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Methylene Blue Inhibits Cromakalim-Activated K+ Currents In Follicle-Enclosed Oocytes, Dmytro Isaev, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Georg Petroianu, Dietrich Ernst Lorke, Murat Oz 2023 Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology

Methylene Blue Inhibits Cromakalim-Activated K+ Currents In Follicle-Enclosed Oocytes, Dmytro Isaev, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Georg Petroianu, Dietrich Ernst Lorke, Murat Oz

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The effects of methylene blue (MB) on cromakalim-induced K+ currents were investigated in follicle-enclosed Xenopus oocytes. In concentrations ranging from 3–300 μM, MB inhibited K+ currents (IC50: 22.4 μM) activated by cromakalim, which activates KATP channels. MB inhibited cromakalim-activated K+ currents in a noncompetitive and voltage-independent manner. The respective EC50 and slope values for cromakalim-activation of K+ currents were 194 ± 21 µM and 0.91 for controls, and 206 ± 24 µM and 0.87 in the presence of 30 μM MB. The inhibition of cromakalim-induced K+ currents by MB was not …


Therapies For Mitochondrial Disorders, Kayli Sousa Smyth, Anne Mulvihill 2022 Technological University of the Shannon: Midlands Midwest

Therapies For Mitochondrial Disorders, Kayli Sousa Smyth, Anne Mulvihill

SURE_J: Science Undergraduate Research Journal

Mitochondria are cytoplasmic, double-membrane organelles that synthesise adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria contain their own genome, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is maternally inherited from the oocyte. Mitochondrial proteins are encoded by either nuclear DNA (nDNA) or mtDNA, and both code for proteins forming the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes of the respiratory chain. These complexes form a chain that allows the passage of electrons down the electron transport chain (ETC) through a proton motive force, creating ATP from adenosine diphosphate (ADP). This study aims to explore current and prospective therapies for mitochondrial disorders (MTDS). MTDS are clinical syndromes coupled with abnormalities …


Investigation Of The Effect Of Trace Element, Copper Chloride, On Chondrogenic Cell Line, Atdc5 Function, Alexandra Bambrick 2022 Seton Hall University

Investigation Of The Effect Of Trace Element, Copper Chloride, On Chondrogenic Cell Line, Atdc5 Function, Alexandra Bambrick

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Copper chloride (CuCl2) is an essential trace element found in humans, which helps to aid in brain and nerve function, glucose metabolism, calcium absorption, and bone formation. Bone formation utilizes a variety of cell types, including, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and chondrocytes. Chondrocytes deposit cartilage components like collagen and proteoglycans that provide the necessary scaffold for osteoblasts to synthesize and mineralize bone. Copper chloride is known to aid in osteogenesis, maintain bone metabolism, and regulate bone mineral density, but its role in chondrogenesis is still unclear (15).

In this study, it is hypothesized that CuCl2 treatments would enhance chondrogenic …


Manganese Chloride Effects Chondrogenesis Of Atdc5 Cells, Isabella Somera 2022 Seton Hall University

Manganese Chloride Effects Chondrogenesis Of Atdc5 Cells, Isabella Somera

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Manganese is an essential trace element found in humans, which aids in several processes including brain and nerve function, glucose metabolism, calcium absorption, and bone formation and homeostasis. Specifically, bone homeostasis utilizes osteoblasts and osteoclasts, cells which function to build and reabsorb bone respectively, as well as chondrocytes, cells which aid in endochondral ossification. Chondrocytes deposit extracellular matrix components, such as aggrecan, collagen, and proteoglycans, that provide the necessary scaffold for osteoblasts to synthesize and mineralize bone. Activation of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway influences the regulation of several cellular processes, such as skeletal development and bone homeostasis. In this study, …


Role Of Parp1 And Nad+ Bioavailability In Base Excision And Single-Strand Break Repair, Kate M. Saville 2022 University of South Alabama

Role Of Parp1 And Nad+ Bioavailability In Base Excision And Single-Strand Break Repair, Kate M. Saville

Theses and Dissertations

High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are malignant, highly metabolically active brain tumors. HGGs are associated with poor patient outcome, attributed to resistance to current therapies, with a survival rate between 12 to 15 months. Gliomas are highly complex tumors, making targeted therapy difficult, highlighting the need for novel approaches and new treatment options. In addition, a large percentage of HGGs are comprised of glioma stem cells (GSCs) that further contribute to therapeutic resistance. Notable characteristics of GSCs are a heightened DNA damage response (DDR) and elevated replication stress that could provide opportunities for therapeutic targeting. A notable feature of many glioma tumors …


The Effects Of Deleting Lrb E3 Ligase Region 2 On Red Light Responses In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Sabina Liskey 2022 Grand Valley State University

The Effects Of Deleting Lrb E3 Ligase Region 2 On Red Light Responses In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Sabina Liskey

Masters Theses

The ability of plants to absorb light through photoreceptors is essential for successful plant development. Phytochromes are important plant photoreceptors that detect and absorb red and far-red light and must function properly for plant survival. The Light Response BTB proteins (LRB) play an important role in a plant’s response to red light by degrading phytochrome B (PhyB) via the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Although there has been a successful investigation into understanding the function of the LRBs, the function of a few regions within LRB proteins remains unknown, including a portion located on the N-terminal end of the protein, termed …


Clustered Protocadherins Ubiquitination And Phosphorylation Regulates Surface Expression, Albert Ptashnik 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Clustered Protocadherins Ubiquitination And Phosphorylation Regulates Surface Expression, Albert Ptashnik

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs) are a family of 60 adhesion-like molecules forming a neural barcode. In vertebrate neurons, 60 Pcdhs are coded by a large gene cluster. Numerous axons in the cluster are coding for the different extracellular, transmembrane, variable portion of the cytoplasmic and constant cytoplasmic domains where their expression is controlled epigenetically. These proteins mediate interactions between axons, dendrites, and glial cells during neural development. Yet, Pcdhs are not strictly adhesion molecules. In the amacrine cells of the retina, Pcdhs promote avoidance of the same cell dendrites, where in the cortex Pcdhs promote interactions between dendrites and astrocytes. In …


The Role Of Increased Matrix Metalloproteinase (Mmp14) Expression On Apoptosis Sensitivity In Human Breast Cancer Cells, Roukayah Rifai 2022 Western University

The Role Of Increased Matrix Metalloproteinase (Mmp14) Expression On Apoptosis Sensitivity In Human Breast Cancer Cells, Roukayah Rifai

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

A member of the matrix metalloproteinase family (MMP14) plays a crucial role in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, as it possesses characteristics that aid in cell proliferation and differentiation. MMP14 domains can bind to FIH-1, which is a protein that can prevent apoptosis in cells when attached to BAX in the mitochondria. This study will investigate the varying expressions of MMP14 on FIH-1 and BAX, and their effects on apoptotic sensitivity. Three cell lines with varying levels of MMP14 expression will be used: C3 (~11 fold), ΔCD (~100 fold), and C2 (~500 fold). With the overexpression of MM14 on the cell …


Methods For Assessing Cellular Phenotypes Related To Aging And Longevity In Turtles, Stephanie E. Bulls 2022 University of South Alabama

Methods For Assessing Cellular Phenotypes Related To Aging And Longevity In Turtles, Stephanie E. Bulls

Theses and Dissertations

There are many costs associated with increased body size and longevity in animals, including the accumulation of genotoxic and cytotoxic damage that comes with having more cells and living longer. Yet, some species have overcome these barriers and have evolved remarkably large body sizes and long lifespans. Organisms with these unique phenotypes have come under recent genomic scrutiny to discover mechanisms of healthy aging and tumor suppression but little physiological work to validate these mechanisms has been conducted outside of mammals. Here I propose that reptiles, especially testudines (turtles), would be an excellent system to investigate the topics of size …


Functional Role Of Ppal And Potential For Moss In Industrial Applications., Susana Perez Martinez 2022 University of Louisville

Functional Role Of Ppal And Potential For Moss In Industrial Applications., Susana Perez Martinez

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is an examination and characterization of the functional roles of PPAL. PROTEIN PRENYLTRANSFERASE ALPHA SUBUNIT-LIKE (PPAL) is a recently discovered gene. PPAL homologs are present in all plants and many animals, where its function is largely unknown. It is possible that PPAL could participate in prenylation processes since it shares similarity to the α subunits of known prenylation enzymes. Prenylation is a post-translational modification of proteins that involves the addition of a lipid moiety to proteins to facilitate membrane targeting and association and promote protein-protein interactions. Prenylation has important roles in plant growth and development, including …


Feasibility Of Tubulin As A Control For Gene Expression Following Transfection In Mouse Monocyte/Macrophage-Like Cells, Ankita Chabra 2022 St. Mary's University

Feasibility Of Tubulin As A Control For Gene Expression Following Transfection In Mouse Monocyte/Macrophage-Like Cells, Ankita Chabra

St. Mary's University Honors Theses and Projects

Transfection, which is the ability to modify host cells’ genetic content, has broad application in studying normal cellular processes, molecular mechanism of disease and gene therapy. There are several transfection techniques, and all require either a control or a reference gene. Commonly used controls for transfection experiments are housekeeping genes, which maintain expression for a given cell/tissue, experimental conditions, and treatment. However, recent research has uncovered that expression levels of housekeeping genes may vary depending on the gene, cell type and experimental conditions. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that housekeeping genes are inadequate internal standards for measuring gene expression …


Amphiphilic Cell-Penetrating Peptides Containing Natural And Unnatural Amino Acids As Drug Delivery Agents, David Salehi, Saghar Mozaffari, Khalid Zoghebi, Sandeep Lohan, Dindyal Mandal, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang 2022 Chapman University

Amphiphilic Cell-Penetrating Peptides Containing Natural And Unnatural Amino Acids As Drug Delivery Agents, David Salehi, Saghar Mozaffari, Khalid Zoghebi, Sandeep Lohan, Dindyal Mandal, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

A series of cyclic peptides, [(DipR)(WR)4], [(DipR)2(WR)3], [(DipR)3(WR)2], [(DipR)4(WR)], and [DipR]5, and their linear counterparts containing arginine (R) as positively charged residues and tryptophan (W) or diphenylalanine (Dip) as hydrophobic residues, were synthesized and evaluated for their molecular transporter efficiency. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the synthesized peptides was determined in human epithelial ovary adenocarcinoma cells (SK-OV-3), human lymphoblast peripheral blood cells (CCRF-CEM), human embryonic epithelial kidney healthy cells (HEK-293), human epithelial mammary gland adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-MB-468), pig epithelial kidney normal cells (LLC-PK1), and human epithelial …


Exendin‐4 Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation Of Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells Through The Receptor Activator Of Nuclear Factor‐Kappa B And Osteoprotegerin Signaling Pathway, Sarah A. Habib, Mohamed M. Kamal, Shohda A. El-Maraghy, Mahmoud A. Senousy 2022 The British University in Egypt

Exendin‐4 Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation Of Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells Through The Receptor Activator Of Nuclear Factor‐Kappa B And Osteoprotegerin Signaling Pathway, Sarah A. Habib, Mohamed M. Kamal, Shohda A. El-Maraghy, Mahmoud A. Senousy

Pharmacy

The capability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to repair bone damage and defects has long been investigated. The receptor activator of nuclear factorkappa B (RANK), its ligand (RANKL) and the decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) axis is crucial to keep the equilibrium between osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity. Exendin‐4 utilization increased bone formation and enhanced bone integrity. This study aimed to investigate the mentioned axis and determine the effect of exendin‐4 upon adipose mesenchymal stem cells (Ad‐MSCs) osteogenic differentiation. Ad‐MSCs were isolated from rat epididymal fat, followed by characterization and then differentiation into osteocytes both in the presence or absence of exendin‐4. …


Escherichia Coli Alanyl-Trna Synthetase Maintains Proofreading Activity And Translational Accuracy Under Oxidative Stress, Arundhati Kavoor, Paul Kelly, Michael Ibba 2022 The Ohio State University

Escherichia Coli Alanyl-Trna Synthetase Maintains Proofreading Activity And Translational Accuracy Under Oxidative Stress, Arundhati Kavoor, Paul Kelly, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are enzymes that synthesize aminoacyl-tRNAs to facilitate translation of the genetic code. Quality control by aaRS proofreading and other mechanisms maintains translational accuracy, which promotes cellular viability. Systematic disruption of proofreading, as recently demonstrated for alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS), leads to dysregulation of the proteome and reduced viability. Recent studies showed that environmental challenges such as exposure to reactive oxygen species can also alter aaRS synthetic and proofreading functions, prompting us to investigate if oxidation might positively or negatively affect AlaRS activity. We found that while oxidation leads to modification of several residues in Escherichia coli AlaRS, unlike …


The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole 2022 Wright State University

The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is an essential cellular protein that is involved in cell adhesion, cell signaling, and viral infection. The 8-exon encoded isoform (CAREx8) resides at the apical surface of polarized epithelia, where it is accessible as a receptor for adenovirus entering the airway lumen. Given its pivotal role in viral infection, it is a target for antiviral strategies. To understand the regulation of CAREx8 and determine the feasibility of receptor down regulation, the half-life of total and apical localized CAREx8 was determined and correlated with adenovirus transduction. Total and apical CAREx8 has a relatively short half-life …


Beginnings, Elizabeth Becker 2022 Hollins University

Beginnings, Elizabeth Becker

Dance (MFA) Theses

Researcher Elizabeth Becker uses personal experiences of pregnancy alongside scholarly research on the developmental movement patterns of the human embryo, fetus, and newborn’s first year of life to explore the multiplicity of these movement patterns within and outside the womb. Becker explores the relationship between the fertilization, germinal, embryonic, and fetal stages in relation to a newborn and its mother. These movement patterns within the beginning stages of life are valuable to research because they simulate neurodevelopmental patterns, which help wire the central nervous system in early childhood. These movements also help lay the foundation for sensory-motor development and life-long …


Exosomal-Long Non-Coding Rnas Journey In Colorectal Cancer: Evil And Goodness Faces Of Key Players, Nehal I. Rizk, Ahmed I. Abulsoud, Mohamed M. Kamal, Dina H. Kassem, Nadia M. Hamdy 2022 Heliopolis University

Exosomal-Long Non-Coding Rnas Journey In Colorectal Cancer: Evil And Goodness Faces Of Key Players, Nehal I. Rizk, Ahmed I. Abulsoud, Mohamed M. Kamal, Dina H. Kassem, Nadia M. Hamdy

Pharmacy

Exosomes are nano-vesicles (NVs) secreted by cells and take part in cell-cell communications. Lately, these exosomes were proved to have dual faces in cancer. Actually, they can contribute to carcinogenesis through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), angiogenesis, metastasis and tumor microenvironment (TME) of various cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). On the other hand, they can be potential targets for cancer treatment. CRC is one of the most frequent tumors worldwide, with incidence rates rising in the recent decades. In its early stage, CRC is asymptomatic with poor treatment outcomes. Therefore, finding a non-invasive, early diagnostic biomarker tool and/or suitable defender to combat …


Elucidating The Role Of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 In Lung Stem Cell Fate And Lung Disease, Aria Byrd 2022 University of Kentucky

Elucidating The Role Of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 In Lung Stem Cell Fate And Lung Disease, Aria Byrd

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

The average human lungs take ~22,000 breaths and inhale ~2,000 gallons of air each day. This organ is the primary conduit for the transfer of oxygen to the internal organs, making it crucial for the sustainment of life. Consequently, mechanical malfunction of the lungs and/or pollution of inhaled air negatively impact internal organ function and ultimately put survival in jeopardy. Epigenetics, by nature, is a plastic phenomenon in which environmental stimuli influence short term, long term, and generational gene expression patterns. Chronic exposure of harmful stimuli to the lung epithelium has also been shown to alter epigenetic pathways, engender aberrant …


Modification Of Culture Medium And Identification Of Microbial Contaminants For Improved In Vitro Propagation Of Freshwater Mussels, Raquel M. Wetzell 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Modification Of Culture Medium And Identification Of Microbial Contaminants For Improved In Vitro Propagation Of Freshwater Mussels, Raquel M. Wetzell

Theses and Dissertations

In vitro propagation efforts play an essential role in conserving and restoring threatened freshwater mussel populations by circumventing the need for a fish host. Across a broad range of taxa, transformation is induced with an artificial M199 medium and rabbit serum. However, such formulation may not be sufficient in culturing critical species with more specific physiological requirements. In this study, multiple serum mixtures were tested to improve in vitro transformation of two freshwater mussel species: yellow lampmussel (Lampsilis cariosa) and tidewater mucket (Atlantaconcha ochracea). These species were selected because they parasitize similar fish host species but …


Keratin 1 As A Cell-Surface Receptor In Cancer, Oluseye Ogunnigbagbe, Christopher G. Bunick, Kamaljit Kaur 2021 Chapman University

Keratin 1 As A Cell-Surface Receptor In Cancer, Oluseye Ogunnigbagbe, Christopher G. Bunick, Kamaljit Kaur

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Keratins are fibrous proteins that take part in several important cellular functions, including the formation of intermediate filaments. In addition, keratins serve as epithelial cell markers, which has made their role in cancer progression, diagnosis, and treatment an important focus of research. Keratin 1 (K1) is a type II keratin whose structure is comprised of a coiled-coil central domain flanked by flexible, glycine-rich loops in the N- and C-termini. While the structure of cytoplasmic K1 is established, the structure of cell-surface K1 is not known. Several transformed cells, such as cancerous cells and cells that have undergone oxidative stress, display …


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