicated in the development of the tumors typical of HPT-JT, although the exact mechanisms of tumorigenesis are unclear. In particular, not much is understood about the development of ossifying fibromas (OF) of the jaw in this syndrome. OF is a benign bone neoplasm that can affect the mandible and maxilla ...


Sensory Primary Cilium Is A Responsive Camp Microdomain In Renal Epithelia, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Dagmar Wachten, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Surya M. Nauli 2019 Chapman University

Sensory Primary Cilium Is A Responsive Camp Microdomain In Renal Epithelia, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Dagmar Wachten, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia are hair-like cellular extensions that sense microenvironmental signals surrounding cells. The role of adenylyl cyclases in ciliary function has been of interest because the product of adenylyl cyclase activity, cAMP, is relevant to cilia-related diseases. In the present study, we show that vasopressin receptor type-2 (V2R) is localized to cilia in kidney epithelial cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of V2R with tolvaptan increases ciliary length and mechanosensory function. Genetic knockdown of V2R, however, does not have any effect on ciliary length, although the effect of tolvaptan on ciliary length is dampened. Our study reveals that tolvaptan may have a cilia-specific ...


Amphiphilic Peptides For Efficient Sirna Delivery, Saghar Mozaffari, Emira Bousoik, Farideh Amirrad, Robert Lamboy, Melissa Coyle, Ryley Hall, Abdulaziz Alasmari, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi 2019 Chapman University

Amphiphilic Peptides For Efficient Sirna Delivery, Saghar Mozaffari, Emira Bousoik, Farideh Amirrad, Robert Lamboy, Melissa Coyle, Ryley Hall, Abdulaziz Alasmari, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

A number of amphiphilic cyclic peptides—[FR]4, [WR]5, and [WK]5—containing hydrophobic and positively-charged amino acids were synthesized by Fmoc/tBu solid-phase peptide methods and evaluated for their efficiency in intracellular delivery of siRNA to triple-negative breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468, in the presence and absence of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE). Among the peptides, [WR]5, which contains alternate tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) residues, was found to be the most efficient in the delivery of siRNA by improving the delivery by more than 3-fold when compared to other synthesized cyclic peptides that were not efficient ...


The Effect Of Proteome And Lipidome On The Behavior Of Membrane Bound Systems In Thermally-Assisted Acoustophoresis, Elnaz Mirtaheri 2019 Florida International University

The Effect Of Proteome And Lipidome On The Behavior Of Membrane Bound Systems In Thermally-Assisted Acoustophoresis, Elnaz Mirtaheri

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Changes in the biomechanical properties of cells accompanying the development of various pathological conditions have been increasingly reported as biomarkers for various diseases, including cancers. In cancer cells, the membrane properties have been altered compared to their healthy counterparts primarily due to proteomic and lipidomic dysregulations conferred by the underlying pathology. The separation and selective recovery of these cells or extracellular vesicles secreted from such cells is of high diagnostic and prognostic value.

In this dissertation, the research builds on thermally-assisted acoustophoresis technique which was developed in our laboratory for the separation of vesicles of the same size, charge and ...


The Role Of The Mechanical Environment On Cd117+ Endothelial Cell Angiogenesis, Patrick Link 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Role Of The Mechanical Environment On Cd117+ Endothelial Cell Angiogenesis, Patrick Link

Theses and Dissertations

Angiogenesis is a complex process coordinating cell migration, proliferation, and lumen formation. Changes to the microenvironment regulate angiogenesis through mechanotransduction and cytokine signals. In pulmonary hypertension, something in the process becomes abnormal, resulting in changes to the microenvironment and the formation of a glomerulus of dysfunctional capillaries, called a plexiform lesion. Endothelial cells, expressing CD117 (CD117+ EC clones) increase in the plexiform lesions of pulmonary hypertension, independent of pro-angiogenic VEGF signaling. We hypothesize that the mechanical environment and the macromolecular composition of the extracellular matrix, both, contribute to the aberrant angiogenesis. When we changed the mechanical environment, we changed the ...


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