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The Transmission Of Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Kunjal Patel, Aleesha Thomas 2024 Nova Southeastern University

The Transmission Of Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Kunjal Patel, Aleesha Thomas

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

The existence of Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OPSCC) has recently been found to have correlations with the Human Papillomavirus. HPV-associated OPSCC exhibits a unique method of infection and transmission and has made this branch an emerging disease in the recent decade. This systematic review of the literature was conducted to further explore research into Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Cancer (OPSCC). Commonly referred to as “throat cancer”, this growth originates in the oropharynx. Symptoms of this condition include sore throat, lumps in the neck, and difficulty with swallowing. OPSCC has many variants but has shown a strong association with Human Papillomavirus (HPV), …


Targeting Strategies To Optimize The Therapeutic Potential Of Gold Compounds Against Her2-Positive Breast Cancers, Afruja Ahad 2024 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Targeting Strategies To Optimize The Therapeutic Potential Of Gold Compounds Against Her2-Positive Breast Cancers, Afruja Ahad

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The overexpression of HER2 accounts for 20-30% of breast cancer tumors and not only serves as a marker for poor predictive clinical outcomes but also as a target for treatment. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) combine the selectivity of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs to provide targeted treatment without toxicity to normal tissue. Most of the ADCs currently in the clinic for cancer chemotherapy are based on complex organic molecules. In contrast, the conjugation of metallodrugs to mAbs has been overlooked when there is enormous potential in this area with the resurgence of metal-based drugs as prospective cancer …


Protein-Protein Interactions In Cell Cycle Proteins: An In Silico Investigation Of Two Important Players, Andriele Eichner 2024 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Protein-Protein Interactions In Cell Cycle Proteins: An In Silico Investigation Of Two Important Players, Andriele Eichner

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The examination of the cell cycle carries significant implications for the biology, health, and overall existence of all living things. These implications span from the development and growth of these organisms to the aging process and cancer, as well as the potential of stem cell therapies to repair diseases and injuries. Numerous proteins of the cell cycle are essential for cellular division and proliferation and are widely conserved over the course of evolution. In this work, we aimed to investigate the molecular processes of protein-protein interactions in cell cycle proteins, centering on two key players: Cdc6 in budding yeast and …


Classification Of Colorectal Cancer Using Resnet And Efficientnet Models, Abhishek Ranjan, Priyanshu Srivastva, B Prabadevi, R Sivakumar, Rahul Soangra, Shamala K. Subramaniam 2024 Vellore Institute of Technology

Classification Of Colorectal Cancer Using Resnet And Efficientnet Models, Abhishek Ranjan, Priyanshu Srivastva, B Prabadevi, R Sivakumar, Rahul Soangra, Shamala K. Subramaniam

Physical Therapy Faculty Articles and Research

Introduction:

Cancer is one of the most prevalent diseases from children to elderly adults. This will be deadly if not detected at an earlier stage of the cancerous cell formation, thereby increasing the mortality rate. One such cancer is colorectal cancer, caused due to abnormal growth in the rectum or colon. Early screening of colorectal cancer helps to identify these abnormal growth and can exterminate them before they turn into cancerous cells.

Aim:

Therefore, this study aims to develop a robust and efficient classification system for colorectal cancer through Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) on histological images.

Methods:

Despite challenges in …


A Cyclin D1 Intrinsically Disordered Domain Accesses Modified Histone Motifs To Govern Gene Transcription, Xuanmao Jiao, Gabriele Di Sante, Mathew Casimiro, Agnes Tantos, Anthony Ashton, Zhiping Li, Yen Quach, Dharmendra Bhargava, Agnese Di Rocco, Claudia Pupo, Marco Crosariol, Tamas Lazar, Peter Tompa, Chenguang Wang, Zuoren Yu, Zhao Zhang, Kawthar Aldaaysi, Ratna Vadlamudi, Monica Mann, Emmanuel Skordalakes, Andrew Kossenkov, Yanming Du, Richard Pestell 2024 Thomas Jefferson University

A Cyclin D1 Intrinsically Disordered Domain Accesses Modified Histone Motifs To Govern Gene Transcription, Xuanmao Jiao, Gabriele Di Sante, Mathew Casimiro, Agnes Tantos, Anthony Ashton, Zhiping Li, Yen Quach, Dharmendra Bhargava, Agnese Di Rocco, Claudia Pupo, Marco Crosariol, Tamas Lazar, Peter Tompa, Chenguang Wang, Zuoren Yu, Zhao Zhang, Kawthar Aldaaysi, Ratna Vadlamudi, Monica Mann, Emmanuel Skordalakes, Andrew Kossenkov, Yanming Du, Richard Pestell

Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

The essential G1-cyclin, CCND1, is frequently overexpressed in cancer, contributing to tumorigenesis by driving cell-cycle progression. D-type cyclins are rate-limiting regulators of G1-S progression in mammalian cells via their ability to bind and activate CDK4 and CDK6. In addition, cyclin D1 conveys kinase-independent transcriptional functions of cyclin D1. Here we report that cyclin D1 associates with H2BS14 via an intrinsically disordered domain (IDD). The same region of cyclin D1 was necessary for the induction of aneuploidy, induction of the DNA damage response, cyclin D1-mediated recruitment into chromatin, and CIN gene transcription. In response to …


Estrogen Receptor (Er) Alpha Regulatory Mechanisms And Therapeutic Strategies In Er+ Breast Cancer, Bianca A. Romo 2024 Dartmouth College

Estrogen Receptor (Er) Alpha Regulatory Mechanisms And Therapeutic Strategies In Er+ Breast Cancer, Bianca A. Romo

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Breast cancer is among the most frequently diagnosed cancers in the U.S. and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortalities, second to lung cancer. Estrogen receptor alpha-positive (ER+) breast cancer accounts for 2/3 of diagnosed cases. Patients diagnosed with this subtype of breast cancer typically undergo endocrine therapy that aims to mitigate the growth-promoting effects of estrogen/ER. While therapies are effective, 1/3 of patients will experience recurrence. To begin addressing this drug-resistant patient population, we investigated potential drug targets involved in response to treatment.

Coregulators have been implicated in the regulation of ER transcriptional activity and subsequently affecting …


Synergistic Effects Of Nanosecond Pulsed Plasma And Electric Field On Inactivation Of Pancreatic Cancer Cells In Vitro, Edwin A. Oshin, Zobia Minhas, Ruben M. L. Colunga Biancatelli, John D. Catravas, Richard Heller, Siqi Guo, Chunqi Jiang 2024 Old Dominion University

Synergistic Effects Of Nanosecond Pulsed Plasma And Electric Field On Inactivation Of Pancreatic Cancer Cells In Vitro, Edwin A. Oshin, Zobia Minhas, Ruben M. L. Colunga Biancatelli, John D. Catravas, Richard Heller, Siqi Guo, Chunqi Jiang

Bioelectrics Publications

Nanosecond pulsed atmospheric pressure plasma jets (ns-APPJs) produce reactive plasma species, including charged particles and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), which can induce oxidative stress in biological cells. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) has also been found to cause permeabilization of cell membranes and induce apoptosis or cell death. Combining the treatment of ns-APPJ and nsPEF may enhance the effectiveness of cancer cell inactivation with only moderate doses of both treatments. Employing ns-APPJ powered by 9 kV, 200 ns pulses at 2 kHz and 60-nsPEF of 50 kV/cm at 1 Hz, the synergistic effects on pancreatic cancer cells (Pan02) …


Desmoglein-2 As A Cancer Modulator: Friend Or Foe?, Kay Myo Min, Charlie Ffrench, Barbara McClure, Michael Ortiz, Emma Dorward, Michael Samuel, Lisa Ebert, Mỹ Mahoney, Claudine Bonder 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Desmoglein-2 As A Cancer Modulator: Friend Or Foe?, Kay Myo Min, Charlie Ffrench, Barbara Mcclure, Michael Ortiz, Emma Dorward, Michael Samuel, Lisa Ebert, Mỹ Mahoney, Claudine Bonder

Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

Desmoglein-2 (DSG2) is a calcium-binding single pass transmembrane glycoprotein and a member of the large cadherin family. Until recently, DSG2 was thought to only function as a cell adhesion protein embedded within desmosome junctions designed to enable cells to better tolerate mechanical stress. However, additional roles for DSG2 outside of desmosomes are continuing to emerge, particularly in cancer. Herein, we review the current literature on DSG2 in cancer and detail its impact on biological functions such as cell adhesion, proliferation, migration, invasion, intracellular signaling, extracellular vesicle release and vasculogenic mimicry. An increased understanding of the diverse repertoire of the biological …


27-Hydroxycholesterol And Dna Damage Repair: Implication In Prostate Cancer, Gloria Cecilia Galvan, Nadine Friedrich, Sanjay Das, James Daniels, Sara Pollan, Shweta Dambal, Ryusuke Suzuki, Sergio Sanders, Sungyong You, Hisashi Tanaka, Yeon-Joo Lee, Wei Yuan, Johann de Bono, Irina Vasilevskaya, Karen Knudsen, Michael Freeman, Stephen Freedland 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

27-Hydroxycholesterol And Dna Damage Repair: Implication In Prostate Cancer, Gloria Cecilia Galvan, Nadine Friedrich, Sanjay Das, James Daniels, Sara Pollan, Shweta Dambal, Ryusuke Suzuki, Sergio Sanders, Sungyong You, Hisashi Tanaka, Yeon-Joo Lee, Wei Yuan, Johann De Bono, Irina Vasilevskaya, Karen Knudsen, Michael Freeman, Stephen Freedland

Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

INTRODUCTION: We previously reported that cholesterol homeostasis in prostate cancer (PC) is regulated by 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) and that CYP27A1, the enzyme that converts cholesterol to 27HC, is frequently lost in PCs. We observed that restoring the CYP27A1/27HC axis inhibited PC growth. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of 27HC-mediated anti-PC effects.

METHODS: We employed in vitro models and human transcriptomics data to investigate 27HC mechanism of action in PC. LNCaP (AR+) and DU145 (AR-) cells were treated with 27HC or vehicle. Transcriptome profiling was performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip™ microarray system. Differential expression was determined, and gene set enrichment …


Needle Biopsy Accelerates Pro-Metastatic Changes And Systemic Dissemination In Breast Cancer: Implications For Mortality By Surgery Delay, Hiroyasu Kameyama, Priya Dondapati, Reese Simmons, Macall Leslie, John Langenheim, Yunguang Sun, Misung Yi, Aubrey Rottschaefer, Rashmi Pathak, Shreya Nuguri, Kar-Ming Fung, Shirng-Wern Tsaih, Inna Chervoneva, Hallgeir Rui, Takemi Tanaka 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Needle Biopsy Accelerates Pro-Metastatic Changes And Systemic Dissemination In Breast Cancer: Implications For Mortality By Surgery Delay, Hiroyasu Kameyama, Priya Dondapati, Reese Simmons, Macall Leslie, John Langenheim, Yunguang Sun, Misung Yi, Aubrey Rottschaefer, Rashmi Pathak, Shreya Nuguri, Kar-Ming Fung, Shirng-Wern Tsaih, Inna Chervoneva, Hallgeir Rui, Takemi Tanaka

Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

ncreased breast cancer (BC) mortality risk posed by delayed surgical resection of tumor after diagnosis is a growing concern, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Our cohort analyses of early-stage BC patients reveal the emergence of a significantly rising mortality risk when the biopsy-to-surgery interval was extended beyond 53 days. Additionally, histology of post-biopsy tumors shows prolonged retention of a metastasis-permissive wound stroma dominated by M2-like macrophages capable of promoting cancer cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis. We show that needle biopsy promotes systemic dissemination of cancer cells through a mechanism of sustained activation of the COX-2/PGE2/EP2 feedforward loop, …


Melittin: A Natural Component Of Honeybee Venom As A Potential Anti-Cancer Therapy, Niamh Donnellan, Anne M. Friel 2023 Technological University of the Shannon: Midlands Midwest

Melittin: A Natural Component Of Honeybee Venom As A Potential Anti-Cancer Therapy, Niamh Donnellan, Anne M. Friel

SURE Journal: Science Undergraduate Research Experience Journal

Cancer is a major cause of death worldwide and while chemotherapy is the main approach there are many negative associations in current treatment procedures. These include lack of selectivity, side effects and drug resistance. The hallmarks of cancer are a fundamental concept which aids the development of new means to treat human cancers through the understanding of the acquisition of these hallmarks from cells.

Melittin is a major peptide component of bee venom which has shown to be efficacious as an anticancer agent in preclinical and animal models. Melittin has many biological functions including pore formation in the phospholipid bilayer …


Phi-1, An Endogenous Inhibitor Protein For Protein Phosphatase-1 And A Pan-Cancer Marker, Regulates Raf-1 Proteostasis, Jason Kirkbride, Garbo Nilsson, Jee In Kim, Kosuke Takeya, Yoshinori Tanaka, Hiroshi Tokumitsu, Futoshi Suizu, Masumi Eto 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Phi-1, An Endogenous Inhibitor Protein For Protein Phosphatase-1 And A Pan-Cancer Marker, Regulates Raf-1 Proteostasis, Jason Kirkbride, Garbo Nilsson, Jee In Kim, Kosuke Takeya, Yoshinori Tanaka, Hiroshi Tokumitsu, Futoshi Suizu, Masumi Eto

Kimmel Cancer Center Faculty Papers

Raf-1, a multifunctional kinase, regulates various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration, by phosphorylating MAPK/ERK kinase and interacting with specific kinases. Cellular Raf-1 activity is intricately regulated through pathways involving the binding of regulatory proteins, direct phosphorylation, and the ubiquitin-proteasome axis. In this study, we demonstrate that PHI-1, an endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), plays a pivotal role in modulating Raf-1 proteostasis within cells. Knocking down endogenous PHI-1 in HEK293 cells using siRNA resulted in increased cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis. This heightened cell proliferation was accompanied by a 15-fold increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Importantly, the observed …


Oncogenic Kras And Telomere Biology In Crc Progression, Ronald DePinho 2023 The Texas Medical Center Library

Oncogenic Kras And Telomere Biology In Crc Progression, Ronald Depinho

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

While colorectal cancer (CRC) patients diagnosed with localized stage disease (as defined by SEER) have a 5-year survival rate of 90%, this rate plunges to 14% for patients diagnosed with metastatic CRC. Consequently, there is an immediate imperative to elucidate the mechanisms that drive the transition to advanced CRC.

Human CRCs carrying oncogenic mutations in the KRAS oncogene, henceforth referred to as KRAS*, exhibit a 25% higher propensity for developing liver metastases. Similarly, in our CRC mouse model, engineered with an inducible Kras* transgene and conditional null alleles of Apc and Tp53 (referred to as iKAP), KRAS* has been …


Genomic Characterization Of Adolescent And Young Adult Cancers: Investigation Of Ewing Sarcoma Susceptibility And Chornobyl Thyroid Tumors, Olivia Lee 2023 The Texas Medical Center Library

Genomic Characterization Of Adolescent And Young Adult Cancers: Investigation Of Ewing Sarcoma Susceptibility And Chornobyl Thyroid Tumors, Olivia Lee

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers, diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39, can exhibit distinctive genetic and molecular characteristics. Reported epidemiologic findings and treatment outcomes based on pediatric and adult cancer studies are often not suitable for application to the AYA population, underscoring the need for more thorough genomic research. Advances in sequencing technologies have enabled comprehensive analyses of complex genomic characteristics of AYA cancers, crucial for understanding the underlying biology of these malignancies. Here, I have utilized advanced sequencing techniques and integrated analytic approaches to describe important genomic features in two different AYA cancer types: Ewing Sarcoma …


Kinome Profiling Identifies Mark3 And Stk10 As Potential Therapeutic Targets In Uveal Melanoma, Usman Baqai, Alison M. Kurimchak, Isabella Trachtenberg, Timothy J. Purwin, Jelan I. Haj, Anna Han, Kristine Luo, Nikole Fandino Pachon, Angela Jeon, Vivian Chua, Michael A. Davies, J Silvio Gutkind, Jeffrey L. Benovic, James S. Duncan, Andrew E. Aplin 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Kinome Profiling Identifies Mark3 And Stk10 As Potential Therapeutic Targets In Uveal Melanoma, Usman Baqai, Alison M. Kurimchak, Isabella Trachtenberg, Timothy J. Purwin, Jelan I. Haj, Anna Han, Kristine Luo, Nikole Fandino Pachon, Angela Jeon, Vivian Chua, Michael A. Davies, J Silvio Gutkind, Jeffrey L. Benovic, James S. Duncan, Andrew E. Aplin

Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

Most uveal melanoma cases harbor activating mutations in either GNAQ or GNA11. Despite activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway downstream of Gαq/11, there are no effective targeted kinase therapies for metastatic uveal melanoma. The human genome encodes numerous understudied kinases, also called the "dark kinome". Identifying additional kinases regulated by Gαq/11 may uncover novel therapeutic targets for uveal melanoma. In this study, we treated GNAQ-mutant uveal melanoma cell lines with a Gαq/11 inhibitor, YM-254890, and conducted a kinase signaling proteomic screen using multiplexed-kinase inhibitors followed by mass spectrometry. We observed downregulated expression and/or activity of 22 kinases. …


Role Of The Immune System In The Modulation Of The Mmr-Deficient Intestinal Stem Cell Niche, Shepard Conner 2023 The Texas Medical Center Library

Role Of The Immune System In The Modulation Of The Mmr-Deficient Intestinal Stem Cell Niche, Shepard Conner

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Mismatch Repair (MMR) is a crucial DNA repair system to maintain genomic integrity in cells that is integrated by specific genes including MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. These genes play a critical role in repairing errors that occur in base pairing by stabilizing the genetic material. When the MMR system fails to correct those errors, MMR deficiency occurs where monoallelic mutations in the MMR genes result in a condition known as Lynch Syndrome (LS). LS makes up approximately 3% of all colorectal cancer (CRC) and is regarded as a hereditary form of CRC, which progresses from MMR-deficient …


Pcbp1 Regulates Lifr Through Fam3c To Maintain Breast Cancer Stem Cell Self-Renewal And Invasiveness, William S. Streitfeld 2023 Medical University of South Carolina

Pcbp1 Regulates Lifr Through Fam3c To Maintain Breast Cancer Stem Cell Self-Renewal And Invasiveness, William S. Streitfeld

MUSC Theses and Dissertations

The poly(rC) binding protein 1 gene (PCBP1) encodes the heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (hnRNPE1), a nucleic acid-binding protein that plays a tumor-suppressive role in mammary epithelial cells by regulating phenotypic plasticity and cell fate. Following the loss of PCBP1 function, the FAM3C gene (encoding the Interleukin-like EMT inducer, or “ILEI” protein) and the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) gene are upregulated. Interaction between FAM3C and LIFR in the extracellular space induces phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3). Overexpression and/or hyperactivity of STAT3 has been detected in 40% of breast cancer cases and is associated with a …


Enteroendocrine Cell Regulation Of The Gut-Brain Axis, Joshua Barton, Annie Londregan, Tyler Alexander, Ariana Entezari, Manuel Covarrubias, Scott Waldman 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Enteroendocrine Cell Regulation Of The Gut-Brain Axis, Joshua Barton, Annie Londregan, Tyler Alexander, Ariana Entezari, Manuel Covarrubias, Scott Waldman

Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) are an essential interface between the gut and brain that communicate signals about nutrients, pain, and even information from our microbiome. EECs are hormone-producing cells expressed throughout the gastrointestinal epithelium and have been leveraged by pharmaceuticals like semaglutide (Ozempic, Wegovy), terzepatide (Mounjaro), and retatrutide (Phase 2) for diabetes and weight control, and linaclotide (Linzess) to treat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and visceral pain. This review focuses on role of intestinal EECs to communicate signals from the gut lumen to the brain. Canonically, EECs communicate information about the intestinal environment through a variety of hormones, dividing EECs into …


Tak1 And Tbk1 Are Differentially Required By Gmp- And Lmpp-Like Leukemia Stem Cells, Austin P. Runde, Joseph Michael Cannova, Ryan Mack, Kanak Joshi, Mark Sellin, Allan Youmaran, Mattias Lenz, Rohit Thalla, Wei Wei, Peter Breslin S.J., Jiwang Zhang 2023 Loyola University Chicago

Tak1 And Tbk1 Are Differentially Required By Gmp- And Lmpp-Like Leukemia Stem Cells, Austin P. Runde, Joseph Michael Cannova, Ryan Mack, Kanak Joshi, Mark Sellin, Allan Youmaran, Mattias Lenz, Rohit Thalla, Wei Wei, Peter Breslin S.J., Jiwang Zhang

School of Medicine

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) encompasses a diverse group of cancers that originate in the blood-forming tissues of the bone marrow. Aside from the M3 subtype (PML-RARA+), AML carries a 5-year survival rate of 28% for patients 20+ years of age. AML is the most common cancer of the hematopoietic system and is slightly more common in biological males; the average age at diagnosis is 68 years. Standard frontline treatment for AML is a 2-phase regimen of intensive chemotherapy (CTx) employing daunorubicin and cytarabine. Despite 60-70% of patients achieving complete remission (CR), at least half of CR-achieving patients …


Development Of Targeted Drug Delivery System To Improve Immunotherapy In Pancreatic Cancer, Poornima Devi Shaji, Ana Martinez Bulnes, Nirnoy Dan, Subhash C. Chauhan, Sheema Khan, Murali M. Yallapu 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Development Of Targeted Drug Delivery System To Improve Immunotherapy In Pancreatic Cancer, Poornima Devi Shaji, Ana Martinez Bulnes, Nirnoy Dan, Subhash C. Chauhan, Sheema Khan, Murali M. Yallapu

Research Colloquium

Introduction: About 95% of tumor arises from epithelial cell lining ducts known to be pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, with less than 5-7% survival rate. Unfortunately, little progress has been seen in the outcomes of patients with PDAC as tumor develops high desmoplasia and chemo-resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, such as gemcitabine (Gem). Immunotherapy has shown promising results in other cancers but limited response in pancreatic cancer due to desmoplasia and fibrotic tumor microenvironment. A recently identified mucin, MUC13 is aberrantly expressed in pancreatic tumors but not in normal pancreas. Due to its high membrane expression, MUC13 may serve as an excellent target …


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