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Rapid Cell Phenotyping Using Array-Based Sensors: Applications In Cancer Stem Cell Therapy And High-Content Screening, Yingying Geng 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Rapid Cell Phenotyping Using Array-Based Sensors: Applications In Cancer Stem Cell Therapy And High-Content Screening, Yingying Geng

Doctoral Dissertations

Cell surface harbors rich information regarding the status of cell health. Being able to monitor and detect its changes in response to stimuli will provide crucial information in drug discovery, disease diagnosis, and human health. Despite the efforts and breakthroughs made possible through the specific sensing approach, there are significant challenges in extracting the information on the cell surface in a quantitative and reliable way. To address this challenge, I took the approach of array-based, hypothesis-free sensing in which the engineered sensors selectively interact with target analytes, producing a distinct pattern of response that enables analyte identification. This signature-based pattern ...


Evaluation Of Somatic Mutations In Solid Metastatic Pan-Cancer Patients, Moom Roosan, Isa Mambetsariev, Rebecca Pharaon, Jeremy Fricke, Angel R. Baroz, Joseph Chao, Chen Chen, Mohd W. Nasser, Ramakanth Chirravuri-Venkata, Maneesh Jain, Lynette Smith, Susan E. Yost, Karen L. Reckamp, Raju Pillai, Leonidas Arvanitis, Michelle Afkhami, Edward W. Wang, Vincent Chung, Mihaela Cristea, Marwan Fakih, Marianna Koczywas, Erminia Massarelli, Joanne Mortimer, Yuan Yuan, Surinder K. Batra, Sumanta Pal, Ravi Salgia 2021 Chapman University

Evaluation Of Somatic Mutations In Solid Metastatic Pan-Cancer Patients, Moom Roosan, Isa Mambetsariev, Rebecca Pharaon, Jeremy Fricke, Angel R. Baroz, Joseph Chao, Chen Chen, Mohd W. Nasser, Ramakanth Chirravuri-Venkata, Maneesh Jain, Lynette Smith, Susan E. Yost, Karen L. Reckamp, Raju Pillai, Leonidas Arvanitis, Michelle Afkhami, Edward W. Wang, Vincent Chung, Mihaela Cristea, Marwan Fakih, Marianna Koczywas, Erminia Massarelli, Joanne Mortimer, Yuan Yuan, Surinder K. Batra, Sumanta Pal, Ravi Salgia

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Metastasis continues to be the primary cause of all cancer-related deaths despite the recent advancements in cancer treatments. To evaluate the role of mutations in overall survival (OS) and treatment outcomes, we analyzed 957 metastatic patients with seven major cancer types who had available molecular testing results with a FoundationOne CDx® panel. The most prevalent genes with somatic mutations were TP53, KRAS, APC, and LRP1B. In this analysis, these genes had mutation frequencies higher than in publicly available datasets. We identified that the somatic mutations were seven mutually exclusive gene pairs and an additional fifty-two co-occurring gene pairs. Mutations in ...


Effect Of Her2 Expression On Nupl2 Protein In Cervical Cancer Cells, Mary E. Eichholz, Margaret J. Ballou, Tristan J. Haight, Jennifer L. Minton, Ryan N. Oates, Jacob J. Adler 2021 Brescia University

Effect Of Her2 Expression On Nupl2 Protein In Cervical Cancer Cells, Mary E. Eichholz, Margaret J. Ballou, Tristan J. Haight, Jennifer L. Minton, Ryan N. Oates, Jacob J. Adler

Kentucky Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

Recurring cervical cancer patients frequently present overexpressed Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) protein, which promotes the growth of the cancer. Some HER2-expressing cells and cervical cancer patients have enhanced gene expression of Nucleoporin-like 2 (NUPL2). As part of the nuclear pore complex, the NUPL2 protein serves to selectively export substances from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. In this experiment, HER2 was expressed in cervical cancer cells to examine its effect on NUPL2 protein expression and localization. Interestingly, there was no difference in NUPL2 protein levels between HER2-expressing and non-expressing cells. Importantly, consistent instances of NUPL2 protein localization specific ...


Cancer Salt Nostalgia, Aashish S. Allu, Venkataswarup Tiriveedhi 2021 Lafayette High School

Cancer Salt Nostalgia, Aashish S. Allu, Venkataswarup Tiriveedhi

Biology Faculty Research

High-salt (sodium chloride) diets have been strongly associated with disease states and poor health outcomes. Traditionally, the impact of salt intake is primarily studied in cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and renal diseases; however, recently there has been increasing evidence demonstrating the role of salt in autoimmune diseases. Salt has been shown to modulate the inflammatory activation of immune cells leading to chronic inflammation-related ailments. To date, there is minimal evidence showing a direct correlation of salt with cancer incidence and/or cancer-related adverse clinical outcomes. In this review article, we will discuss the recent understanding of the molecular role of salt ...


Identifying The Cell Composition And Clonal Diversity Of Supratentorial Ependymoma Using Single Cell Rna-Sequencing, James He 2021 University of Connecticut

Identifying The Cell Composition And Clonal Diversity Of Supratentorial Ependymoma Using Single Cell Rna-Sequencing, James He

Honors Scholar Theses

Ependymoma is a primary solid tumor of the central nervous system. Supratentorial ependymoma (ST-EPN), a subtype of ependymomas, is driven by an oncogenic fusion between the ZFTA and RELA genes in 70% of cases. We introduced this fusion into neural progenitor cells of mice embryos via in utero electroporation of a non-viral binary piggyBac transposon system containing ZFTA-RELA. From preliminary data in the LoTurco lab, inducing the expression of ZFTA-RELA into different neural progenitor cells produces tumors of varying lethality and cellular composition. To define the cellular composition and subclonal diversity of ST-EPN tumors, we used single cell RNA-sequencing to ...


Identifying The Cell Composition And Clonal Diversity Of Supratentorial Ependymoma Using Single Cell Rna-Sequencing, James He 2021 University of Connecticut

Identifying The Cell Composition And Clonal Diversity Of Supratentorial Ependymoma Using Single Cell Rna-Sequencing, James He

University Scholar Projects

Ependymoma is a primary solid tumor of the central nervous system. Supratentorial ependymoma (ST-EPN), a subtype of ependymomas, is driven by an oncogenic fusion between the ZFTA and RELA genes in 70% of cases. We introduced this fusion into neural progenitor cells of mice embryos via in utero electroporation of a non-viral binary piggyBac transposon system containing ZFTA-RELA. From preliminary data in the LoTurco lab, inducing the expression of ZFTA-RELA into different neural progenitor cells produces tumors of varying lethality and cellular composition. To define the cellular composition and subclonal diversity of ST-EPN tumors, we used single cell RNA-sequencing to ...


Novel Hsp40/J-Domain Protein Inhibitors To Deplete Misfolded Mutant P53, Shigeto Nishikawa 2021 Department of Hematology & Oncology, Children’s Mercy Research Institute, MO

Novel Hsp40/J-Domain Protein Inhibitors To Deplete Misfolded Mutant P53, Shigeto Nishikawa

Research Days

Background: Accumulation of oncogenic mutant p53 (mutp53) greatly contributes to cancer progression. Heat shock protein 40 (HSP40), also known as J-domain proteins (JDPs), has been implicated in stabilization of misfolded forms of mutp53. Specifically, we demonstrate that DNAJA1, a member of HSP40/JDPs, binds to and stabilizes misfolded mutp53, while knockdown of DNAJA1 results in CHIP ubiquitin ligase-mediated degradation of misfolded mutp53 and inhibition of tumor growth. Since no HSP40/JDPs inhibitors are currently available in clinics, these findings prompted us to identify inhibitors for DNAJA1 or HSP40/JDPs.

Objectives/Goal: The goal of this study is to identify and ...


The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan 2021 University of Connecticut

The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan

Honors Scholar Theses

The granule cells are the most abundant neuronal type in the human brain. Rapid proliferation of granule cell progenitors results in dramatic expansion and folding of the cerebellar cortex during postnatal development. Mis-regulation of this proliferation process causes medulloblastoma, the most prevalent childhood brain tumor. In the developing cerebellum, granule cells are derived from Atoh1-expressing cells, which arise from the upper rhombic lip (the interface between the roof plate and neuroepithelium). In addition to granule cells, the Atoh1 lineage also gives rise to different types of neurons including cerebellar nuclei neurons. In the current study, I have investigated the ...


Inactivation Of The Hippo Tumor Suppressor Pathway Promotes Melanoma [Preprint], Marc A. Vittoria, Nathan Kingston, Eric Xia, Rui Hong, Lee Huang, Shayna McDonald, Andrew Tilston- Lunel, Revati A. Darp, Joshua Campbell, Deborah Lang, Xiaowei Xu, Craig J. Ceol, Xaralabos Varelas, Neil J. Ganem 2021 Boston University

Inactivation Of The Hippo Tumor Suppressor Pathway Promotes Melanoma [Preprint], Marc A. Vittoria, Nathan Kingston, Eric Xia, Rui Hong, Lee Huang, Shayna Mcdonald, Andrew Tilston- Lunel, Revati A. Darp, Joshua Campbell, Deborah Lang, Xiaowei Xu, Craig J. Ceol, Xaralabos Varelas, Neil J. Ganem

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Human melanomas are commonly driven by activating mutations in BRAF, which promote melanocyte proliferation through constitutive stimulation of the MAPK pathway. However, oncogenic BRAF alone is insufficient to promote melanoma; instead, its expression merely induces a transient burst of proliferation that ultimately ceases with the development of benign nevi (i.e. moles) comprised of growth-arrested melanocytes. The tumor suppressive mechanisms that induce this melanocytic growth arrest remain poorly understood. Recent modeling studies have suggested that the growth arrest of nevus melanocytes is not solely due to oncogene activation in individual cells, but rather due to cells sensing and responding to ...


Purification Of Pcbp2 And Its Effect On The Formation Of Dna I-Motifs And Secondary Structures, Nathan Redden 2021 University of Mississippi

Purification Of Pcbp2 And Its Effect On The Formation Of Dna I-Motifs And Secondary Structures, Nathan Redden

Honors Theses

Several secondary, non-B forms of DNA are associated with the promoter regions of many oncogenes, including the intensely studied c-MYC gene that codes for a transcription factor. Two such secondary structures, G-quadruplexes, and i-motifs, have become topics of interest due to their prevalence within oncogenic promoters, as well as their potential accessibility for drug targeting. B-form DNA can adopt alternative structures under certain conditions. These alternative structures are favored when there is an asymmetric distribution of guanosine and cytosine on complimentary DNA strands. The strand rich in guanosine is able to form a quadruple stranded DNA complex termed a G-quadruplex ...


Effects Of Heme Oxygenase 1 Inducer, T-Bhq On Growth Of Multiple Myeloma Cell Lines, And On Osteoblast And Osteoclast Differention, Alyaa Alansari 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Heme Oxygenase 1 Inducer, T-Bhq On Growth Of Multiple Myeloma Cell Lines, And On Osteoblast And Osteoclast Differention, Alyaa Alansari

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Expansion of plasma cells within the bone marrow constitutes the onset of multiple myeloma (MM). This disease manifests clinically primarily through the formation of osteolytic bone lesions that can lead to osteoporosis. The reason for the development of such lesions is the disruption of the equilibrium between bone resorption and bone formation as a result of proliferation of osteoclasts and reduction in the number of osteoblasts in the process of differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The maintenance of bone architecture is critically dependent on osteoblasts and osteoclasts, the activity of which is underpinned by a range of soluble factors ...


The Biochemical Characterization Of Aza197 And A Ras Related Protein Cdc42, Alix Montoya-Beltran 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Biochemical Characterization Of Aza197 And A Ras Related Protein Cdc42, Alix Montoya-Beltran

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Eukaryotic cells contain an extensive amount of GTP/GDP binding proteins. Proteins known as Ras GTPase primary function as a binary switch, where they cycle from an on and off state when GTP or GDP are bound, respectively. They are known to play a critical role in many cellular functions where a dysregulation could potentially lead to oncogenic behavior or other malignancies. In our laboratory, our focus is the study of a Ras related protein Cell division control 42 homolog (Cdc42) which belongs to the Rho subfamily. Cdc42 plays a critical role in many biological signaling processes; therefore, its uncontrol ...


Determining The Effect Of A Cbc-Based Oxime On Cell Viability And Apoptosis In Sea Urchin Embryos, Nevin B. Hoenninger, Jack Preston 2021 Susquehanna University

Determining The Effect Of A Cbc-Based Oxime On Cell Viability And Apoptosis In Sea Urchin Embryos, Nevin B. Hoenninger, Jack Preston

Senior Scholars Day

Natural products are an important source of existing and potential new anti-cancer drugs. We have previously shown that cannabichromene (CBC) oxime and several CBC oxime esters have potent anti-mitotic activity when used in bioassays with sea urchin embryos. In this study we explored the effect of the CBC oxime on cell viability and apoptosis in sea urchin embryos. Newly fertilized or gastrula stage embryos were combined with 10µM or 50uM CBC oxime as well as a DMSO only control. At various timepoints, samples of the embryos were removed from the cultures and stained with three different fluorescent dyes. NucBlue (ThermoFisher ...


022— Examining P27 Expression And Quiescence In Clobetasol-Exposed Umscv-4 Vulvar Cancer Cells, Nina Mustico, Vincent Scalcione, Jani E. Lewis 2021 SUNY Geneseo

022— Examining P27 Expression And Quiescence In Clobetasol-Exposed Umscv-4 Vulvar Cancer Cells, Nina Mustico, Vincent Scalcione, Jani E. Lewis

GREAT Day

Vulvar cancer is rare, mostly afflicting women aged 60 and older [1]. The cancer is often preceded by a common vulvar rash, lichen sclerosus, that is usually treated with the ultra-potent corticosteroid, clobetasol propionate. This treatment may, in turn, be associated with vulvar carcinogenesis. Our previous findings suggest that clobetasol is causing UMSCV-4 vulvar carcinoma cells to enter a state of quiescence. Quiescence is temporary removal from the cell cycle and can be thought of as a dormant state in which cells are not actively dividing [2]. There is growing evidence suggesting that quiescence may play a role in allowing ...


The Effects Of A Survivorship Care Plan On Hospital Readmission Rates In Allogenic Stem Cell Transplant Patients, Chantaney Williams 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of A Survivorship Care Plan On Hospital Readmission Rates In Allogenic Stem Cell Transplant Patients, Chantaney Williams

The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing Student Works

Stem cell transplants (SCTs) are complicated treatments utilized to treat hematologic malignancies and other disorders, such as multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, acute myeloid leukemia, neuroblastomas, germ cell tumors, amyloidosis, and autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis. The complex care of patients undergoing SCTs place them at high risk for adverse outcomes, including infection, cytomegalovirus, graft vs host disease, secondary new cancers, infertility, and sexual dysfunction (American Cancer Society, 2020). Survivorship care plans (SCPs) are a vital part of the discharge process to educate allogenic SCT patients about post-transplantation care. SCPs are implemented ...


Role Of Ampk And Akt In Triple Negative Breast Cancer Lung Colonization, Jeremy Johnson, Zeta Chow, Eun Young Lee, Heidi L. Weiss, B. Mark Evers, Piotr G. Rychahou 2021 University of Kentucky

Role Of Ampk And Akt In Triple Negative Breast Cancer Lung Colonization, Jeremy Johnson, Zeta Chow, Eun Young Lee, Heidi L. Weiss, B. Mark Evers, Piotr G. Rychahou

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Faculty Publications

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive disease with a 5-y relative survival rate of 11% after distant metastasis. To survive the metastatic cascade, tumor cells remodel their signaling pathways by regulating energy production and upregulating survival pathways. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Akt regulate energy homeostasis and survival, however, the individual or synergistic role of AMPK and Akt isoforms during lung colonization by TNBC cells is unknown. The purpose of this study was to establish whether targeting Akt, AMPKα or both Akt and AMPKα isoforms in circulating cancer cells can suppress TNBC lung colonization. Transient silencing of Akt1 ...


Toxic Effect Of Crotalus Adamanteus Acidic Phospholipase A2 On Mcf-7 Cell Line, Daniel J. Petra 2021 University of South Dakota

Toxic Effect Of Crotalus Adamanteus Acidic Phospholipase A2 On Mcf-7 Cell Line, Daniel J. Petra

Honors Thesis

We are investigating the effect of Crotalus adamanteus acidic phospholipase A2 on MCF-7 cells using the MTS assay. Understanding these interactions and isolated effects is critical to developing new ways to treat envenomation. By understanding the effects of individual toxins within a whole venom, we are set to better understand the effects of the whole venom and investigate synergistic actions between venom toxins. In this paper, we are quantifying the amount of MCF-7 cell death caused by Crotalus adamanteus phospholipase A2 on MCF-7 using the MTS assay. Analysis of the amount of cells death caused by the phospholipase ...


Redefining Cancer Of Unknown Primary: Is Precision Medicine Really Shifting The Paradigm?, Timothée Olivier, Eugenio Fernandez, Intidhar Labidi-Galy, Pierre-Yves Dietrich, Veronica Rodriguez-Bravo, Giulia Baciarello, Karim Fizazi, Anna Patrikidou 2021 Geneva University Hospital

Redefining Cancer Of Unknown Primary: Is Precision Medicine Really Shifting The Paradigm?, Timothée Olivier, Eugenio Fernandez, Intidhar Labidi-Galy, Pierre-Yves Dietrich, Veronica Rodriguez-Bravo, Giulia Baciarello, Karim Fizazi, Anna Patrikidou

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

The concept of Cancer of Unknown Primary (CUP) has evolved with the advent of medical oncology. CUP can be difficult to diagnose and represents 2 to 5% of new cancers, therefore not exceptionally rare. Within CUPs can be identified a subset of favourable prognosis tumours, however the vast majority of CUP patients belongs to a poor prognosis group. CUP features significant oncological challenges, such as unravelling biological and transversal issues, and most importantly, improving patient's outcomes. In that regard, CUP patients’ outcomes regrettably showed minimal improvement for decades and CUP remains a cancer group of very poor prognosis. The ...


The Ssdna Theory Of Brcaness And Genotoxic Agents, Nicholas J. Panzarino 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Ssdna Theory Of Brcaness And Genotoxic Agents, Nicholas J. Panzarino

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Cancers that are deficient in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are thought to be hypersensitive to genotoxic agents because they cannot prevent or repair DNA double strand breaks, but observations in patients suggest this dogma may no longer agree with experiment. Here, we propose that single stranded DNA underlies the hypersensitivity of BRCA deficient cancers, and that defects in double strand break repair and prevention do not. Specifically, in BRCA deficient cells, ssDNA gaps developed because replication was not effectively restrained in response to stress. In addition, we observed gaps could be suppressed by either restored fork restraint or by gap filling ...


Ex Vivo High Salt Activated Tumor-Primed Cd4+T Lymphocytes Exert A Potent Anti-Cancer Response, Venkataswarup Tiriveedhi, Michael Ivy, Elbert L. Myles, Roy Zent, Jeffrey C. Rathmell, Jens M. Titze 2021 Tennessee State University

Ex Vivo High Salt Activated Tumor-Primed Cd4+T Lymphocytes Exert A Potent Anti-Cancer Response, Venkataswarup Tiriveedhi, Michael Ivy, Elbert L. Myles, Roy Zent, Jeffrey C. Rathmell, Jens M. Titze

Biology Faculty Research

Cell based immunotherapy is rapidly emerging as a promising cancer treatment. A modest increase in salt (sodium chloride) concentration in immune cell cultures is known to induce inflammatory phenotypic differentiation. In our current study, we analyzed the ability of salt treatment to induce ex vivo expansion of tumor-primed CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4)+T cells to an effector phenotype. CD4+T cells were isolated using immunomagnetic beads from draining lymph nodes and spleens from tumor bearing C57Bl/6 mice, 28 days post-injection of Py230 syngeneic breast cancer cells. CD4+T cells from non-tumor bearing mice were isolated from splenocytes of ...


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