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Carrier Transport Engineering In Wide Bandgap Semiconductors For Photonic And Memory Device Applications, Ravi Teja Velpula 2022 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Carrier Transport Engineering In Wide Bandgap Semiconductors For Photonic And Memory Device Applications, Ravi Teja Velpula

Dissertations

Wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductors play a crucial role in the current solid-state lighting technology. The AlGaN compound semiconductor is widely used for ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), however, the efficiency of these LEDs is largely in a single-digit percentage range due to several factors. Until recently, AlInN alloy has been relatively unexplored, though it holds potential for light-emitters operating in the visible and UV regions. In this dissertation, the first axial AlInN core-shell nanowire UV LEDs operating in the UV-A and UV-B regions with an internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of 52% are demonstrated. Moreover, the light extraction efficiency of this …


Emergence Of Coherent Backscattering From Sparse And Finite Disordered Media, Nooshin M. Estakhri, Nasim Mohammadi Estrakhri, Theodore B. Norris 2022 Chapman University

Emergence Of Coherent Backscattering From Sparse And Finite Disordered Media, Nooshin M. Estakhri, Nasim Mohammadi Estrakhri, Theodore B. Norris

Engineering Faculty Articles and Research

Coherent backscattering (CBS) arises from complex interactions of a coherent beam with randomly positioned particles, which has been typically studied in media with large numbers of scatterers and high opacity. We develop a first-principles scattering model for scalar waves to study the CBS cone formation in finite-sized and sparse random media with specific geometries. The current study provides insights into the effects of density, volume size, and other relevant parameters on the angular characteristics of the CBS cone emerging from sparse and bounded random media for various types of illumination, with results consistent with well-known CBS studies which are typically …


Engineering The Spectrum Of Near-Field Thermal Radiation, Saman Zare 2022 University of Maine

Engineering The Spectrum Of Near-Field Thermal Radiation, Saman Zare

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Thermal emission observed at sub-wavelength distances from the thermal source is referred to as near-field thermal radiation. Thermal radiation in the near-field regime can exceed Planck’s blackbody limit by orders of magnitude and be quasi-monochromatic. Due to these unique properties, near-field thermal radiation is very promising for several thermal management and energy harvesting applications. Many of these applications, such as nanogap thermophotovoltaics and thermal rectification, require near-field spectra that are not found among natural materials. Artificial metamaterials, which are engineered at the sub-wavelength scale, have been theoretically proposed for tuning the spectrum of near-field thermal radiation. However, engineering the near-field …


Optical Control System For Atmospheric Turbulence Mitigation, Martyn Lemon 2022 Clemson University

Optical Control System For Atmospheric Turbulence Mitigation, Martyn Lemon

All Theses

Propagation of laser light is distorted in the presence of atmospheric turbulence. This poses an issue for sensing, free-space optical communications, and transmission of power. With an ever-increasing demand for high-speed data communications, particularly between satellites, unmanned vehicles, and other systems that benefit from a point-to-point link, this issue is critical for the field. A variety of methods have been proposed to circumvent this issue. Some major categories include the manipulation of the light’s structure, an adaptive scheme at the optical receiver, scanning mirror systems, or a transmission of simultaneous signals with a goal to improve robustness.

There is an …


Oam-Based Wavelets In A High Speed Optical Probing System For Measuring The Angular Decomposition Of The Environment, Justin Free 2022 Clemson University

Oam-Based Wavelets In A High Speed Optical Probing System For Measuring The Angular Decomposition Of The Environment, Justin Free

All Theses

This thesis presents the theoretical development of orbital angular momentum (OAM) based wavelets for the analysis of localized OAM information in space. An optical probing system for generating and detecting these wavelets is demonstrated; individual wavelets can scan the environment in 10µs or less. The probing system was applied to a three-dimensional atmospheric turbulence distribution to obtain a continuous wavelet transform of the angular information of the turbulent propagation path about a fixed radius. An entire continuous wavelet transform was measured in 3.8ms; the measurements are much faster than the turbulence and give insight into the short time scale of …


Pioneering Concepts For 3d Electromagnetics, Cesar Valle 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Pioneering Concepts For 3d Electromagnetics, Cesar Valle

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

This work introduces two paradigm changing concepts that will push electromagnetics (EM) to the third dimension. The first of that work involves the introduction of the conformal Spatially Variant Lattice (SVL) algorithm that can conform any periodic structure onto arbitrary curvature. The algorithms robustness is confirmed by conforming a frequency selective surface (FSS) onto an extreme paraboloid, proving the algorithms robustness on high sloping surfaces. Three FSSs were made in total; a standard flat FSS, a projected FSS, and a FSS made through the conformal SVL algorithm. Measured results are shown and match well to simulation.Secondly, in the world of …


Processes & Toolchain For Automation Of Hybrid Direct-Write 3d Printing, Gilbert Thomas Carranza 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Processes & Toolchain For Automation Of Hybrid Direct-Write 3d Printing, Gilbert Thomas Carranza

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Hybrid 3D printing has evolved from a means to rapidly prototype devices to a fully viable means of manufacturing final products. In particular, electronic and electromagnetic devices have been a focus of hybrid 3D printing multi material structures. However, while the hardware capabilities have been around for years, the software capabilities have only begun to catch up. A process and toolchain for hybrid 3D printing is critically needed.This work details a process and toolchain for hybrid 3D printing metal dielectric structures. In it, a basic slicing algorithm is shown along with off-axis printing and conformal printing for arbitrary curvatures. These …


Design Of Arbitrary Planar Optical Devices With Full Phase Control Using Nanoimprinting Of Refractive Index, Matthew Panipinto 2022 Clemson University

Design Of Arbitrary Planar Optical Devices With Full Phase Control Using Nanoimprinting Of Refractive Index, Matthew Panipinto

All Theses

Planar optical devices offer a lightweight solution to the constraints found in traditional optical devices. While subwavelength patterning of optics offers attractive performance and size, traditional fabrication methods demand a trade-off between resolution and throughput that presents a significant hurdle for the widespread use of subwavelength devices. Nanoimprinting of refractive index (NIRI) is a novel fabrication method pioneered in previous work that offers promise in mitigating the throughput issues that hamstring traditional fabrication methods. However, NIRI has not been shown to impart full $2\pi$ phase control in planar optical devices, nor has a method for fabricating arbitrary designs using the …


A Low Profile Microstrip Patch Antenna Using A Polygon-Shaped Patch For Wireless Applications., Muthu Krishnan Ramar, Kannan G 2022 B.S.Abdur Rahman Crescent Institute of Science and Technology

A Low Profile Microstrip Patch Antenna Using A Polygon-Shaped Patch For Wireless Applications., Muthu Krishnan Ramar, Kannan G

International Journal of Electronics Signals and Systems

In this paper. a low profile microstrip patch antenna is presented. The FR4 substrate is chosen for the dielectric substrate with a height of 1.6 mm. The presented antenna employs a polygon-shaped patch as the radiator for operating at 2.4 GHz. Co-axial feed is selected to excite the resented antenna to retain the low profile property of the antenna. The simulated results of the proposed antenna were analyzed and the structure of the proposed antenna was validated through fabrication results. The vector network analyzer is used to measure the real-time return loss property of the presented antenna.


High Power Microwave Operational Exposure Detection Using Thermoacoustic Wave Generation In Lossy Dielectric Polymers, James J. Frey 2022 Air Force Institute of Technology

High Power Microwave Operational Exposure Detection Using Thermoacoustic Wave Generation In Lossy Dielectric Polymers, James J. Frey

Theses and Dissertations

A feasibility analysis for the use of microwave-induced thermoacoustic (TA) wave generation in lossy dielectric media to detect pulsed high power microwave directed energy weapons in force health protection applications was conducted based on a series of empirical and computational investigations. A potential target volume material, carbon-loaded polytetrafluoroethylene, was identified for further study based on anticipated complex dielectric properties, with laboratory measurements of select electromagnetic (EM), thermal, and elastic material properties of relevance to the TA effect conducted to determine parameter values. A planar geometry TA-based signal chain model using thin film piezoelectric sensors was developed for both finite element …


Golightly : A Gpu Implementation Of The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, S. David Lively 2022 Southern Methodist University

Golightly : A Gpu Implementation Of The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, S. David Lively

Electrical Engineering Theses and Dissertations

Traditionally, optical circuit design is tested and validated using software which implement numerical modeling techniques such as Beam Propagation, Finite Element Analysis and the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method. FDTD simulations require significant computational power. Existing installations may distribute the computational requirements across large clusters of high-powered servers. This approach entails significant expense in terms of hardware, staffing and software support which may be prohibitive for some research facilities and private-sector engineering firms. The application of modern programmable GPUs to problems in scientific visualization and computation has facilitated faster development cycles for a variety of industry segments including large dataset visualization, …


Digital And Gradient Refractive Index Planar Optics By Nanoimprinting Porous Silicon, Anna Hardison 2022 Clemson University

Digital And Gradient Refractive Index Planar Optics By Nanoimprinting Porous Silicon, Anna Hardison

All Theses

Due to the drawbacks of traditional refractive optics, the implementation of planar or nearly planar optical devices has been of research interest for over a century. Subwavelength gratings are a particularly promising option for creating flat optical devices; however, the implementation of subwavelength grating-based optics is limited by fabrication constraints. Recently, we implemented flat optical devices using the nanoimprinting of refractive index (NIRI) process, a process which was pioneered in a previous study but remained largely unproven in terms of device fabrication. The planar, gradient index microlenses we fabricated were found to possess an effective medium similar to a subwavelength …


Remote Human Vital Sign Monitoring Using Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Radar At Millimeter-Wave Frequencies, Toan Khanh Vo Dai 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Remote Human Vital Sign Monitoring Using Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Radar At Millimeter-Wave Frequencies, Toan Khanh Vo Dai

Doctoral Dissertations

Non-contact respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) monitoring using millimeter-wave (mmWave) radars has gained lots of attention for medical, civilian, and military applications. These mmWave radars are small, light, and portable which can be deployed to various places. To increase the accuracy of RR and HR detection, distributed multi-input multi-output (MIMO) radar can be used to acquire non-redundant information of vital sign signals from different perspectives because each MIMO channel has different fields of view with respect to the subject under test (SUT). This dissertation investigates the use of a Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar operating at 77-81 …


Materials Design For Energy Applications Using Ab- Initio Calculations, Hind Hemaidee Alqurashi 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Materials Design For Energy Applications Using Ab- Initio Calculations, Hind Hemaidee Alqurashi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The structural, dynamical, electronic, and thermoelectric properties of rock-salt and wurtzite Cd1-xZnxO alloys, VTiRhZ (Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sn) and ZrTiRhZ (Ge, Sn) quaternary Heusler alloys (QHAs) were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and semi-classical Boltzmann transport theory. From these calculations, the alloys were identified as potential materials for future thermoelectric applications. Furthermore, the magnetic and spin-polarization properties of these QHAs were investigated. The total magnetic moments were found to be integer values for all QHAs. In addition, all studied QHAs except VTiRhAl possess a half-metallic behavior with a 100% spin-polarization. The half-metallic ferromagnetic behavior makes them promising …


Arrayed Waveguide Lens For Beam Steering, Mostafa Honari-Latifpour, Ali Binaie, Mohammad Amin Eftekhar, Nicholas Madamopoulos, Mohammad-Ali Miri 2022 CUNY Queens College

Arrayed Waveguide Lens For Beam Steering, Mostafa Honari-Latifpour, Ali Binaie, Mohammad Amin Eftekhar, Nicholas Madamopoulos, Mohammad-Ali Miri

Publications and Research

Integrated planar lenses are critical components for analog optical information processing that enable a wide range of applications including beam steering. Conventional planar lenses require gradient index control which makes their on-chip realization challenging. Here, we introduce a new approach for beam steering by designing an array of coupled waveguides with segmented tails that allow for simultaneously achieving planar lensing and off-chip radiation. The proposed arrayed waveguide lens is built on engineering the evanescent coupling between adjacent channels to realize a photonic lattice with an equi-distant ladder of propagation constants that emulates the continuous parabolic index profile. Through coupled-mode analysis …


Nonreciprocal Surface Waves On Gyrotropic Interfaces, Alexander Martin Holmes 2022 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Nonreciprocal Surface Waves On Gyrotropic Interfaces, Alexander Martin Holmes

Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, the properties of highly nonreciprocal (unidirectional) surface waves guided along the interface between free-space and various 2D and 3D gyrotropic continua are investigated using analytic, numerical, and experimental methods. From a classical electromagnetics perspective, nonreciprocity in the dispersion of surface wave modes supported by the interface is achieved by breaking both time-reversal and space-inversion symmetries in the collective response of the waveguide, which consists of the two interfaced materials. More recently, however, a connection to momentum space topology via the bulk-edge correspondence principle has been made for gyrotropic continua, providing additional insights into the underlying physics that …


Study Of Single-Photon Wave-Packets With Atomically Thin Nonlinear Mirrors, Christopher Klenke 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Study Of Single-Photon Wave-Packets With Atomically Thin Nonlinear Mirrors, Christopher Klenke

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A novel controlled phase gate for photonic quantum computing is proposed by exploiting the powerful nonlinear optical responses of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and it is shown that such a gate could elicit a π-rad phase shift in the outgoing electric field only in the case of two incident photons and no other cases. Firstly, the motivation for such a gate is developed and then the implementation of monolayer TMDs is presented as a solution to previous realization challenges. The single-mode case of incident photons upon a TMD is derived and is then used to constrain the more …


Design And Operation Of A Microwave Flow Cytometer For Single Cell Detection And Identification, Jeffrey A. Osterberg 2022 Clemson University

Design And Operation Of A Microwave Flow Cytometer For Single Cell Detection And Identification, Jeffrey A. Osterberg

All Dissertations

Microwave dielectric sensing has become a popular technique in biological cell sensing for its potential in online, label-free, and real-time sensing. At microwave frequencies probing signals are sensitive to intracellular properties since they are able to penetrate cell membranes, making microwave flow cytometry a promising technology for label-free biosensing. In this dissertation a microwave flow cytometer is designed and used to measure single biological cells and micro particles. A radio frequency (RF)/microwave interferometer serves as the measurement system for its high sensitivity and tunability and we show that a two-stage interferometer can achieve up to 20 times higher sensitivity than …


Algorithms For Exploration Of Advanced Electromagnetic Concepts, Asad Ullah Hil Gulib 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Algorithms For Exploration Of Advanced Electromagnetic Concepts, Asad Ullah Hil Gulib

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

3D printing is revolutionizing the manufacturing industry and is now being considered in the electronics industry. The creation of the worldâ??s first 3D volumetric circuit has made a way to make circuits smaller, lighter, into unconventional form factors and exploit physics like anisotropy more effectively than planar geometries can. While this is exciting, many problems must be solved to make 3D volumetric circuits more efficient. One of these problems is electromagnetic interference and mutual coupling between the circuit components that are expected to increase in high-frequency 3D circuits. Spatially variant anisotropic metamaterials (SVAMs) could be a solution to overcome this …


Subwavelength Engineering Of Silicon Photonic Waveguides, Farhan Bin Tarik 2022 Clemson University

Subwavelength Engineering Of Silicon Photonic Waveguides, Farhan Bin Tarik

All Dissertations

The dissertation demonstrates subwavelength engineering of silicon photonic waveguides in the form of two different structures or avenues: (i) a novel ultra-low mode area v-groove waveguide to enhance light-matter interaction; and (ii) a nanoscale sidewall crystalline grating performed as physical unclonable function to achieve hardware and information security. With the advancement of modern technology and modern supply chain throughout the globe, silicon photonics is set to lead the global semiconductor foundries, thanks to its abundance in nature and a mature and well-established industry. Since, the silicon waveguide is the heart of silicon photonics, it can be considered as the core …


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