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Novel Materials And Devices For Terahertz Detection And Emission For Sensing, Imaging And Communication, Naznin Akter 2022 Florida International University

Novel Materials And Devices For Terahertz Detection And Emission For Sensing, Imaging And Communication, Naznin Akter

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Technical advancement is required to attain a high data transmission rate, which entails expanding beyond the currently available bandwidth and establishing a new standard for the highest data rates, which mandates a higher frequency range and larger bandwidth. The THz spectrum (0.1-10 THz) has been considered as an emerging next frontier for the future 5G and beyond technology. THz frequencies also offer unique characteristics, such as penetrating most dielectric materials like fabric, plastic, and leather, making them appealing for imaging and sensing applications. Therefore, employing a high-power room temperature, tunable THz emitters, and a high responsivity THz detector is essential. …


Machine Learning Applications To Static Timing Analysis, Waseem Mohamed Raslan 2022 American University in Cairo

Machine Learning Applications To Static Timing Analysis, Waseem Mohamed Raslan

Theses and Dissertations

Modeling complex cell behavior is critical for accurate static timing analysis. Effective current source model, ECSM, and composite current source, CCS, waveform data compression became a necessity to reduce the size of technology files and increase the accuracy of the cell characterization data. We used deep learning nonlinear Autoencoders to compress voltage and current waveforms and compared them with singular value decomposition, SVD, approach. Autoencoders gave ~1.67x compression ratio for voltage waveforms better than SVD approach and gave 45x to 55x better compression ratio compared to other lossless techniques like bz2 and gzip. Autoencoders achieved ~1.7x compression ratio for complex …


Modified Q-Learning Method For Automatic Voltage Regulation In Wide-Area Multigeneration Systems, Brook Abegaz, Sina Zarrabian 2022 Loyola University Chicago

Modified Q-Learning Method For Automatic Voltage Regulation In Wide-Area Multigeneration Systems, Brook Abegaz, Sina Zarrabian

Engineering Science Faculty Publications

The state-estimation and optimal control of multigeneration systems are challenging for wide-area systems having numerous distributed automatic voltage regulators (AVR). This paper proposes a modified Q-learning method and algorithm that aim to improve the convergence of the approach and enhance the dynamic response and stability of the terminal voltage of multiple generators in the experimental Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC) and large-scale IEEE 39-bus test systems. The large-scale experimental testbed consists of a six-area, 39-bus system having ten generators that are connected to ten AVRs. The implementation shows promising results in providing stable terminal voltage profiles and other system parameters …


Smartphone Control Of Rc Cars, Weston R. Fitzgerald 2022 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Smartphone Control Of Rc Cars, Weston R. Fitzgerald

Electrical Engineering

The smartphone-controlled RC (remote-controlled) car is an inexpensive remote-controlled car designed to be fast and portable. Instead of manufacturing, packaging, and shipping a separate controller, the remote control is implemented in a phone application, which saves time and money in both the design process and the manufacturing process. Utilizing the user’s smartphone is more cost-effective since mobile devices are a common recurrence, and packaging fewer devices results in overall better portability of the product.

This smartphone-controlled car is speedy and intuitive to learn for typical smartphone users. The user can change the car’s speed and direction wirelessly using their phone; …


Signal Adc Converter Simulation On Cadence Virtuoso For Audio Applications, Maxwell Kazuki Fukada 2022 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Signal Adc Converter Simulation On Cadence Virtuoso For Audio Applications, Maxwell Kazuki Fukada

Electrical Engineering

Audio signals are representations of sounds with a mixture of multiple analog signals between the frequency of 20Hz to 20,000Hz. To record snippets of audio data onto a mobile phone or computer, the signal needs to be converted to a digital format. For this purpose, many devices utilize a converter, specifically a sigma-delta modulator with a digital filter. By using a converter, electronics can receive binary data about the audio signal accurately and quickly without losing important signal information. This project aims to simulate a fully functional audio converter with a sigma-delta modulator and decimation filter. The system will receive …


Mars Prototype Rover Environmental Measurement System, James A. Renick 2022 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Mars Prototype Rover Environmental Measurement System, James A. Renick

Computer Engineering

In my senior project, the problem I am trying to solve is how to efficiently design, create, and install an original library onto a Mars prototype rover operating system and to further use that library to integrate a new weather measurement sensor device into the rover system with the necessary software and hardware implementations. This is an important and highly valued problem as many aerospace and other engineering companies utilize rovers and other autonomous systems for important research, explorations, and reconnaissance missions and goals. In solving this problem, I utilized many resources that were available to me such as advisors, …


Integrated Circuits Parasitic Capacitance Extraction Using Machine Learning And Its Application To Layout Optimization, Mohamed Saleh Abouelyazid Saleh 2022 American University in Cairo

Integrated Circuits Parasitic Capacitance Extraction Using Machine Learning And Its Application To Layout Optimization, Mohamed Saleh Abouelyazid Saleh

Theses and Dissertations

The impact of parasitic elements on the overall circuit performance keeps increasing from one technology generation to the next. In advanced process nodes, the parasitic effects dominate the overall circuit performance. As a result, the accuracy requirements of parasitic extraction processes significantly increased, especially for parasitic capacitance extraction. Existing parasitic capacitance extraction tools face many challenges to cope with such new accuracy requirements that are set by semiconductor foundries (< 5% error). Although field-solver methods can meet such requirements, they are very slow and have a limited capacity. The other alternative is the rule-based parasitic capacitance extraction methods, which are faster and have a high capacity; however, they cannot consistently provide good accuracy as they use a pre-characterized library of capacitance formulas that cover a limited number of layout patterns. On the other hand, the new parasitic extraction accuracy requirements also added more challenges on existing parasitic-aware routing optimization methods, where simplified parasitic models are used to optimize layouts.

This dissertation provides new solutions for interconnect parasitic capacitance extraction and parasitic-aware routing optimization methodologies in order to cope with the new accuracy requirements of advanced process nodes as follows. …


Enhanced Design For Testability Circuitry For Test, Hui Jiang 2022 Southern Methodist University

Enhanced Design For Testability Circuitry For Test, Hui Jiang

Electrical Engineering Theses and Dissertations

More stringent defect detection requirements have led to the creation of new fault models, such as the cell-aware fault model, that attempts to model defects that might be missed by traditional test sets. Unfortunately, the resulting test sets can be long, and thus we have previously explored a DFT-based (Design for Testability-based) approach to reduce test time by harnessing scan shift cycles for cell-aware defect detection. This approach uses a MISR (Multiple Input Signature Register) structure to capture data on the functional inputs to selected scan flip-flops during the shifting procedure. The final signature in the MISR can then be …


Incorporating In Situ Measurements Of Energy Into A Designed Method Of Detection Of Radiation Induced Degradation In Embedded Systems, Delwyn Sam 2022 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Incorporating In Situ Measurements Of Energy Into A Designed Method Of Detection Of Radiation Induced Degradation In Embedded Systems, Delwyn Sam

Honors Theses

An embedded system, or a system-on-chip (SOC), is a miniaturized computer that combines hardware and software to accomplish a certain purpose. Embedded systems are used in various applications from household appliances to the automobile industry. Additionally, SOCs are used in space environments where the surroundings consist of radiation and extreme temperatures. In these harsh conditions, embedded systems must operate properly through the effects of radiation such as total ionizing dose (TID). Because embedded systems are filled with various components and modules, and since the internal signals of the system are often inaccessible, methods to locate which specific parts of the …


A Ringamp-Assisted, Output Capacitor-Less Analog Cmos Low-Dropout Voltage Regulator, Jordan Sangid 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Ringamp-Assisted, Output Capacitor-Less Analog Cmos Low-Dropout Voltage Regulator, Jordan Sangid

Doctoral Dissertations

Continued advancements in state-of-the-art integrated circuits have furthered trends toward higher computational performance and increased functionality within smaller circuit area footprints, all while improving power efficiencies to meet the demands of mobile and battery-powered applications. A significant portion of these advancements have been enabled by continued scaling of CMOS technology into smaller process node sizes, facilitating faster digital systems and power optimized computation. However, this scaling has degraded classic analog amplifying circuit structures with reduced voltage headroom and lower device output resistance; and thus, lower available intrinsic gain. This work investigates these trends and their impact for fine-grain Low-Dropout (LDO) …


Design Of A Bandgap Voltage Reference, Nicolaus Vail 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Design Of A Bandgap Voltage Reference, Nicolaus Vail

Electrical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis details the design process of a bandgap voltage reference (BGR) integrated circuit in a 180 nm CMOS process. A BGR provides a constant DC voltage across a range of operating temperatures and supply voltages. By its nature, the circuit is intended as a reference, not to provide current, so the output would be connected to a very high impedance, such as the gate of a transistor. At 27°C, this design provides a 955 mV reference voltage given a nominal VDD of 3 V. From 20°C to 175°C, the output voltage has a variance of 7.2 mV (approximately 0.8%) …


Automatic Testing Of Organic Strain Gauge Tactile Sensors., Brian P. Goulet 2022 University of Louisville

Automatic Testing Of Organic Strain Gauge Tactile Sensors., Brian P. Goulet

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human-Robot Interaction is a developing field of science, that is posed to augment everything we do in life. Skin sensors that can detect touch, temperature, distance, and other physical interaction parameters at the human-robot interface are very important to enhancing the collaboration between humans and machines. As such, these sensors must be efficiently tested and characterized to give accurate feedback from the sensor to the robot. The objective of this work is to create a diversified software testing suite that removes as much human intervention as possible. The tests and methodology discussed here provide multiple realistic scenarios that the sensors …


Design & Analysis Of Mixed-Mode Integrated Circuit For Pulse-Shape Discrimination, Bryan Orabutt 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

Design & Analysis Of Mixed-Mode Integrated Circuit For Pulse-Shape Discrimination, Bryan Orabutt

McKelvey School of Engineering Theses & Dissertations

In nuclear science experiments it is usually necessary to determine the type of radiation, its energy and direction with considerable accuracy. The detection of neutrons and discriminating them from gamma rays is particularly difficult. A popular method of doing so is to measure characteristics intrinsic to the pulse shape of each radiation type in order to perform pulse-shape discrimination (PSD).

Historically, PSD capable systems have been designed with two approaches in mind: specialized analog circuitry, or digital signal processing (DSP). In this work we propose a PSD capable circuit topology using techniques from both the analog and DSP domains. We …


Photoassisted Nanoscale Memory Resistors, Amir Shariffar 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Photoassisted Nanoscale Memory Resistors, Amir Shariffar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Memristors or memory resistors are promising two-terminal devices, which have the potential to revolutionize current electronic memory technologies. Memristors have been extensively investigated and reported to be practical devices, although they still suffer from poor stability, low retention time, and laborious fabrication processes.

The primary aim of this project was to achieve a device structure of quantum dots or thin films to address a fundamental challenge of unstable resistive switching behavior in memristors. Moreover, we aimed to investigate the effects of light illumination in terms of intensity and wavelength on the performance of the fabricated memristor. The parameters such as …


Junction Temperature Estimation Of Silicon Carbide Power Module Using Internal Gate Resistance As Temperature Sensitive Electrical Parameter, Michael Sykes 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Junction Temperature Estimation Of Silicon Carbide Power Module Using Internal Gate Resistance As Temperature Sensitive Electrical Parameter, Michael Sykes

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The junction temperature of a power module is measured non-intrusively and uninterrupted in its application by analyzing the dependency of gate resistance to temperature. The circuit configuration proposed consists of altering the gate loop path and adding a basic peak detection circuit with an added low-pass filter to accurately measure the small differences seen during a temperature change on the internal gate resistance. The testing on this Silicon Carbide power module shows that the internal gate resistance has a positive temperature coefficient. This causes the current and the voltage drop on the gate loop sensing resistance to reduce as the …


Framework Of Hardware Trojan Detection Leveraging Structural Checking Tool, Rafael Dacanay Del Carmen 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Framework Of Hardware Trojan Detection Leveraging Structural Checking Tool, Rafael Dacanay Del Carmen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Since there is a significant demand for obtaining third-party soft Intellectual Property (IP) by first-party integrated circuit (IC) vendors, it is becoming easier for adversaries to insert malicious logic known as hardware Trojans into designs. Due to this, vendors need to find ways to screen the third-party IPs for possible security threats and then mitigate them. The development of the Structural Checking (SC) tool provides a solution to this issue. This tool analyzes the structure of an unknown soft IP design and creates a network of all the signals within the design and how they are connected to each other. …


Combat Robot, Wayne Lambert, Elijah Harris, Brian Eiseman, Jordan Meyer 2022 Ohio Northern University

Combat Robot, Wayne Lambert, Elijah Harris, Brian Eiseman, Jordan Meyer

ONU Student Research Colloquium

The senior capstone project that was tasked to the team was the decision of choosing a challenge within a national robotics competition. The group decided to compete at the National Robotics Challenge in Marion, Ohio. The idea was to participate in the combat robot competition at this NRC event. Once this decision had been made the next steps were to get an idea of what the rules and requirements of the competition were and to try and to sketch a very rough drawing of what the ideal robot should look like. From there it was decided to start a timeline …


System Design And Control Optimization For Neurorehabilitation Exoskeleton, Rodrigo N. Ramon 2022 Florida International University

System Design And Control Optimization For Neurorehabilitation Exoskeleton, Rodrigo N. Ramon

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Neurorehabilitation is a comprehensive approach aimed at helping patients regain motor control after a neural injury, including spinal cord injury, stroke, or other ischemic events. Early-stage neurorehabilitation is particularly delicate due to voluntary muscular weakness and lack of motor control, presenting in the form of spasticity. Unfortunately, this period of elevated weakness is when most neural control improvement can be made through a phenomenon called brain plasticity. Early rehabilitation traditionally requires a human therapist due to the adaptive and dynamic interpretation of undesired neuromuscular events. While efforts have been made to develop devices to aid in neurorehabilitation, the considerations that …


Single Event Transient Sensitivity Measurement And Worst-Case Test Vector Exploration For Asic Devices Exposed To Space Single Event Environment, Mohamed Wael 2022 American University in Cairo

Single Event Transient Sensitivity Measurement And Worst-Case Test Vector Exploration For Asic Devices Exposed To Space Single Event Environment, Mohamed Wael

Theses and Dissertations

Space radiation and nuclear reactors produce single event effects (SEE) in electronic circuits and impact their performance. The SEE phenomena cause circuits and electronic devices to fail by producing faulty results. Therefore, today’s circuit’s reliability is a significant concern for all circuit designers.

This thesis suggests a new automated flow to measure the single-event-transient (SET) effects in combinational circuits in application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC) while reaching full fault coverage. The developed flow characterizes the whole circuit nodes by identifying the most sensitive paths to the propagated SET pulses from the node under test to an observable primary output, causing single …


Modeling And Control Of Direct-Conversion Hybrid Switched-Capacitor Dc-Dc Converters, Ziyu Xia 2022 Dartmouth College

Modeling And Control Of Direct-Conversion Hybrid Switched-Capacitor Dc-Dc Converters, Ziyu Xia

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Efficient power delivery is increasingly important in modern computing, communications, consumer and other electronic systems, due to the high power demand and thermal concerns accompanied by performance advancements and tight packaging. In pursuit of high efficiency, small physical volume, and flexible regulation, hybrid switched-capacitor topologies have emerged as promising candidates for such applications. By incorporating both capacitors and inductors as energy storage elements, hybrid topologies achieve high power density while still maintaining soft charging and efficient regulation characteristics. However, challenges exist in the hybrid approach. In terms of reliability, each flying capacitor should be maintained at a nominal `balanced' voltage …


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