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Processing Coercion In A First, Non-Dominant Language: Mandarin-English Heritage Bilinguals, Christina N. Dadurian 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Processing Coercion In A First, Non-Dominant Language: Mandarin-English Heritage Bilinguals, Christina N. Dadurian

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Recent work in heritage language grammars has shown variability in L1 competence, despite high proficiency in both languages. While sources of variation have been debated, little attention has been given to the role of language dominance. This thesis uses a self-paced listening task to explicitly investigate the roles of language dominance and pragmatic competence in how heritage speakers of Mandarin Chinese process aspectual coercion in their non-dominant home language, as compared to late bilinguals. Specifically, constructions that vary in acceptability and salience in input between Mandarin and English are tested: Iterative coercion, complement event coercion of entity NPs, and perfective ...


On The Temporal Interpretation Of Epistemic Modals: Evidence From Palestinian Arabic, Alaa M. Sharif 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

On The Temporal Interpretation Of Epistemic Modals: Evidence From Palestinian Arabic, Alaa M. Sharif

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis aims to contribute to the understanding of temporal interpretation of epistemic modals in Palestinian Arabic (PA), and develop a cross-linguistic analysis. The epistemic necessity modal akeed and the epistemic possibility modal yimkin in PA exhibit similar temporal configurations to English epistemic modals must and might, respectively. We argue for a unified underlying structure to account for the temporal configurations. The linearized combination of the epistemic modal, a silent present tense morpheme and an aspectual head morpheme derive either a present-oriented reading when the aspectual head is empty, or a future-oriented reading in presence of a silent prospective aspect ...


The Grammatical Systems Of Attentionworthiness: Positional Signals And Invariant Meanings In Spanish Word Order, Eduardo Ho-Fernández 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Grammatical Systems Of Attentionworthiness: Positional Signals And Invariant Meanings In Spanish Word Order, Eduardo Ho-Fernández

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation presents a Columbia School analysis of word order phenomena in Spanish. The data was sourced from a corpus of manually collected utterances extracted from six volumes of Latin American short stories written in the twentieth century. The study employs various qualitative and quantitative techniques in order to test the various hypotheses offered as explanations of the distributional problems selected for the study. The observations roughly correspond to word orders that the grammatical tradition describes as having to do with either verbs with one argument (SV, VS, OV, VO) or verbs with two arguments (SVO, OVS, VSO, VOS, SOV ...


F-Constructions In Yucatec Maya, Judith Tonhauser 2020 Stanford University

F-Constructions In Yucatec Maya, Judith Tonhauser

Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas

Yucatec Maya, like many other Mayan languages, features a set of constructions, including relative clauses, content questions and focus constructions, that is uniquely characterized by the occurrence of the so-called Agent Focus verb form. The challenge posed by these constructions is to account for why a special verb form occurs only in these constructions. I argue that this is the case because these constructions (which I refer to as F-constructions) share particular structural and semantic properties.


Early Time Reference In Inuktitut Child Language: The Role Of Event Realization And Aspectual Interpretation, Mary Swift 2020 University of Rochester

Early Time Reference In Inuktitut Child Language: The Role Of Event Realization And Aspectual Interpretation, Mary Swift

Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas

In Inuktitut, a polysynthetic language spoken by the Inuit of arctic Quebec, a single temporally unmarked verb form is interpreted as either perfective or imperfective, depending on the telicity of the verb stem. The theoretical framework of Bohnemeyer and Swift (in press) explains this alignment pattern with the notion of event realization, that is, the entailment of occurrence of an event (at a certain time). This paper traces the role of event realization and aspectual interpretation in the development of time reference in children acquiring Inuktitut. These children exhibit three developmental phenomena that appear puzzling or contradictory in comparison with ...


Temporal Interpretation In Navajo, Carlota S. Smith, Ellavina Perkins, Theodore Fernald 2020 University of Texas

Temporal Interpretation In Navajo, Carlota S. Smith, Ellavina Perkins, Theodore Fernald

Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas

We discuss temporal location in Navajo. Considering whether Navajo has the category of tense, we argue for a multi-feature approach. We propose, among other features, that tense contributes to atemporal meanings in conditionals and counter-factuals. On this basis we show three kinds of temporal forms in Navajo: a Future tense; Past and Future particles with some tense properties; and temporal adverbials. All are optional, so that many sentences have no direct temporal forms.

In such cases aspectual information gives pragmatic cues to the temporal location of a situation. The key factor is boundedness: in the default case, unbounded situations are ...


Not Even In Samish, Scott Shank 2020 University of British Columbia

Not Even In Samish, Scott Shank

Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas

In this paper I examine the particle daL in Samish, which means “just” in non-negative environments and “(not) even” in negative contexts. I initially consider treating daL as a negative polarity item in this second use, and construct a semantic analysis which respects the intuition that it is fundamentally an exclusive particle. The investigation reveals that the major commonality between scalar exclusive particles and scalar additive particles in negative environments is an identical scalar presupposition. The discussion then turns to parallel particles in German and Dutch, and to the minimizer/diminisher distinction in English. I conclude that in the negative ...


Toward The Tenseless Analysis Of A Tenseless Language, Benjamin Shaer 2020 Zentrum für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft, Berlin

Toward The Tenseless Analysis Of A Tenseless Language, Benjamin Shaer

Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas

In this paper, I argue, based on data from West Greenlandic, that languages can be truly tenseless, in the sense that their inflectional systems contain no node dedicated to the encoding of relations between speech time and reference time. My idea is that the burden of encoding temporal information actually falls mostly on the VP rather than on tense; so that true tenselessness entails neither a radical indeterminacy in the temporal interpretation of tenseless sentences nor a radically different description of the linguistic properties of tensed and tenseless languages, as some have claimed.


Situation Types In American Sign Language, Christian Rathmann 2020 The University of Texas at Austin

Situation Types In American Sign Language, Christian Rathmann

Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas

Several kinds of situation types have often been distinguished in the literature: states, activities, semelfactives, achievements and accomplishments. Since these situation types relate to properties of states and events that occur in the world, they are understood in any language. It is at the linguistic level that situation types are claimed to be encoded differently across languages. This paper argues that all five situation types are manifested at the linguistic level in American Sign Language and is thus chiefly concerned with identifying the linguistic means that ASL uses to distinguish one situation type from another. Examples of linguistic means include ...


Is Todo N In Brazilian Portuguese A Quantifier?, Roberta Pires de Oliveira 2020 UFSC/CNPq

Is Todo N In Brazilian Portuguese A Quantifier?, Roberta Pires De Oliveira

Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas

This paper investigates whether todo N (universal quantifier + noun phrase) in Brazilian Portuguese is existential (an indefinite) or a universal. It concludes that it is a universal with a modal trait. The first section shows that todo N has properties which distinguish it from definite universal phrases. These properties may be explained by Matthewson’s (2001) suggestion concerning the semantic structures of every and all. Within such an approach, todo N would not be a quantifier. This hypothesis finds support in Negrão’s (2002) analysis, which claims that todo N is an indefinite. Based on Dayal (1998) and Saeboe’s ...


Reference To Contexts In Zuni Temporal And Modal Domains, Lynn Nichols 2020 University of California, Berkeley

Reference To Contexts In Zuni Temporal And Modal Domains, Lynn Nichols

Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas

Counterfactual interpretation is constructed from two evaluation contexts plus morphology that indicates that the worlds in one of these contexts are located outside the other context serving as a basis of reference (Nichols 2003a). In Zuni (and English), the morphology used to indicate this relation between contexts is also used for 'past' temporal reference. This study argues that 'past' morphology in its temporal interpretation shares the same basic meaning as the modal cases: past tense specifies the type of relationship between a Reference Context and some other context of evaluation. While in English the temporal Reference Context is the Utterance ...


Generic Sentences With Indefinite And Bare Subjects In Brazilian Portuguese, Ana Müller 2020 University of São Paulo, Brazil

Generic Sentences With Indefinite And Bare Subjects In Brazilian Portuguese, Ana Müller

Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas

This paper addresses the semantics of two types of generic sentences in Brazilian Portuguese (BPg): generic sentences with Indefinite Subjects (IS); and generic sentences with Bare Numberless (BN) subjects. The two types of sentences are both instances of generic quantification. Nonetheless, they differ in their semantics: IS sentences are more normative, whereas BN sentences are more descriptive. I show that Greenberg’s 2002 approach for IS and Bare Plural English generic sentences holds for IS and BN generic sentences in BPg, and that the differences between the two sentences should be attributed to the fact that they express different kinds ...


Demonstrative Pseudo-Binding In San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec, Felicia Lee 2020 University of British Columbia

Demonstrative Pseudo-Binding In San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec, Felicia Lee

Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas

Pronouns in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec (SLQZ), an Otomanguean language of southern Mexico, are subject to Principle C, rather than Principle B, and resist A' as well as A-binding. However, they may be coreferenced with ccommanding lexical demonstratives. Demonstratives crosslinguistically show anomalous coreference behavior; this paper shows that SLQZ pronouns are themselves nonquantificational demonstratives. This proposal will also shed light on the debate over whether demonstratives should be classified as quantificational or nonquantificational: I will argue that SLQZ shows that both types exist, and their quantification properties (or lack of them) are responsible for the possible coreference relations between them.


The Semantics Of Discontinuous Noun Phrases In Quechua, Rachel Hastings 2020 Cornell University

The Semantics Of Discontinuous Noun Phrases In Quechua, Rachel Hastings

Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas

In Cuzco Quechua there is a construction in which elements that typically appear noun phrase-internally may appear outside the noun phrase while receiving the same Casemarking as the noun. In this paper I look at the semantics and syntax of this discontinuous noun phrase construction. I argue that when an adjective or a quantifier appears outside the noun phrase it is also interpreted externally and not in a possible base position within the noun phrase itself. I adopt this analysis to explain data in which the discontinuous noun phrase is interpreted as necessarily indefinite. I also examine the behavior of ...


Propositional- And Illocutionary-Level Evidentiality In Cuzco Quechua, Martina Faller 2020 Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen

Propositional- And Illocutionary-Level Evidentiality In Cuzco Quechua, Martina Faller

Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas

This paper discusses the differences between two grammatical means of conveying evidential contrasts in Cuzco Quechua, and argues that evidential interpretations can arise on different levels of meaning. In Quechua, evidential contrasts are encoded on the illocutionary level by a set of evidential enclitics. Evidential interpretations also arise with the past tense marker -sqa. These, it will be argued, are not encoded by -sqa but arise indirectly from an additional spatial meaning component, which requires that the described eventuality be located outside the speaker’s perceptual field at topic time. It is hypothesized that the distinction between illocutionary-level and event-level ...


Imperfectivity In Squamish, Leora Bar-el 2020 University of British Columbia

Imperfectivity In Squamish, Leora Bar-El

Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas

This paper investigates the semantics of two imperfective morphemes in Squamish. I show that one of these morphemes, a reduplicant, yields continuous and stative readings, while the other, an auxiliary, yields continuous, stative and habitual readings. I propose that these morphemes are the Squamish progressive marker and the general imperfective marker, respectively. I argue that the progressive morpheme removes the initial state component of a predicate to derive the readings associated with this type of reduplication. I further propose that the readings associated with the imperfective morpheme might be explained by generic quantification.


Sula 2 Front Matter, Jan Anderssen, Paula Menéndez-Benito, Adam Werle 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Sula 2 Front Matter, Jan Anderssen, Paula Menéndez-Benito, Adam Werle

Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas

No abstract provided.


Mount Banahaw’S Enigma Of Power: A Personal Reflection On Signs And Symbols At The Santa Lucia Complex, Katherine B. Arceta 2020 University of the Philippines Manila

Mount Banahaw’S Enigma Of Power: A Personal Reflection On Signs And Symbols At The Santa Lucia Complex, Katherine B. Arceta

International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage

In the Philippines, Mount Banahaw in Quezon province is a pilgrimage site for locals and believers alike. Considered a holy mountain or even a ‘new’ Jerusalem in a mystical sense, people flock to its forested sacred sites or puwestos. The objectives of this study are (1) to identify signs and symbols within the sacred space of Mount Banahaw; (2) to explain how signs and symbols within the mountain are able to convey various religious meanings to the worshippers and; (3) to understand how pilgrims derive and interpret the meanings associated with these signs and symbols. The author retraces a pilgrim ...


Towards Unifying Grounded And Distributional Semantics Using The Words-As-Classifiers Model Of Lexical Semantics, Stacy Black 2020 Boise State University

Towards Unifying Grounded And Distributional Semantics Using The Words-As-Classifiers Model Of Lexical Semantics, Stacy Black

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Automated systems that make use of language, such as personal assistants, need some means of representing words such that 1) the representation is computable and 2) captures form and meaning. Recent advancements in the field of natural language processing have resulted in useful approaches to representing computable word meanings. In this thesis, I consider two such approaches: distributional embeddings and grounded models. Distributional embeddings are represented as high-dimensional vectors; words with similar meanings tend to cluster together in embedding space. Embeddings are easily learned using large amounts of text data. However, embeddings suffer from a lack of "real world" knowledge ...


Lulling Waters: A Poetry Reading For Real-Time Music Generation Through Emotion Mapping, Ashley Muniz, Toshihisa Tsuruoka 2020 New York University

Lulling Waters: A Poetry Reading For Real-Time Music Generation Through Emotion Mapping, Ashley Muniz, Toshihisa Tsuruoka

Electronic Literature Organization Conference 2020

Through a poetic narrative, “Lulling Waters” tells the story of a whale overcoming the loss of his mother, who passed away from ingesting plastic, as he attempts to escape from the polluted oceanic world. The live performance of this poem utilizes a software system called Soundwriter, which was developed with the goal of enriching the oral storytelling experience through music. This video demonstrates how Soundwriter’s real-time hybrid system was able to analyze “Lulling Waters” through its lexical and auditory features. Emotionally salient words were given ratings based on arousal, valence, and dominance while the emotionally charged prosodic features of ...


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